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Daorsi

(450 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] An ‘Illyrian’ civitas with only 17 decuriae in the conventus of Narona (prov. of Dalmatia, today in Bosnia Herzegovina and partly in Croatia), one of the most Hellenized peoples on the coast of Dalmatia. The D. settled on the left bank of the Naro (Neretva) from Bijelo polje as far as Trebinjska Šuma, i.e. in the hinterland between Narona and  Epidaurum, with access to the sea and a central settlement in Gradina near Ošanići in the region of Stolac (Herzegovina), built according to megalithic t…

Iapodes

(322 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Indo-European people attested since the 9th/8th cents. BC, often erroneously classified as Illyrians, settled in Lika, the Karst plains of Gacko, Ličko, Krbavsko (western Croatia), on the Una near Bihać (western Bosnia) and Notranjska (Inner Carniolia/Slovenia). Administratively, they were part of the conventus Scardonitanus of the province of  Illyricum, later Dalmatia. The Zrmanja and Velebit mountains separated them from the  Liburni in the south. These they fought in the 3rd cent. BC with temporary success for access …

Delminium

(304 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (Delminenses, Delminum). Main town of the Dalmatae: Ptol. 2,16,11; App. Ill. 11; Florus 2,25; CIL III 3202; the name D. is possibly derived from the Albanian word delme, ‘sheep’. Strabo ( Délmion, 7,5,5) describes D. as a large city from which the people derived its name. In 156 BC, D. was besieged by C. Marcius Figulus. In 155 BC it was defeated and destroyed by P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica (cf. Strabo's pedíon mēlóboton; triumph over the Delmatae; ancient sources in [1. 448]). Up to now the ruins of D. were located…

Daesitiates

(385 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] One of the most important peoples in the interior of the prov. Dalmatia ( Dalmatae, Dalmatia), originally possibly in the loose confederation of the  Autariatae. They inhabited the valley of the upper Bathinus (Bosna) of the valley from the upper Urbanus (Vrbas) in the west to Rogatica in the east; their position has been confirmed through the discovery of an inscription (ILJug 1582 [1]) of a Valens Varron(is) f(ilius), princeps Desitiati(um) in Breza (22 km north-west of Sarajevo). The D. were perhaps attacked by the future Augustus in 35 BC (see …

Epidaurum

(229 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia (Plin. HN 3,143f. Epidaurum; Ptol. 2,16,5 Epidaurus). Important urban settlement with two harbours on a peninsula in the province of Dalmatia, today Cavtat in Croatia (< civitas; Italian Ragusa vecchia). Originally probably a Hellenistic settlement (there is no clear archaeological evidence), it was romanized in the course of the 1st cent. BC, served as praesidium in the conflict with Pompey Caesar, and was unsuccessfully besieged by Pompey (Bell. Alex. 44,5). Roman colonia (probably…

Andetrium

(144 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Fortress in the province of  Dalmatia, in the hinterland of   Salona, modern Brečeva near Gornji Muć.  Bato, chief of the  Daesitiates, withdrew to A. with parts of his army during the Pannonian uprising of AD 6-9 (Cass. Dio 56,12-14). It was a   mansio on the road from Salona to Servitium, also, because of its strategically advantageous location between Burnum and Tilurium, a garrison for auxiliary troops:   Cohors VIII voluntariorum (1st cent. AD), III Alpinorum (2nd cent. AD), I Belgarum (3rd cent. AD; cf. Plin. HN 3,142; Str. 7,5,5; Ptol. 2,16,11; Tab. Peu…

Flanona

(201 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia (h. Plomin/Kroatien); Ort an der östl. Küste der Halbinsel Histria in Liburnia, Prov. Dalmatia. Eine frühere liburnische Festung über der Bucht von F. gab der gesamten Bucht von Kvarner den Namen: sinus Flanaticus (Plin. nat. 3,139; Artemidoros bei Steph. Byz. s.v. Φλάνων). F. wurde wohl unter Augustus (eher als unter Tiberius) municipium, bezeugt sind tribus Claudia und Sergia (AE 1973, 477); eine der führenden Familien waren die Aquilii. Die Einwohner heißen bei Plinius Flanonienses Vani…

Lychidnus

(219 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λυχνιδός, Λυχνίς; Lychnidós, Lychnís). Capital city of the Illyrian Dassaretae ( Dassaretia) on the via Egnatia (Str. 7,7,4; It. Ant. 318), modern Ohrid in Macedonia on Lake Ohrid. Subjugated by Philip II (Diod. Sic. 16,8,1). It minted its own bronze coins under Philip V (obverse: Macedonian shield; reverse: bow of a ship and ΛΥΧΝΙΔ(Ι)ΩΝ). In 197 BC, L. with its territory fell to the Illyrian king Pleuratus (Pol. 5,108; 18,47,12; Liv. 27,32,9; 33,34,11). From 146 BC, L. belonged to the Roman province of Ma…

Bassiana(e)

(175 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] [1] City in Pannonia superior This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Pannonia City in Pannonia superior (It. Ant. 262,10), 18 miles from Savaria on the road to Arrabona and  Brigetio, near Sárvár on the middle section of the river Raab.   Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) [German version] [2] Roman city of  Pannonia inferior Roman city of  Pannonia inferior, near today's Petrovci and Putinci in eastern Srem on the road from Sirmium to Taurunum, in the region of the Scordisci and the pre-Celtic Amantini (CIL III 3224; Ptol.…

Magnum Municipium

(107 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Town (Tab. Peut. 5,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,16; CIL XIII 6538) that developed partly from a Dalmatian settlement near Balina Glavica (near Drnis̆, Bosnia-Herzegovina, probably identical with Sinotium/Synodium: Str. 7,5,5; App. Ill. 78) and partly from a vicus close to the auxiliary camp near Umljanivići. Beneficiarii succeeded the auxiliary unit (cf. CIL III 9790; 14957ff.). Probably, MM was already a municipium under emperor M. Aurelius (cf. CIL III 9798). Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) Bibliography M. Zaninović, Ilirsko pleme Delmati II [The Illyrian Tribe of…

Liburni, Liburnia

(544 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] People in northern Dalmatia between the Istrian Arsia (modern Raša) and the Titius (modern Krka; Plin HN 3,139) including the islands off the coast and the town of Promona claimed by the Dalmatae on the other bank of the Titius (App Ill. 34; cf. Ps.-Scymn. 21). The mountain ranges of Učka, Gorski Kotar and Velebit in the eastern hinterland separate L. from the Iapodes. In the 3rd cent. BC, the latter gained access to the Adriatic at the Bay of Kvran at the expense of the L. The …

Atrans

(95 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Road or postal and toll station, important pass (563 m, today Trojane/Slovenia) through the hills which separate  Emona from  Celeia, on the border between Italy and Noricum (It. Ant. 129,3; It. Hierosolymitanum 560,9; Tab. Peut. 4,2). Name of a pre-Celtic position of beneficiarii consulares. Findings from the Roman era: fragments of two gilt statues of horses, inscriptions, small findings, imperial era buildings (restored mansio, sanctuary?); documented in an inscription dating from the reign of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljublja…

Carni

(210 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Celtic tribe (cf. triumph of M. Aemilius Scaurus de Galleis Karneis: CIL I 12,49), who may have arrived at the Adriatic coast towards the end of the 3rd cent. BC. C. are first mentioned in 181 BC as inhabiting the region later known as  Aquileia: Liv. 39,22,6f.; 40,34,2; 45,6; 54,2ff. According to Str. 4,6,9, they occupied the hinterland of Aquileia, together with some Norici ( Noricum) and the  Veneti (5,1,9); their relationship with these is not quite clear as, according to Str. 7,5,3, th…

Bargala

(147 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Probably Thracian city (cf. the name), today Dolus Kozjak (Štip region, Macedonia), on the road Oescus - Serdica - Stobi. Peak in late Roman times; probably assumed the status of the old Paeonian centre Astibus. Bargalaenses are mentioned in a Lat. inscription from AD 371/2 (construction of the city gate by order of Antonius Alypius, governor of Dacia Mediterranea). At the end of the 4th cent., the inhabitants moved to the safer area of Goren Kozjak, which was 2 km away and situat…

Domavia

(233 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia Municipium in the late 2nd cent. AD, possibly under Septimius Severus (CIL III 12732); after AD 230 colonia m( etalli?) D( omaviani) (CIL III 12728f.) in the prov. Dalmatia, now Gradina close to Sas (near Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina); from no later than Marcus Aurelius a centre of administration of both the Pannonian and the Dalmatian mines ( procurator metallorum Pannon[ icorum] et Delmat[ icorum], CIL III 12721), that were developed in the area around Srebrenica; the mining district was called Argentaria

Claustra Alpium Iuliarum

(89 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] A system of late Roman fortifications in the frontier and trade zone between the towns of Emona, Forum Iulii, Tergeste and Tarsatica at the northeastern entrance of Italy (Illyro-Italian gate), supported in part by the natural barriers of the mountainous Karst landscape. It was mentioned repeatedly by ancient authors from Herodianus to Prosper Tiro and parts have been archaeologically explored. Literary evidence: Amm. Marc. 31,11,3. Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) Bibliography B. Saria, s.v. Nauportus (1), RE 16,2, 2011f. J. Šašel, P. Petru (ed.), Claustra A…

Drilon

(225 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Drim, Albanian Drini). River formed in Albania near Kukësi from the union of the Beli Drim (Drini i Bardhë, which rises at the foot of the mountain Rusolije in Kosovo) and the Crni Drim (Drini i Zi), which emerges from Lichnidus lacus, modern Lake Ohrid, Macedonia/Albania. Ptol. 2,16,6 is almost correct in observing that the river flows from the Scardus mons (modern Šar planina in Macedonia) and another (unnamed) mountain through the interior of Moesia superior. Str. 7,5,7 describes its course as navigable eastwards to Dardania. The Romans termed it wrongly Dirin…

Formio

(115 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Rižana, more probably Osapska Reka). A small river east of Aegida (between Capra and Iustinianopolis, modern Koper/Capodistria), 6 miles from Tergeste. The name is perhaps derived from the language of the Veneti. The F. gained significance in 42-41 BC as the border river when Gallia Cisalpina was incorporated into Italy after the battle of Philippi. Between 18 and 12 BC this boundary was relocated to the Arsia (modern Raša). The stream is mentioned in Plin. HN 3,127 ( Formio amnis ... antiquus auctae Italiae terminus, nunc vero Histriae) and Ptol. 3,1,27. Šašel K…

Labeates

(139 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Illyrian people (Liv. 43,19,3; 31,2; 44,31,10; 32,3; 45,26,15: Labeatae; the region in Liv. 44,23,3: Labeatis; Pol. 29,3,5: Λαβεᾶτις) near palus Labeatis/ lacus Labeatum (Liv. 44,31,3/10; modern Albanian Liqeni Shkodres, Serbian Skadarsko jezero); main towns Scodra and Meteon. Their territory was the core of the kingdom of Genthius, the last independent Illyrian king and an ally of Perseus, who was defeated by the Romans in 168 BC. The Romans gave them autonomy and the right to issue coinage (bronze c…

Illyricum

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
(auch Hilluricum, Hillyricum, Illuricum). Die erste röm. Prov. an der O-Küste der Adria, 167 v.Chr. als röm. Herrschaftsgebiet organisiert, ehemals Teil des illyr. Königreichs. [English version] A. Forschungslage Der Begriff I. wird unterschiedlich verstanden. Die Diskussion über die “illyr. Frage” erreichte ihren Höhepunkt mit dem Panillyrismus, der in den Illyrern Träger der Urnenfeld-Kultur sah (vgl. die Publikationen von H. Krahe, dessen Schlußfolgerungen seither aber gründlich revidiert wurden). In der Zeit von den An…
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