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Pawlā

(22 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, the name given in the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar’s monetary system to the ¼ dāmpaysā ). (J. Allan)

Pāʾī

(80 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hindi “quarter”), English form “pie”, the smallest copper coin of British India = 1/12 of an anna. Originally, in the East India Company’s early experiments for a copper coinage, the pie, as its name implies, was the quarter of an anna or pice [see paysā ]; after the Acts of 1835, 1844 and 1870, however, the pie was ⅓ of a pice. (J. Allan) Bibliography Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases 2, 705. ¶

Mohur

(479 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, an Indian gold coin. The name is the Persian muhr , which is a loanword from the Sanskrit mudrā , seal or die. The earliest occurence of the word on coins is on the forced currency of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ where it has the literal meaning of “sealed” or “stamped”. By the 10th/16th century it had come to be used as a popular rather than precise name for gold coins in general. Very little gold had been issued in India for two centuries before the reign of Akbar. One of his reforms was the issue of an extensive coinage in gold. In addition to many pieces which had onl…

Mīrzāpur

(458 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a district and town in the Uttar Pradesh province, formerly the United Provinces, of the Indian Union, forming a district in the Benares division of that province, with an area of 5,238 sq. miles, and with a population (1971 census) of 731,403 for the district and 80,768 for the town. Some 7% of the population are Muslims, and have shown a tendency to increase in proportion to the Hindus, owing to their greater vitality, containing as they do a smaller proportion of the very poor. The district…

Paysā

(139 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, Paisā (Hindi), English form pice, a copper coin of British India = 3 pies or ¼ anna. Under the Mug̲h̲als, the name paisā became applied to the older dām, introduced by S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh, 40 of which went to the rupee, as the unit of copper currency; the name found on the coins however is usually simply fulūs or rewānī . Paisā is the general name for the extensive ¶ copper coinage coined in the 18th and 19th centuries by the numerous native states which arose out of the Mug̲h̲al empire (see J. Prinsep, Useful tables, ed. E. Thomas, London 1858, 62-3). In the currencies of modern India and Pakistan, 100 pais…

Ṣadīḳī

(133 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(the transcription often used by Indian numismatists of what s̲h̲ould correctly be Ṣiddīḳī ), the name given by Tīpū Sulṭān of Mysore [see mahisur ] to a gold coin of the value of two pagodas (Port, pardao , the name of a gold coin long current in South India in pre-modern times and for which various etymologies have been propounded; see Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 652-7, 672-8), weighing 106 grains ( = 6.87 gr). The name Ṣiddīḳī derives from the epithet borne by the first caliph Abū Bakr [ q.v.] al-Ṣiddīḳ, in accordance with Tīpū’…

Larin

(695 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p., lārī ), a silver coin current in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean in the 16th and 17th centuries. It takes its name from the town of Lār [ q.v.], the capital of Lāristān at which it was first struck; cf. Pedro Texeira ( Travels , Hakluyt Soc, London 1902, 341): “There is also the city of Lar... whence are called laris, a money of the finest silver, very well drawn and current throughout the East”, and Sir Thomas Herbert speaking of Lār in 1627 ( Some yearstravels , London 1665, 130): “near this byzar the lames are coyned, a famous sort of money.” The lar…

Kāẓimī

(29 words)

Author(s): Allān, J.
, the name given by Tīpū Sulṭān of Mysore (1197—1213=1782—1799) to the 1/16 rupee (1 anna) in silver; it commemorates Mūsā al-Kāẓim, the seventh Imām. (J. Allān)

Mawzūna

(100 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a small silver coin struck by the S̲h̲arīfs of Morocco in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. It was the smallest silver piece and equivalent to 24 copper fulūs or a quarter dirham. Another name for the mawzūna was ūd̲j̲a. In 1911 (1330) copper coins of the value of 10, 5, 2 mawzūnāt were issued, the mawzūna being now the equivalent of a centime. On recent issues the name mawzūna has disappeared and its place is taken by sentīm. (J. Allan) Bibliography J. J. Marcel, Tableau général des Monnaies ayant course en Algérie, Paris 1844, p. 9, 36—40.

Pāra

(316 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p. ‘‘piece, fragment”), a Turkish coin of the Ottoman and early Republican periods. It was originally a silver piece of 4 aḳčes , first issued early in the 18th century; it soon replaced the aḳče as the monetary unit. The weight, originally 16 grains (1.10 grammes), sank to one-quarter of this weight by the beginning of the 19th century and the silver content also depreciated considerably. The multiples of the silver pāra were 5 ( bes̲h̲lik ) pāras ; 10 ( onli̊ḳ ); 15 ( onbes̲h̲lik ); 20 ( yigirmiparali̊ḳ ); 30 ( zolota ) and 40 ( g̲h̲urūs̲h̲ or piastre). Higher denominations: 60 ( altmi̊s̲h̲li̊ḳ

Zer Maḥbūb

(134 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, “beloved gold”, a Turkish gold coin (sequin). In the reign of Aḥmad III (1115-1143 = 1703—1730) a new gold sequin was issued weighing 40 grains (2.6 grammes), in addition to the older sequin of 53 grains (3.44 grammes) ( funduḳ altūnī) which continued to be issued alongside of it. This coin, known as the zer maḥbūb, remained in circulation till the great Med̲j̲īdīye recoinage of 1280 (1844), being reduced in weight to 37 grains (2.4 grammes) by Selīm III (1203—1222 = 1789—1807) and to 25 grains (1.62 grammes) in the last years of Maḥ…

Paisā

(103 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hind.), anglicé pice, a copper coin of British India = 3 pies or ¼ anna. Under the Mog̲h̲uls the name paisā became applied to the older dām, introduced by S̲h̲ēr S̲h̲āh, 40 of which went to the rupee, as the unit of copper currency; the name found on the coins however is usually simply fulūs or rewānī. Paisā is the general name for the extensive copper coinage coined in the xviiith and xixth centuries by the numerous native states which arose out of the Mog̲h̲ul empire (cf. J. Prinsep, Useful Tables, ed. E. Thomas, London 1858, p. 62 sq.). (J. Allan)

Tari

(127 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a gold coin, a quarter-dīnār. When the Fāṭimids conquered Sicily in the second decade of the fourth (tenth) century they struck quarter-dīnārs ( rubaʿ) there in large numbers. This denomination was new to Muḥammadan coinage and the fact that it was also introduced into Syria by the Fāṭimids suggests that it was intended to take the place of the Byzantine tremissis. The issue of this denomination was continued by the Norman Dukes who succeeded the Fāṭimids. For the history of the tari as an Italian denomination, which does not concern us here, see the article tareno in E. Martinori, La Moneta…

Pāra

(237 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a Turkish coin, originally a silver piece of 4 aḳčes, first issued early in the xviith century; it soon replaced the aḳče as the monetary unit. The weight, originally 16 grains (1.10 grammes), sank to one quarter of this weight by the beginning of the xixth century and the silver content also depreciated considerably. The multiples of the silver pāra were 5 ( bes̲h̲lik) pāras; 10 ( onlik); 15 ( onbes̲h̲lik); 20 ( yigirmiparalik); 30 ( zolota) and 40 g̲h̲urūs̲h̲ or piastre. Higher denominations: 60 ( altmis̲h̲lik); 80 ( ikilik) and 100 ( yüzlik) pāras were occasionally issued. In the new Med…

Māngir

(175 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, the general name for copper coin under the early Ottomans, corresponding to altun (gold) and aḳče (silver). As a particular denomination it was a copper coin struck in the reign of Sulaimān II during a period of financial stress. In 1099 (1687) it was resolved to issue ¶ temporarily a token coinage in copper to be withdrawn from currency when the finances of the state improved. 800 māngirs were struck to the oke of copper and put into currency as half aspers. When the situation did not improve, the value was raised to one asper; the remedy …

Mit̲h̲ḳāl

(130 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(a.), the weight of a thing; this is the meaning of the word in the Ḳurʿān; a particular weight for weighing precious metals, jewels, drugs, etc., probably the oldest unit in the Arab Troy system. The mit̲h̲ḳāl corresponds to the Roman solidus of the Constantinian system which the Arabs adopted in Syria. ʿAbd al-Malik took it over for his unit of gold when he reformed the currency in 77 (696). His dīnār weighed a mit̲h̲ḳāl of 65.5 grains (4.25 grammes), hence mit̲h̲ḳāl is used as a synonym for d…

Pāʾī

(64 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hind.), anglicé pie, the smallest copper coin of British India = 1/12 of an anna. Originally, in the East India Company’s early experiments for a copper coinage, the pie as its name implies, was the quarter of an anna or pice [cf. paisā]; since the Acts of 1835, 1844 and 1870, however, the pie has been ⅓ of a pice. (J. Allan)

Sikka

(265 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(a., from sakk), die, coinage, currency, coin in general; dūr al-sikka = mint. In the coin-legends of the Sulṭāns of Dehlī of the ¶ thirteenth (sixth) century, al-sikka is used only of the gold coins, the corresponding word on the silver coins being al-fiḍḍa. From 1320 to 1388, after which the formula was no longer used, sikka is applied to both gold and silver. Except for a sporadic occurrence of the denomination sikka murādī on a rare coin of Humāyūn, the noun is not found again till the reign of the Mug̲h̲al S̲h̲āh ʿĀlam Bahādur (1707—1712 = 1119—1124), who introduced on bis coins the formula, s…

Mohur

(472 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, an Indian gold coin. The name is the Persian muhr, which is a loanword from the Sanskrit mudrā, seal or die. The earliest occurrence of the word on coins is on the forced currency of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲laḳ where it has the literal meaning of “sealed” or “stamped”. By the xvith century it had come to be used as a popular rather than precise name for gold coins in general. Very little gold had been issued in India for two centuries before the reign of Akbar. One of his reforms was the issue of an extensive coinage in gold. In addition to many pieces which had only a…

Mīrzāpūr

(408 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a district (and town) in India in the Benares division of the Central Provinces: area 5,240 square miles. The population is nearly 1,100,000 of whom barely 7% are Muḥammadans. The latter show a tendency to increase in proportion to the Hindus, owing to their greater vitality, containing as they do a smaller proportion of the very poor. The district is however a stronghold of Hinduism, and Islām makes little progress by conversion. Nothing is known of the early history of the district. It was occupied by Rad̲j̲puts in the eleventh century a. d. and in the next century passed into the p…
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