Religion Past and Present

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Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Hobbes, Thomas

(820 words)

Author(s): Kersting, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Apr 5, 1588, Westport, England – Dec 4, 1679, Hardwicke, England), English philosopher, founder of political philosophy in the modern period. For Hobbes, political philosophy is the scientific philosophy of peace, which has the task of researching the causes of war and civil war, in order to find suitable instruments of peace and be able to implement preventive measures for political security. His political philosophy makes a scientific claim, because – in contrast to traditional…

Hoburg, Christian

(283 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Jul 23, 1607, Lüneburg – Oct 29, 1675, Altona). The son of a clothier, Hoburg first worked as a cantor and teacher in Lauenburg and Uelzen. After his dismissal (c. 1640), he found employment as a tutor ¶ in Hamburg and a proofreader in Lüneburg. When he was dismissed again in 1644, Duke August of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel arranged for him to take up a pastorate.Unappreciated, Hoburg went to Holland in 1648. In 1652, he became the chaplain for a Calvinist noble and, from 1655, the Reformed preacher in Lathem near Arnh…

Hochmann von Hochenau, Ernst Christoph

(254 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1669/ 1670, Lauenburg/Elbe – Jan 12 [?], 1721, Schwarzenau), one of the chief proponents of radical Pietism. The son of a Lutheran official and his Catholic wife, Hochmann studied law at several universities, experienced conversion in Halle with accompanying enthusiastic phenomena and worked as a tutor in Pietist homes for some years. Before the turn of the century, associated with millennialist expectations (Millenarianism), he appeared in Switzerland, in Frankfurt, Laubach and …


(343 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Johann Andreas (Mar 15, 1637, Kirchheim unter Teck – Nov 8, 1720, Bebenhausen). Hochstetter was, as a leading churchman in Württemberg, the most important early proponent of Pietism in the region and was, consequently, called the “Württembergian Spener” already in the 18th century. After studying in Tübingen, he became a pastor there (1659) and then in Walheim, dean in Böblingen (1672), professor of philosophy (1677) and later of theology in Tübingen and general superintendent (16…

Hochstraten, Jakob von

(167 words)

Author(s): Hofmann, Udo
[German Version] (c. 1460 Hoogstraeten, Brabant – Jan 27, 1527, Cologne), prior of the Dominican house at Cologne, papal inquisitor of the ecclesiastical province of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier. Hochstraten's major scholastic work was Margarita moralis philosophiae (1521). Clashing with J. Reuchlin over Jewish writings, he demanded their confiscation as early as 1510. After Reuchlin was condemned (1520), he did battle with Luther through the theological faculty at Cologne, demonstrated by comparison with Augustine that Luther's teac…

Hocking, William Ernest

(156 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1873, Cleveland, OH – Jun 12, 1966, Madison, NH). Hocking initially studied mechanical engineering at Iowa State, then philosophy at Harvard. In The Meaning of God in Human Experience (1912), he attempted to synthesize the Idealism of J. Royce with the Pragmatism of W. James to develop a philosophy of religion on an empirical basis. As Alford Professor at Harvard from 1920 to 1943, he built on this beginning ( Living Religious and a World Faith, 1940; The Coming World Civilization, 1956; etc.), but also addressed the political problems of the Middle Ea…


(418 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] Hodayot, “songs of praise,” a Qumran-Essene (Qumran, Essenes) song collection (2nd half of the 2nd cent. bce), preserved in eight manuscripts (1QHa, 1QHb, 4Q427–432), the most extensive of which Sukenik & Avigad published in 1954 in 18 columns and 66 fragments. Stegemann reconstructed the original order (28 columns, some in a new sequence, inclusion of ¶ almost all the fragments), which Puech independently confirmed. Columns 1–12 of Sukenik correspond to IX–XX of Stegemann, 13–16 to V–VIII, 17 to IV, 18 to XXIII and XXI, 19 to XXIV and XXII. 1QHa is Herodian, written …


(358 words)

Author(s): Olbertz, Jan-Hendrik
[German Version] (from Gk ὁδός/ hodós, “way,” “guidance”). In its original christological/soteriological form, it traces back to the Old and New Testament motif of the guide (in Jer and in John) Christ ( Hodegon-Christ as “the Way”). Related terms are the Hodegetria (also Hodegitria, “[female] guide”), an early Byzantine type of Madonna with the child on the left arm. The original image of the Mother of God stems from the Hodegon monastery in Constantinople. In Catholic pastoral theology, hodegetics denotes the theory of pastoral care in the sense of the principles ¶ and rules for guid…

Hodge, Charles

(150 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter Jonathan
[German Version] (Dec 27, 1797, Philadelphia – Jun 19, 1878, Princeton) studied at the College of New Jersey and at Princeton Theological Seminary, where he taught from 1822–1878, with a break of two years' study in Halle and Berlin in 1876 to 1878. Hodge defended the traditional Calvinist orthodoxy (Calvinism) within Common Sense philosophy; this offered a way for classical Presbyterians to remain orthodox within the new scientific and democratic world of 19th-century America. As editor of the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (1829–1868), in his Systematic Theology (1872/1…

Hoekendijk, Johannes Christiaan

(162 words)

Author(s): Hoedemaker, Bert
[German Version] (May 3, 1912, Garut, Indonesia – Jun 26, 1975, Long Island, USA) was a Dutch ecumenical and missionary theologian. He taught at the University of Utrecht (1953–1965) and at Union Theological Seminary in New York (1965–1975). His theology is characterized by the insistence that the church can be no more than a function of God's work for worldly shalom, and by an effort to take the secular world seriously as the field where kerygma, koinonia, and diakonia appear as references to the coming kingdom. Although suspicious of emerging forms of liberation theolog…

Hoelderlin, Friedrich

(474 words)

Author(s): Waibel, Violetta L.
[German Version] (Mar 20, 1770, Lauffen – Jun 7, 1843, Tübingen). Hoelderlin is regarded as one of the most important poets of German-language literature. He was decisively influenced by the philosophy of the late 18th century (I. Kant, J.G. Fichte), but also by Plato and Greek literature, by F. v. Schiller, J.W. v. Goethe, J.J. Rousseau, J.G. Herder, and F.H. Jacobi, as well as by the ideas of the French Revolution. Destined for a theological profession, Hoelderlin studied philosophy and theology…

Hoen, Cornelisz Hendricxz

(335 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (also Hoon, Honius, Honnius; died 1524 in The Hague) attended the school of the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life in Utrecht and became an attorney at law in The Hague. In 1523, he was imprisoned after a religious disputation. Hoen had acquired Wessel Gansfort's De sacramento eucharistiae from the estate of the deceased Jacobus Hoeck, the reading of which led him to interpret the est in hoc est corpus meum (1Cor 11:24) in the sense of significat. The letter in which he discloses this interpretation to J. (Hinne) Rode, which some believe to have origin…

Höe von Höenegg, Matthias

(212 words)

Author(s): Wartenberg, Günther
[German Version] (Feb 24, 1580, Vienna – Mar 4, 1645, Dresden). Höe von Höenegg studied law and theology in Wittenberg from 1597 onward, became third court chaplain in Dresden in 1602, and superintendent of Plauen in 1603. From 1611 to 1613 he reorganized the Lutheran church and school system in Prague. A highly esteemed first court chaplain of Johann Georg I from 1613 onward, Höe von Höenegg advocated a strict Concord Lutheranism (Concord, Formula of) in deep distrust of Reformed Protestants and in resolute rejection of the papacy ( Evangelisches Handbüchlein wider das Papsttum, 1603 e…


(428 words)

Author(s): Hennig, Gerhard
[German Version] 1. Ludwig (Apr 15, 1798, Wildbad – Nov 18, 1828, Rielingshausen), considered the most important preacher of the Württemberg revival (I). In poor health from the time of his studies in Tübingen onward, he was employed at only two places, for two years in each case: in Stuttgart as curate at the Leonhardskirche (1823–1825) and in Rielingshausen as pastor (1826–1828). Hofacker's preaching style was characterized by the clarity of its scholastic construction and language (“That ¶ is, I do not make a broth around the truth, … instead it comes out quite dry”), …

Hofbauer, Clement Mary, Saint

(222 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1751, Tasswitz [Tasovice], Moravia – Mar 15, 1820, Vienna). Apprenticed as a baker, he studied theology as a “late vocation” in Vienna, joining the Redemptorists in 1784. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1785. In 1788 he became vicar general of his order for northern Europe. From 1808 he served as a pastor in Vienna, with a strong commitment to social and charitable work; not least because of his rustic manner, he was an engaging preacher. His charismatic personality made him the focus of a Romantic circle (including F. Schlegel, Z. ¶ Werner, A. Günther, and Jo…


(525 words)

Author(s): Carmel, Alex | Pfleiderer, Georg
[German Version] 1. Gottlieb Wilhelm (Dec 19, 1771, Ostelsheim – Jan 29, 1846, Korntal). Hoffmann regarded as his intellectual father and model the already elderly Gottlieb Friedrich Machtholf (1735–1800), who once brought him the ten heavy folio volumes of Luther's collected works, carrying them on his back for a journey of four hours. In addition to holding several administrative positions in Leonberg and its environs, Hoffmann became one of Württemberg's leading Pietists. The Pietists at the time, beset by Rationalism, were often inclined to em…

Hoffmann, Daniel

(219 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter
[German Version] (c. 1538, Halle/Saale – Nov 30, 1611, Wolfenbüttel), Lutheran theologian. Hoffmann was appointed professor of philosophy in Helmstedt in 1574/1576 and professor of theology in 1578. In association with V. Strigel, S. Musäus, and T. Heßhus, Hoffmann attempted to preserve the integrity of Luther's doctrine against Philippistic (P. Melanchthon) and Flacian (M. Flacius) deviations, but also, while defending the Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist, against the “new dogma” of ubiquity (J…

Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Amadeus

(315 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1776, Kaliningrad [Königsberg], Russia – Jun 25, 1822, Berlin), lawyer, poet, and composer. Extremely talented musically, he studied organ. After studying law in Königsberg (1792–1795), he had a legal career that took him from Königsberg via Głogów (Glogau), Berlin, Poznań (Posen), and Płock (Plock) as far as Warsaw. He participated as a singer, among other things, in Catholic worship. Hoffmann composed a mass in D minor. He became the music director of the Bamberg Theater in 1808 and composed, among other pieces, a Miserere (1809), a confession of faith …

Hoffmann, Melchior

(364 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Schwäbisch-Hall – 1543, Strasbourg) was a Spiritualist (Spiritualism: II, 1) and an Anabaptist. Hoffmann was active from 1523 as a lay preacher in Livonia. He placed the mysticism of suffering imparted by A. Bodenstein von Karlstadt in an apocalyptic context. The time before the Last Day announced for 1533 was to bring Christians suffering, but also knowledge, directly conveyed by the Spirit. Despite a certificate of orthodoxy issued by Luther in 1525, Hoffmann was expel…

Hoffmeister, Johannes

(196 words)

Author(s): Weinbrenner, Ralph
[German Version] (1509/1510, Oberndorf/Neckar – Aug 21, 1547, Günzburg/Donau), OESA. Hoffmeister fought as a monastic and a theologian against the Reformation and for the survival of the Augustinian Hermits in Germany. After entering the order at an early age in Colmar, he studied in Mainz in 1526/1527, then from the end of 1528 in Freiburg im Breisgau. In 1553 he became prior in Colmar and in 1543 provincial of the Rhenish-Swabian province. H. Seripando, the superior of the order, appointed him v…

Höffner, Joseph

(206 words)

Author(s): Raffelt, Albert
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1906, Horhausen, Westerwald – Oct 16, 1987, Cologne). Höffner studied in Trier and Rome from 1926 to 1934. Between 1929 and 1944, he received a Dr.phil. and Dr.theol. in Rome, and a Dr.theol., Dr.rer.pol., and Dr.theol.habil. (in moral theology) from Freiburg. In 1945 he was appointed professor of pastoral theology and Christian social teaching at Trier. In 1951 he was appointed professor and founding director of the Institut für christliche Sozialwissenschaften in Münste…

Höfling, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm

(227 words)

Author(s): Kerner, Hanns
[German Version] (Oct 30, 1802, Neudrossenfeld – Apr 5, 1853, Munich). At the age of 17 Höfling began to study philosophy and theology in Erlangen. After his ordination he became a city curate in Würzburg in 1823 and three years later a pastor in Nürnberg. In 1833 Höfling was appointed professor of practical theology in Erlangen. At the end of 1852 he was brought into the Oberkonsistorium (High Consistory) in Munich. Shaped by the revival movement, Höfling found his own experience of salvation mir…

Hofmann, Johann Christian Konrad von

(868 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1810, Nürnberg – Dec 20, 1877, Erlangen). Hofmann was influenced by proponents of the revival movement, during his early schooling by Karl Ludwig Roth and during his studies in Erlangen from 1827 onward by C. Krafft and K. v. Raumer. He continued his studies in Berlin in 1829 (esp. with L. (v.) Ranke), and became a teacher at a Gymnasium in Erlangen after passing his exams in 1832. He obtained his Habilitation in 1838, became associate professor at Erlangen University in 1841, in Rostock in 1842, and returned to Erlangen in 1845, where he taught until his death. Hofmann…

Hofmannsthal, Hugo von

(385 words)

Author(s): Harwich, Wolf-Daniel
[German Version] (Feb 1, 1874, Vienna – Jul 15, 1929, Rodaun). Hofmannsthal was from a Jewish banking family who converted to Catholicism. The author sought to overcome the aestheticism, impressionism, and nihilism of literary decadence and called for a “conservative revolution,” which, however, is not to be understood in the sense of a reactionary political ideology. The young Hofmannsthal already attracted attention in 1890 with his poems published under the pseudonyms Loris Melikow and Theophil…

Hofmeister, Sebastian

(180 words)

Author(s): Lüthi, Marc van Wijnkoop
[German Version] (Oeconomus; 1476, Schaffhausen – Sep 26, 1533, Zofingen). Hofmeister joined the Barefoot Friars in Schaffhausen, studied the artes in Paris, where he received his Dr.theol., and served as the master of studies for his order in Zürich, Constance, and Lucerne. Beginning in 1522, however, in close contact with the Reformers (esp. U. Zwingli), he initially preached the Reformation with great success in Schaffhausen (winning over his opponent Erasmus Ritter [d. 1546], influence spreading through Turgau…

Hohenlohe-(Waldenburg-)Schillingsfürst, Chlodwig zu

(301 words)

Author(s): Becker, Josef
[German Version] (Mar 31, 1819, Rotenburg an der Fulda – Jul 6, 1901, Bad Ragaz, Switzerland). Hohenlohe, the son of a mixed-religion marriage within the Franconian princely house, was influenced throughout his life by his liberal Josephinian heritage (Josephinism). Made minister president of Bavaria in 1866, he pursued a pro-Prussian federalist policy until he was voted out of office by the anti-Bismarck majority in March of 1870. From 1874 to 1885 he served as ambassador in Paris and from 1885 t…


(644 words)

Author(s): Keupp, Jan
[German Version] Hohenstaufen, an imperial dynasty in the High Middle Ages. The origins of the Hohenstaufen (Staufen) remain a matter of genealogical hypothesis, extensive records dating back only to 1079. This was when Henry IV appointed Frederick, his (Staufen) supporter, as duke of Swabia. At the same time, arrangements were made for Frederick to marry the emperor's daughter, Agnes. Duke Frederick I created a grand focal point for his possessions in northern Swabia with Stauf Castle and Lorch h…


(670 words)

Author(s): Neugebauer, Wolfgang
[German Version] Hohenzollern, The (Hohen) Zollerns were one of the dynasties that arose out of the southwest part of the Holy Roman Empire, with its proximity to the king, and rose to prominence from there. First mentioned in 1061, the counts of Zollern also occupied the office of the Nuremberg burgraves, in an affiliation, from the late 12th century on, and in this capacity they rapidly carried out a policy of territorial acquisitions in Franconia (Franks/Franconia). The Franconian possessions a…

Holbach, Paul Heinrich Dietrich

(178 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (baptized Dec 8, 1723, Edesheim – Jan 21, 1789, Paris). Holbach studied law and natural sciences in Leiden from 1744 to 1748 and lived the rest of his life as a wealthy man in Paris. Holbach's Paris townhouse and his country residence Granval were meeting points of pre-revolutionary Enlightenment (I) and were frequented by D. Hume, J.-J. Rousseau, D. Diderot, Claude Adrien Helvetius, and others. Holbach wrote over 400 (perhaps as many as 1,100) articles for Diderot's Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia, Encyclopedists), which he probably helped finance to a conside…

Holbein, Hans (the Younger)

(235 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (1497, Augsburg – 1543, London), son of the important Augsburg altar painter Hans Holbein (the Elder; 1465–1524), moved in 1515 to Basel, where some of his masterpieces were produced, such as the portrait of Mayor Jakob Meyer and his wife (1516), Christ in the grave (1521), and the so-called Solothurn Madonna (1522). Already in his Basel period Holbein's paintings stood out because of their unusual precision and artistic objectivity. Especially the portraits of Erasmus of Rotterda…

Holdheim, Samuel

(157 words)

Author(s): Brämer, Andreas
[German Version] (1806, Kempen – Aug 22, 1860, Berlin). Holdheim soon showed great talent during his talmudic studies, although it took him a long time to appreciate the world of European literacy. After aca-¶ demic studies in Prague and Berlin, he held rabbinates in Frankfurt an der Oder (1836–1840) and Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1840–1847). In 1847, Holdheim accepted an appointment at the newly founded Reformed Jewish community in Berlin. He advocated a radical reconfiguration of religious practice by attempting to dissociate the H…

Holiday Law

(363 words)

Author(s): Grube, Andreas
[German Version] The German Basic Law contains (art. 140, 139 Weimar Constitution), along with an institutional guarantee of Sunday and holidays recognized by the state, a charge for legislators sufficiently to assure their purpose as “days of rest from work and spiritual uplifting.” No guarantee of specific, individual, state-recognized holidays or of a certain number of them, however, can be derived from this provision, so that the legislator can deny individual holidays their previous recogniti…

Holiday Observance

(429 words)

Author(s): Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich
[German Version] 1. In the early period of the church, participation in worship was an obvious sign of the Christian life (but see Heb 10:25). It is not attested, however, that the Lord's Day was understood in analogy to the Jewish Sabbath as a work-free day of rest. Tertullian seems to be the first to advise deferring business on Sunday and during ¶ Pentecost in order to be able to participate in worship ( De oratione 23). The situation changed when the church assumed the role of the imperial church in the 4th century. Constantine decreed rest from work “on the estima…


(400 words)

Author(s): Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich
[German Version] 1 As generally understood, holidays are characterized by the fact that they interrupt everyday (work) life and open up a space for self-determined activity or leisure beyond vocational and other duties. As a rule, they are implemented to mark special occasions or are celebrated in a regular sequence. It is common to distinguish holidays terminologically from the weekly recurring days of rest, although this is questionable with regard to the ¶ Jewish Sabbath and the Christian Sunday and their clear (salvation) historical references. It is important to…

Holiness Code

(854 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart
[German Version] Klostermann introduced this term to Old Testament studies in 1877 to describe Lev 17–26. It derives from such phrases as, “you shall be holy, for I, YHWH, your God, am holy,” appearing frequently in 19–22. J. Wellhausen interpreted the Holiness Code as law (Law and Legislation: II) independent of its literary context in Lev 1–16, younger than Deuteronomy and older than the Priestly document (Pentateuch). Subsequent Old Testament research concentrated in the first half of the 20th …

Holiness Movements

(1,232 words)

Author(s): Cochlovius, Joachim | Faupel, D. William
[German Version] I. Europe – II. North America I. Europe The Christian's desire for personal holiness and victory over sin is characteristic of mature faith (John 14:23; 1 Thess 4:3). However, the interpretation and practice of holiness differs widely. While the New Testament understands the process of “becoming holy” as God's activity in Christians (John 17:17; Eph 5:25ff.; 1 Thess 5:23), since the Reformation the theological and practical interest in holiness has shifted increasingly to focus on human…

Holiness of God

(9 words)

[German Version] Sacred and Profane

Hollaz (Hollatius)

(353 words)

Author(s): Gummelt, Volker
[German Version] 1. David (1648, Wulkow, Poland – Apr 17, 1713, Dobrzany [Jacobshagen], Poland), Lutheran theologian. Hollaz studied ancient languages in Erfurt and theology ¶ in Wittenberg with A. Calovius, J.A. Quenstedt and J. Meisner, among others. He became pastor in Poczernin (Pützerlin) near Szczeciński (Stargard) in 1670, preaching also in Stargard from 1681. After leaving the pastorate in Pützerlin (1683), he was co-rector of the Stargard school, rector of the lyceum in Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) (1684) and pastor and provost in Jacobshagen (1692). His Examen theologicum acro…

Holl, Karl

(608 words)

Author(s): Assel, Heinrich
[German Version] (May 15, 1866, Tübingen – May 23, 1926, Berlin). A church historian and polyhistor at Tübingen (1901–1906) and Berlin (1906–1926, and member of the Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften [Academy: II] from 1915), Holl became the formative figure in the transition from historicism to the Luther renaissance after 1910. In view of the Apostolicum controversy, and being personally committed to his historical judgment, Holl forewent a church appointment. He came to prominence through h…

Hollywood and Popular Religion

(525 words)

Author(s): Siebald, Manfred
[German Version] Hollywood, situated to the northwest of the city center and first planned as an alcohol-free district in 1887, has been a district of Los Angeles since 1910. Shortly after the first films were screened (1885), the film industry was attracted to the place by its mild, sunny climate, varied scenery and plentiful labor. The filming of The Count of Monte Cristo, which began in Chicago, was completed ¶ in Hollywood in 1908. Numerous studios (20th Century Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount, Columbia, Warner Brothers) were established in Hollywood from …


(4,604 words)

Author(s): Bankier, David | Cohn-Sherbok, Dan | Sarot, Marcel | Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] I. History – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics and Ethics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Treatment in Education I. History Hitler assumed power in Germany on Jan 30, 1933. From this date onwards, racism and Antisemitism/Anti-Judaism became central components of the Nazi system (National Socialism). During the first months the NSDAP instigated anti-Semitic riots and campaigns of terror that climaxed on the Apr 1, 1933, with a country-wide boycott on Jewish shops and professionals. In additi…

Holocaust Literature

(857 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Barbara
[German Version] The literary portrayals of the traumatic experiences of Jewish survivors in ghettos, concentration camps, and concealment. A determining question for authors who decide to write their testimonies to unimaginable crimes in traditional literary genres is that of the poetics of the Holocaust as the signature of a counter-world that perverts all the norms of behavior, of the “univers concentrationnaire” (David Rousset), in the conviction that conventional semantics does not suffice fo…

Holstein, Günther

(264 words)

Author(s): Campenhausen, Otto v.
[German Version] (May 22, 1892, Berlin – Jan 11, 1931, Kiel), Protestant expert in church and constitutional law. Holstein became assistant professor at Bonn in 1922 and professor of public law at Greifswald (1924) and Kiel (1929). He coined the term geiteswissenschaftliche Methode (humanities method) as an anti-positivist and anti-relativist method rooted in German Idealism in which elements of history, sociology and intellectual history were applied to the interpretation of the positive law. In his major work, Die Grundlagen des evangelischen Kirchenrechts [Foundations of …

Holsten, Walter

(158 words)

Author(s): Wrogemann, Henning
[German Version] (Mar 29, 1908, Osnabrück – Mar 13, 1982, Alzey), German missiologist. Holsten was initially pastor of the regional church of Hannover and taught missiology at the University of Mainz from 1947 ¶ onward. He became professor emeritus in 1973. His scholarly publications include works on mission history and mission theology as well as on anthropology and the theology of religion. Holsten defined mission in reference to R. Bultmann's hermeneutics and strictly from the extra nos of the kerygma: Because the kerygma, i.e. the tidings of God's salvific action in…

Holtzmann, Heinrich Julius

(294 words)

Author(s): Merk, Otto
[German Version] (May 17, 1832, Karlsruhe – Aug 4, 1910, Baden [-Baden]). Holtzmann obtained his Habilitation in 1858 in Heidelberg, initially with a specialization in the history of dogma, became associate professor there in 1861 and professor in 1865 (based on his major work, Die synoptischen Evangelien …, 1863) before going to Strasbourg in 1874 (his call there was hampered by Holtzmann's position as a “liberal” in politics and church policy [Liberal theology]). Holtzmann established the methodological basis for the two-source hypothesis …

Holy Alliance

(387 words)

Author(s): Sellin, Volker
[German Version] A treaty signed in Paris on Sep 26, 1815 by Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Russian tsar Alexander I. It obliged the three monarchs to subject their future policies to the precepts of the Christian religion (preamble). The initiative for it came from the tsar under the influence of Christian Romanticism. In response to the French Revolution, the “true and indissoluble fraternity” of the three Christian monarchs was contrasted with the r…

Holy Coat

(388 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernhard
[German Version] John 19:23f. mentions the seamless robe ( chiton) of Jesus in the context of interpretation of Ps 22:19. In the theology of the church fathers of both East and West, the Holy Coat is interpreted as a symbol of the unity of the church and the unity of the faith, and in the East also as a christological symbol (unity of the two natures). Medieval authors in the West picked up on the symbolism of the unity of church and faith. At various locations in the West (e.g. Argenteuil and ¶ Trier) and in the East (e.g. Mzecheta, Georgia) the existence of a Holy Coat is claimed. The…

Holy Land

(6 words)

[German Version] Israel

Holy of Holies

(371 words)

Author(s): Utzschneider, Helmut | Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Catholic Church I. Old Testament In its broader sense, the phrase holy of holies or most holy (Heb. קדֶשׁ [ה-]קָדָשִּׁים/ qōdeš [haq]qodāšîm) designates objects or spaces associated especially closely with the cultic presence of God, such as sacrificial offerings (Lev 21:22) and cultic utensils (Exod 30:29). In its narrower sense, with the definite article, the holy of holies denotes a separate space within the sanctuary in which God may be considered present in various ways. In the tent of meeting or tabernacle, acc…

Holy Redeemer, Sisters of the

(13 words)

[German Version] Sisters of the Holy Redeemer
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