Italian-Swiss writer and historian. Born Portici 21. 7. 1871, died Mont-Pélerin (Vaud) 3. 8. 1942. Studied law at Turin, then humanities at Bologna. 1897–1923 worked for the radical republican journal Il secolo in Milan. 1906 lecture series at Collège de France; 1908 travelled to the United States at the invitation of President Roosevelt. Emigrated to Switzerland under Fascist oppression 1929. 1930–1942 prof. of contemporary history at the Univ. of Geneva.