Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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(550 words)

The Turkish term efendi (efendī) derives from the Greek authentēs (αύθέντης, “to act on one’s own authority”). In Western sources, it is often translated as “lord,” “master,” or “sir.” Placed at the end of a noun phrase (e.g., Mehmed Emin (Meḥmed Emīn) Efendi), it can also be appended to another title (e.g., for men, bey/beg, paşa; for women, hanım/khānım), or linked to a position or function (katib/kātib, imam/imām). Historically, it was used to address the Ottoman sultan (padişahımız efendimiz hazretleri/ḥazretleri) and princes, and as a title for members of the religiou…

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Bouquet, Olivier, “Efendi”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 23 May 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_26136>
First published online: 2017
First print edition: 9789004335745, 2017, 2017-5

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