German classical philologist and religious scholar. Born Weiburg (Hessen) 23. 10. 1834, died Bonn 21. 10. 1905. 1853–1857 studied classical philology at Heidelberg, Göttingen and Bonn; 1858 doctorate at Bonn with Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl and Christian August Brandis. 1858–1861 teacher at the Joachimsthalsches Gymnasium in Berlin. 1861–1863 prof. ext. at Bern; from 1863 prof. of classical philology at Greifswald. 1866 appointed to succeed Ritschl at the Univ. of Bonn. Retired 1902.