The Roman Empire in the Civil War 49–45 BC
(2,080 words)

The causes and provocations of wars have been a constant subject of lively discussion since Thucydides, and the Civil War brought about by Caesar is no exception. One crucial cause of this war was probably the circumstance that Caesar ran the risk, in his confrontation with opponents in the Senate and with Pompey, of losing his political identity and with it his dignitas. However, the war was provoked by the senatus consultum ultimum issued by the Senate on 7 January 49 BC, which aimed at forcing the proconsul to relinquis…

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Olshausen, E., “The Roman Empire in the Civil War 49–45 BC”, in: Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World, English edition by Christine Salazar (2010). Original German-language edition: Historischer Atlas der antiken Welt. Herausgegeben von Anne-Maria Wittke,Eckhart Olshausen und Richard Szydlak. Serie: Der Neue Pauly Supplemente 1. Staffel, herausgegeben von Hubert Cancik, Manfred Landfester und Helmuth Schneider, vol. 3. Stuttgart, Germany. Copyright © J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag GmbH (2007). Consulted online on 21 February 2019 <>
First published online: 2011
First print edition: 9789004167834, 20091241

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