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Insān

(2,108 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), man ( homo ). The Ḳurʾān states ¶ that God created man weak (IV, 28). Several verses describe his psychology: in trouble he cries to God, and when the trouble has passed, he forgets (X, 12; XXXIX, 8 and 49); he is very unjust ( ẓalūm , XIV, 34; XXXIII, 72); much inclined to be precipitate ( ʿad̲j̲ūl XVII, 11); versatile ( halūʿ , LXX, 19); rebellious (XLVI, 6); a subtle reasoner and given to argument (XVIII, 54, XXXVI, 77). The LA echoes this Ḳurʾānic teaching: all beings who are endowed with intelligence, angels and d̲j̲inns, are given to argument, but man is more so t…

Is̲h̲rāḳ

(1,083 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
the name given to illuminative Wisdom, advocated by S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Suhrawardī (d. 587/1191) who himself indicated its sources (cf. table). By “sources” should be understood not so much the historical origins of his ideas as the springing forth of a Wisdom which, in the fieid of mysticism, has inspired lines of initiates comparable with the initiatory isnād s of the Ṣūfīs, though without the explicit granting of any “delegation” by the Masters to the disciples. However that may be, one can discern Western, Greek elements, as well…

Maʿād

(2,619 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), place of return, a technical term in religious and philosophical vocabulary. The verb ʿadā , ʿawdan signifies “to return to a place”. Al-D̲j̲awharī treats it as a synonym of rad̲j̲aʿa . The action of ʿawd is the movement whereby one. returns to the point of departure: rad̲j̲aʿa ʿalā badʾihi , or ilā ḥāfiratihi , either through a continuous progress, in describing a circle for example, or stopping at a certain point and retracing one’s steps (cf. Sībawayh, cited by LA), whence the idea of a return to the origin, to the source. The verb rad̲j̲aʿa is used in many Ḳurʾānic verses to ind…

Māhiyya

(3,090 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(A.) “quiddity”. On the construction of this technical term, al-Tahānawī provides interesting information. There are several explanations. One of them derives this word from the interrogative mā huwa? (“what is it?”). In this case, it is to be noted that the yāʾ of the nisba has been added, the wāw suppressed and the tāʾ marbūṭa termination given in order to change the word from the adjectival to the substantive form. Another explanation derives it from , with the addition of the yāʾ of the nisba and of the tāʾ marbūṭa. The original form would then be māʾiyya ; the hamza

Falsafa

(6,538 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
1.—Origins. The origins of falsafa are purely Greek; the activity of the falāsifa [ q.v.] begins with Arabic translations of the Greek philosophical texts (whether direct or through a Syriac intermediary). Thus falsafa\appears first as the continuation of φιλοσοφία in Muslim surroundings. But this definition leads at once to a more precise formulation: since strictly orthodox Sunnī Islam has never welcomed philosophic thought, falsafa developed from the first especially among thinkers influenced by the sects, and particularly by the S̲h̲īʿa; and this arose …

Ibn Ḥazm

(10,362 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Saʿīd , born at Cordova in 384/994, died at Manta Līs̲h̲am in 456/1064, Andalusian poet, historian, jurist, philosopher and theologian, one of the greatest thinkers of Arabo-Muslim civilization, who codified the Ẓāhirī [see ẓāhiriyya ] doctrine and applied its method to all the Ḳurʾānic sciences. The life of Ibn Ḥazm and the political events of his time. E. García Gómez has pointed out that the period in which Ibn Ḥazm lived corresponds to the “most tragic moments of Muslim Spain” and to “the decisive crisis of Isl…

Manṭiḳ

(13,716 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), a technical term denoting logic. 1. Etymology. The LA gives manṭiḳ as a synonym of kalām in the sense of “language”; a book is described as being nāṭiḳ bayyin as if it does itself speak; God says in the Ḳurʾān (XXII, 62): “And before Us is a Book which tells the truth ( yanṭiḳu bi ’l-ḥaḳḳ )”. This telling of the truth also has a quality of judgment; thus (XLV, 29): “This is Our Book; it pronounces against you in all truth ( yanṭiḳu ʿalaykum bi ’l-ḥaḳḳ )” Metaphorically, manṭiḳ expresses the language of all things, for example the language of birds (Ḳurʾān, XXVII, 16: manṭiḳ al-ṭayr

Iḥdāt̲h̲

(1,711 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, maṣdar of aḥdat̲h̲a , from the root . t̲h̲ ., which expresses the idea of an innovation in time. Ḥadīt̲h̲ is the opposite of ḳadīm , “ancient”, whence “eternal” a parte ante; ḥudūt̲h̲ is the opposite of ḳudma . In the Ḳurʾān the fourth form ( yuḥdit̲h̲ , muḥdat̲h̲ ) is used with the direct object d̲h̲ikr . Commenting on XX, 113, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī considers why the Word of God produces a d̲h̲ikr and not a taḳwā ; the reason, he suggests, is that “ taḳwā denotes the act of not doing evil, and it consists in remaining in a fundamental negativeness” ( wa-d̲h̲ālika ‘stimrār ʿala ’l-ʿadam al-aṣlī

Hayʾa

(1,294 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), synonym (see LA; TA) for ‘shape’ ( s̲h̲akl ) and ‘form’ ( ṣūra ), and also for ‘state’ ( ḥāl ) and quality’ ( kayfiyya ). Al-Kindī states that, according to Hippocrates, one of the meanings of the word “nature’ applies to the configuration ( hayʾa ) of the human body. In the Rasāʾil Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafaʾ we find: hayʾat al-arkān : the configuration of the elements; they use this word also to discuss the thesis of the materialists who think that the Living and All-powerful Being is a body, since he exists in a configuration that is distinguished by accidents, such as life, power, knowledge ( ʿalā ha…

Ḳidam

(5,061 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.) in the technical vocabulary of philosophy and theology denotes eternity. It must be distinguished from azal and from abad [ q.v.]. Al-Tāhānawī writes: “ Azal is the constant duration of existence in the past, as abad is its constant duration in the future.” As opposed to temporal origin ( ḥudūt̲h̲ ), it is the fact of having been preceded by nothing else ( al-lā masbūḳiyya bil-g̲h̲ayr ): azal implies the negation of a first beginning ( nafy al-awwaliyya ); it is therefore a case of eternity a parte ante, and abad is eternity a parte post. Azal and abad are essentially identical in God ( inna a…

Is̲h̲rāḳiyyūn

(767 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, adepts of illuminative Wisdom. The question arises whether this term can be applied to the representatives of the spiritual family to which Suhrawardī belonged, who preceded him in time. If that were so, the “Hermetists”, the “Sethists” who, from the 4th century in Egypt, saw in Seth (S̲h̲īth) the first uriya (from the Hebrew ōr = light), the sages of Persia, disciples of Zarathustra, and the Manichaeans would already be is̲h̲rāḳiyyūn . H. Corbin has recorded a text of Ibn Waḥs̲h̲iyya, relating to Hermes-Thoth of ancient Egypt, in which the word figures. The disco…

Ḥayāt

(1,636 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), life. The Ḳurʾān mentions life in very many verses. God is Himself living ( ḥayy ), see II, 255; XL, 65, etc. Al-Ṭabarī writes, in his Tafsīr (ed. Dār al-Maʿārif, v, 386): “This word ḥayy describes Him who has perpetual ( dāʾima ) life and a permanent existence ( baḳāʾ ) without any initial or terminal limit, for everything that is not He, although it be living, has a life that begins at a definite point and ends at a fixed limit”. On this, he says, all the commentators are agreed. They differ on other questions. For …

Ibn Zuhr

(3,359 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, patronymic of a family of scholars who came originally from Arabia (Iyād) and settled, at the beginning of the 4th/10th century, at D̲j̲afu S̲h̲āṭiba (Játiva) in the east of Spain. Ibn K̲h̲allikān says of the members of this family that they were “all ʿulamāʾ , ruʾasāʾ , ḥukamāʾ and viziers who reached high ranks in the entourages of princes”. I. Zuhr al-Iyādī was the father of Marwān, who was the father of Abū Bakr Muḥammad, who was famous as a jurisconsult; he died at Talabīra (Talavera) in 422/1030-1. II. Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad b. Marwān b. Zuhr al-Iyādī …

S̲h̲ayʾ

(2,204 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.) “thing, entity”. The philosophical term s̲h̲ayʾ first of all has a generally accepted meaning: it designates that which is perceived concretely by the senses ( mudrak ) and at which a finger may be pointed ( al-mus̲h̲ār ilayhi ), although it ¶ cannot yet be positively defined. However, in this perception, a thing is only a thing to the extent that, in the perception, it is distinct from another. In the plural, as̲h̲yaʾ are objects given purely and simply as existing externally. They are to be distinguished from aʿyān which signify the same objects, but in …

Rud̲j̲ūʿ

(1,287 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), verbal noun from the verb rad̲j̲aʿa , basically, “to return”, and frequent in the Ḳurʾān in various senses, according to context. It is found e.g. in VII, 168, and XXX, 41, in the expression laʿallahum yard̲j̲iʿūna “perhaps they will return”, which, explains al-Ḳurṭubī, has the sense “they will return from their unbelief ( ʿan kufrihim ), or elsewhere given as the equivalent of yatūbūna (“they will repent of themselves”). Rud̲j̲ūʿ would seem to be, in this sense, a synonym of tawba , and just as repentance is considered at the same time man’s turni…

Iṣṭifan b. Basīl

(258 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(stephanos), the first translator of the Materia medica of Dioscorides. Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa speaks of him in two passages in his book: in the first he is cited along with Mūsā b. Ḵh̲ālid as one of the experienced scribes ( kuttāb naḥārīr ), skilled in the art of translating, whom the caliph al-Mutawakkil placed at the disposal of Ḥunayn b. Isḥāḳ [ q.v.], who was responsibie for checking ( yataṣaffah ) their work; the second and more important reference to him is derived from information provided by Ibn D̲j̲uld̲j̲ul in his lost book on the Explanation of the names of simples according to the t…

Nihāya

(1,834 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), a term of Islamic philosophy which (together with its negation mā lā nihāya lahu ) is entirely governed by its lexical meaning. Ibn Manẓūr, in LA, defines it thus: “the extremity ( g̲h̲āya ) and final limit ( āk̲h̲ir ) of a thing; and this is because its final limit prevents it from being prolonged ( yanhā-hu ʿan al-tamādī ), so that it is stopped ( fa-yartadiʾ )” This definition of nihāya is based on its etymology, since the verb nahā means “to forbid”. The nihāya is thus that which forbids access to something beyond a certain limit. Ibn Manẓūr explains the Ḳurʾānic phrase sidrat al-muntahā

Maʿrifa

(3,857 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.) “Knowledge, cognition”. 1. as a term of epistemology and mysticism I. Lexicographical study. Like ʿirfān , the word maʿrifa is a noun derived from the verb ʿarafa . According to the lexicographers, it is a synonym of ʿilm [ q.v.]. Ibn Manẓūr ( LA) notes that ʿarafa may be used in place of iʿtarafa (“to recognise”), in the sense that maʿrifa is that which enables a person to recogriise, to identify a thing. On the other hand, iʿtarafa signifies “to ask somebody for information ( k̲h̲abar ) regarding something”. It is the reply which makes recognition of t…

Ibn Masarra

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Masarra al-D̲j̲abalī , Andalusian philosopher and mystic, born at Cordova in 269/883 and died in 319/931 in a hermitage on the Sierra near this town, to which he had retired long before. He lived during a period in which Muslim Spain suffered a veritable inquisition conducted by the Mālikī fuḳahāʾ . His father, ʿAbd Allāh, who may have been of Christian descent, was a Muʿtazilī and in order to teach his doctrines had to take many precautions. The young Muḥammad became his pupil and received from him a…

al-Muḥāsibī

(1,205 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥārit̲h̲ (d. 243/857), Muslim mystic. Amongst these, he is the one whose contemplation is the most psychological; it is marked by attachment to moral values, and not by a more or less extreme ¶ theological system. In this sense, L. Massignon has legitimately described his mystical doctrine as “more circumspect” ( Passion 2, i, 120). He proceeds from introspection and confines himself to analysing and developing it in its relations with the circumstances of life. It is no doubt this which explains his cognomen of muḥāsibī , signifying “he who …
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