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Lychidnus

(219 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λυχνιδός, Λυχνίς; Lychnidós, Lychnís). Capital city of the Illyrian Dassaretae ( Dassaretia) on the via Egnatia (Str. 7,7,4; It. Ant. 318), modern Ohrid in Macedonia on Lake Ohrid. Subjugated by Philip II (Diod. Sic. 16,8,1). It minted its own bronze coins under Philip V (obverse: Macedonian shield; reverse: bow of a ship and ΛΥΧΝΙΔ(Ι)ΩΝ). In 197 BC, L. with its territory fell to the Illyrian king Pleuratus (Pol. 5,108; 18,47,12; Liv. 27,32,9; 33,34,11). From 146 BC, L. belonged to the Roman province of Ma…

Liburni, Liburnia

(544 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] People in northern Dalmatia between the Istrian Arsia (modern Raša) and the Titius (modern Krka; Plin HN 3,139) including the islands off the coast and the town of Promona claimed by the Dalmatae on the other bank of the Titius (App Ill. 34; cf. Ps.-Scymn. 21). The mountain ranges of Učka, Gorski Kotar and Velebit in the eastern hinterland separate L. from the Iapodes. In the 3rd cent. BC, the latter gained access to the Adriatic at the Bay of Kvran at the expense of the L. The …

Doclea

(196 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Settlement of the Illyrian Docleates (Ptol. 2,16,12; App. Ill. 16,46; Ptol. 2,16,8; Plin. HN 3,143; princeps civitatis Docleatium, ILJug 1853 [1]) in the interior of Crna Gora (Montenegro), now Duklja, at the junction of the Zeta and Morača in the Podgorica (formerly Titograd) region; was later a Flavian municipium Docleatium in the prov. Dalmatia ( Dalmatae, Dalmatia), confirmed in several inscriptions (collected by Sticotti [2]) as res p(ublica) Docleatium. Ruler cult attested. Excavations have …

Magnum Municipium

(107 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Town (Tab. Peut. 5,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,16; CIL XIII 6538) that developed partly from a Dalmatian settlement near Balina Glavica (near Drnis̆, Bosnia-Herzegovina, probably identical with Sinotium/Synodium: Str. 7,5,5; App. Ill. 78) and partly from a vicus close to the auxiliary camp near Umljanivići. Beneficiarii succeeded the auxiliary unit (cf. CIL III 9790; 14957ff.). Probably, MM was already a municipium under emperor M. Aurelius (cf. CIL III 9798). Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) Bibliography M. Zaninović, Ilirsko pleme Delmati II [The Illyrian Tribe of…

Glinditiones

(166 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] One of the Illyrian tribes in the province Dalmatia, subjugated with the greatest difficulty in 35-33 BC together with the Docleatae, Carni, Interphrurini, Naresii and the Taurisci by the future Augustus and forced to pay overdue taxes (App. Ill. 47: Γλιντιδίωνες; Glintidíōnes); thus they had already been subjugated previously. According to Plin. HN 3,143, the G. belonged with 44 decuriae to the conventus of Narona. It is not known where they settled, not even whether they are in some way to be connected with the Ditiones. Different localizations in the valleys of…

Carni

(210 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Celtic tribe (cf. triumph of M. Aemilius Scaurus de Galleis Karneis: CIL I 12,49), who may have arrived at the Adriatic coast towards the end of the 3rd cent. BC. C. are first mentioned in 181 BC as inhabiting the region later known as  Aquileia: Liv. 39,22,6f.; 40,34,2; 45,6; 54,2ff. According to Str. 4,6,9, they occupied the hinterland of Aquileia, together with some Norici ( Noricum) and the  Veneti (5,1,9); their relationship with these is not quite clear as, according to Str. 7,5,3, th…

Aenona

(133 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Prehistoric settlement of the  Liburni on a small island (modern Nin, Croatia); attested in the name A., in copious grave finds, and in the native cult of the epigraphically verified  Venus Anzotica. Important town in the early Roman period ( Illyricum, later province  Dalmatia); probably Augustan   municipium of the tribus Sergia (CIL III 3158), 18 km north-west of  Iader, opposite the island of Cissa (modern Pag) at the foot of Mons Albius (modern Velebit) (Plin. HN 3,140; Ptol. 2,16,3). Sur…

Iapodes

(322 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Indo-European people attested since the 9th/8th cents. BC, often erroneously classified as Illyrians, settled in Lika, the Karst plains of Gacko, Ličko, Krbavsko (western Croatia), on the Una near Bihać (western Bosnia) and Notranjska (Inner Carniolia/Slovenia). Administratively, they were part of the conventus Scardonitanus of the province of  Illyricum, later Dalmatia. The Zrmanja and Velebit mountains separated them from the  Liburni in the south. These they fought in the 3rd cent. BC with temporary success for access …

Illyricum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
(also Hilluricum, Hillyricum, Illuricum). The first Roman province on the eastern Adriatic coast, in 167 BC organized as a Roman territory, formerly part of the Illyrian kingdom. [German version] A. State of research Understanding of the term I. varies. The discussion on the ‘Illyrian question’ reached its climax with Panillyrianism, which saw the Illyrians as the bearers of the Urnfield culture (cf. the publications of H. Krahe, but whose conclusions have since been thoroughly revised). From the beginning to the collapse of th…

Andetrium

(144 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Fortress in the province of  Dalmatia, in the hinterland of   Salona, modern Brečeva near Gornji Muć.  Bato, chief of the  Daesitiates, withdrew to A. with parts of his army during the Pannonian uprising of AD 6-9 (Cass. Dio 56,12-14). It was a   mansio on the road from Salona to Servitium, also, because of its strategically advantageous location between Burnum and Tilurium, a garrison for auxiliary troops:   Cohors VIII voluntariorum (1st cent. AD), III Alpinorum (2nd cent. AD), I Belgarum (3rd cent. AD; cf. Plin. HN 3,142; Str. 7,5,5; Ptol. 2,16,11; Tab. Peu…

Aequum

(206 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Town in the province  Dalmatia (modern Čitluk near Sinj), on the road from Salona to Servitium (It. Ant. 269,6; Tab. Peut. 5,3, Geogr. Rav. 4,16).   colonia under emperor  Claudius (CIL III 1323; Ptol. 2,16,11). A. was the only town in Dalmatia to be founded on the basis of a veteran settlement, following the departure of the   legio VII from Tilurium. A. had a   conventus civium Romanorum , whose summus curator was Sex. Iulius Silvanus -- following the foundation of the colony one of its first…

Daorsi

(450 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] An ‘Illyrian’ civitas with only 17 decuriae in the conventus of Narona (prov. of Dalmatia, today in Bosnia Herzegovina and partly in Croatia), one of the most Hellenized peoples on the coast of Dalmatia. The D. settled on the left bank of the Naro (Neretva) from Bijelo polje as far as Trebinjska Šuma, i.e. in the hinterland between Narona and  Epidaurum, with access to the sea and a central settlement in Gradina near Ošanići in the region of Stolac (Herzegovina), built according to megalithic t…

Argyruntum

(170 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Town at the foot of the Alpes Delmaticae (modern Velebit) on the northern Dalmatian coast (modern Starigrad Paklenica, Croatia), in the 3rd cent. BC at times occupied by the  Iapodes, but from the 4th cent. BC attributed to the  Liburni (Ps.-Scyl. 21). As a Liburnian   oppidum (Plin. HN 3,140), A.'s population was made up of both immigrants and natives; probably under  Augustus, it became a   municipium of the   tribus Claudia (hardly under Tiberius, even though the town was fortified with walls and towers during his reign [1. 2894]…

Drinus

(120 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Right-hand tributary of the Savus (Sava), modern Drina (length: 346 km); Ptol. 2,16,7 records that the D. flows west of Taurunum (Zemun) into the Savus. The D. is formed from the union of the Tara and Piva in the border region of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro; it forms the border between Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia. In some sources the name D. was erroneously applied to the river  Drilon, no doubt because both rivers flow close to each other in the extreme north of Albania. A road station ad Drinum (modern Brodac, north of Bijeljina) is mentioned in Tab. Peu…

Daesitiates

(385 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] One of the most important peoples in the interior of the prov. Dalmatia ( Dalmatae, Dalmatia), originally possibly in the loose confederation of the  Autariatae. They inhabited the valley of the upper Bathinus (Bosna) of the valley from the upper Urbanus (Vrbas) in the west to Rogatica in the east; their position has been confirmed through the discovery of an inscription (ILJug 1582 [1]) of a Valens Varron(is) f(ilius), princeps Desitiati(um) in Breza (22 km north-west of Sarajevo). The D. were perhaps attacked by the future Augustus in 35 BC (see …

Baloia

(194 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman municipium (at the time of Emperor Hadrian?) in the upper Pliva valley, province of Dalmatia; today Šipovo (Bosnia-Herzegovina); its city status is confirmed by CIL III 13982, with the formula [l(ocus)] d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ecurionum). Widely scattered urban habitats. B. was developed in the mining area of Sinjakovo near Majdan, along the important Roman road Salona -- Servitium (Tab. Peut. 5,2: Baloea), not far from the road Salviae - Sarnade -- Leusaba - Servitium (It. Ant. 268). Flourished in t…

Formio

(115 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] (modern Rižana, more probably Osapska Reka). A small river east of Aegida (between Capra and Iustinianopolis, modern Koper/Capodistria), 6 miles from Tergeste. The name is perhaps derived from the language of the Veneti. The F. gained significance in 42-41 BC as the border river when Gallia Cisalpina was incorporated into Italy after the battle of Philippi. Between 18 and 12 BC this boundary was relocated to the Arsia (modern Raša). The stream is mentioned in Plin. HN 3,127 ( Formio amnis ... antiquus auctae Italiae terminus, nunc vero Histriae) and Ptol. 3,1,27. Šašel K…

Epidaurum

(229 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia (Plin. HN 3,143f. Epidaurum; Ptol. 2,16,5 Epidaurus). Important urban settlement with two harbours on a peninsula in the province of Dalmatia, today Cavtat in Croatia (< civitas; Italian Ragusa vecchia). Originally probably a Hellenistic settlement (there is no clear archaeological evidence), it was romanized in the course of the 1st cent. BC, served as praesidium in the conflict with Pompey Caesar, and was unsuccessfully besieged by Pompey (Bell. Alex. 44,5). Roman colonia (probably…

Autariatae

(180 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] An Illyrian people of the hinterland of the Dalmatian coast on the upper reaches of the  Naro between the rivers Bathinus (today Bosna) and  Drinus, with their central base on Mount Romanija (or possibly [1. 87-129] further east, above the lacus Labeatis). The A. are mentioned in literary sources in the 4th cent. BC (based on earlier authors, cf. Ps.-Scyl. 24), and in archaeological terms can probably be assigned to the Iron Age Glasinac culture. According to Str. 7,5,11, this people constituted the largest and stronges…

Bargala

(147 words)

Author(s): Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana)
[German version] Probably Thracian city (cf. the name), today Dolus Kozjak (Štip region, Macedonia), on the road Oescus - Serdica - Stobi. Peak in late Roman times; probably assumed the status of the old Paeonian centre Astibus. Bargalaenses are mentioned in a Lat. inscription from AD 371/2 (construction of the city gate by order of Antonius Alypius, governor of Dacia Mediterranea). At the end of the 4th cent., the inhabitants moved to the safer area of Goren Kozjak, which was 2 km away and situat…
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