Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Hobbes, Thomas

(820 words)

Author(s): Kersting, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Apr 5, 1588, Westport, England – Dec 4, 1679, Hardwicke, England), English philosopher, founder of political philosophy in the modern period. For Hobbes, political philosophy is the scientific philosophy of peace, which has the task of researching the causes of war and civil war, in order to find suitable instruments of peace and be able to implement preventive measures for political security. His political philosophy makes a scientific claim, because – in contrast to traditional…

Hoburg, Christian

(283 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Jul 23, 1607, Lüneburg – Oct 29, 1675, Altona). The son of a clothier, Hoburg first worked as a cantor and teacher in Lauenburg and Uelzen. After his dismissal (c. 1640), he found employment as a tutor ¶ in Hamburg and a proofreader in Lüneburg. When he was dismissed again in 1644, Duke August of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel arranged for him to take up a pastorate.Unappreciated, Hoburg went to Holland in 1648. In 1652, he became the chaplain for a Calvinist noble and, from 1655, the Reformed preacher in Lathem near Arnh…

Hochmann von Hochenau, Ernst Christoph

(254 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1669/ 1670, Lauenburg/Elbe – Jan 12 [?], 1721, Schwarzenau), one of the chief proponents of radical Pietism. The son of a Lutheran official and his Catholic wife, Hochmann studied law at several universities, experienced conversion in Halle with accompanying enthusiastic phenomena and worked as a tutor in Pietist homes for some years. Before the turn of the century, associated with millennialist expectations (Millenarianism), he appeared in Switzerland, in Frankfurt, Laubach and …


(343 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Johann Andreas (Mar 15, 1637, Kirchheim unter Teck – Nov 8, 1720, Bebenhausen). Hochstetter was, as a leading churchman in Württemberg, the most important early proponent of Pietism in the region and was, consequently, called the “Württembergian Spener” already in the 18th century. After studying in Tübingen, he became a pastor there (1659) and then in Walheim, dean in Böblingen (1672), professor of philosophy (1677) and later of theology in Tübingen and general superintendent (16…

Hochstraten, Jakob von

(167 words)

Author(s): Hofmann, Udo
[German Version] (c. 1460 Hoogstraeten, Brabant – Jan 27, 1527, Cologne), prior of the Dominican house at Cologne, papal inquisitor of the ecclesiastical province of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier. Hochstraten's major scholastic work was Margarita moralis philosophiae (1521). Clashing with J. Reuchlin over Jewish writings, he demanded their confiscation as early as 1510. After Reuchlin was condemned (1520), he did battle with Luther through the theological faculty at Cologne, demonstrated by comparison with Augustine that Luther's teac…

Hocking, William Ernest

(156 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1873, Cleveland, OH – Jun 12, 1966, Madison, NH). Hocking initially studied mechanical engineering at Iowa State, then philosophy at Harvard. In The Meaning of God in Human Experience (1912), he attempted to synthesize the Idealism of J. Royce with the Pragmatism of W. James to develop a philosophy of religion on an empirical basis. As Alford Professor at Harvard from 1920 to 1943, he built on this beginning ( Living Religious and a World Faith, 1940; The Coming World Civilization, 1956; etc.), but also addressed the political problems of the Middle Ea…


(418 words)

Author(s): Lichtenberger, Hermann
[German Version] Hodayot, “songs of praise,” a Qumran-Essene (Qumran, Essenes) song collection (2nd half of the 2nd cent. bce), preserved in eight manuscripts (1QHa, 1QHb, 4Q427–432), the most extensive of which Sukenik & Avigad published in 1954 in 18 columns and 66 fragments. Stegemann reconstructed the original order (28 columns, some in a new sequence, inclusion of ¶ almost all the fragments), which Puech independently confirmed. Columns 1–12 of Sukenik correspond to IX–XX of Stegemann, 13–16 to V–VIII, 17 to IV, 18 to XXIII and XXI, 19 to XXIV and XXII. 1QHa is Herodian, written …


(358 words)

Author(s): Olbertz, Jan-Hendrik
[German Version] (from Gk ὁδός/ hodós, “way,” “guidance”). In its original christological/soteriological form, it traces back to the Old and New Testament motif of the guide (in Jer and in John) Christ ( Hodegon-Christ as “the Way”). Related terms are the Hodegetria (also Hodegitria, “[female] guide”), an early Byzantine type of Madonna with the child on the left arm. The original image of the Mother of God stems from the Hodegon monastery in Constantinople. In Catholic pastoral theology, hodegetics denotes the theory of pastoral care in the sense of the principles ¶ and rules for guid…

Hodge, Charles

(150 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter Jonathan
[German Version] (Dec 27, 1797, Philadelphia – Jun 19, 1878, Princeton) studied at the College of New Jersey and at Princeton Theological Seminary, where he taught from 1822–1878, with a break of two years' study in Halle and Berlin in 1876 to 1878. Hodge defended the traditional Calvinist orthodoxy (Calvinism) within Common Sense philosophy; this offered a way for classical Presbyterians to remain orthodox within the new scientific and democratic world of 19th-century America. As editor of the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (1829–1868), in his Systematic Theology (1872/1…

Hoekendijk, Johannes Christiaan

(162 words)

Author(s): Hoedemaker, Bert
[German Version] (May 3, 1912, Garut, Indonesia – Jun 26, 1975, Long Island, USA) was a Dutch ecumenical and missionary theologian. He taught at the University of Utrecht (1953–1965) and at Union Theological Seminary in New York (1965–1975). His theology is characterized by the insistence that the church can be no more than a function of God's work for worldly shalom, and by an effort to take the secular world seriously as the field where kerygma, koinonia, and diakonia appear as references to the coming kingdom. Although suspicious of emerging forms of liberation theolog…

Hoelderlin, Friedrich

(474 words)

Author(s): Waibel, Violetta L.
[German Version] (Mar 20, 1770, Lauffen – Jun 7, 1843, Tübingen). Hoelderlin is regarded as one of the most important poets of German-language literature. He was decisively influenced by the philosophy of the late 18th century (I. Kant, J.G. Fichte), but also by Plato and Greek literature, by F. v. Schiller, J.W. v. Goethe, J.J. Rousseau, J.G. Herder, and F.H. Jacobi, as well as by the ideas of the French Revolution. Destined for a theological profession, Hoelderlin studied philosophy and theology…

Hoen, Cornelisz Hendricxz

(335 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (also Hoon, Honius, Honnius; died 1524 in The Hague) attended the school of the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life in Utrecht and became an attorney at law in The Hague. In 1523, he was imprisoned after a religious disputation. Hoen had acquired Wessel Gansfort's De sacramento eucharistiae from the estate of the deceased Jacobus Hoeck, the reading of which led him to interpret the est in hoc est corpus meum (1Cor 11:24) in the sense of significat. The letter in which he discloses this interpretation to J. (Hinne) Rode, which some believe to have origin…

Höe von Höenegg, Matthias

(212 words)

Author(s): Wartenberg, Günther
[German Version] (Feb 24, 1580, Vienna – Mar 4, 1645, Dresden). Höe von Höenegg studied law and theology in Wittenberg from 1597 onward, became third court chaplain in Dresden in 1602, and superintendent of Plauen in 1603. From 1611 to 1613 he reorganized the Lutheran church and school system in Prague. A highly esteemed first court chaplain of Johann Georg I from 1613 onward, Höe von Höenegg advocated a strict Concord Lutheranism (Concord, Formula of) in deep distrust of Reformed Protestants and in resolute rejection of the papacy ( Evangelisches Handbüchlein wider das Papsttum, 1603 e…


(428 words)

Author(s): Hennig, Gerhard
[German Version] 1. Ludwig (Apr 15, 1798, Wildbad – Nov 18, 1828, Rielingshausen), considered the most important preacher of the Württemberg revival (I). In poor health from the time of his studies in Tübingen onward, he was employed at only two places, for two years in each case: in Stuttgart as curate at the Leonhardskirche (1823–1825) and in Rielingshausen as pastor (1826–1828). Hofacker's preaching style was characterized by the clarity of its scholastic construction and language (“That ¶ is, I do not make a broth around the truth, … instead it comes out quite dry”), …

Hofbauer, Clement Mary, Saint

(222 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1751, Tasswitz [Tasovice], Moravia – Mar 15, 1820, Vienna). Apprenticed as a baker, he studied theology as a “late vocation” in Vienna, joining the Redemptorists in 1784. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1785. In 1788 he became vicar general of his order for northern Europe. From 1808 he served as a pastor in Vienna, with a strong commitment to social and charitable work; not least because of his rustic manner, he was an engaging preacher. His charismatic personality made him the focus of a Romantic circle (including F. Schlegel, Z. ¶ Werner, A. Günther, and Jo…


(525 words)

Author(s): Carmel, Alex | Pfleiderer, Georg
[German Version] 1. Gottlieb Wilhelm (Dec 19, 1771, Ostelsheim – Jan 29, 1846, Korntal). Hoffmann regarded as his intellectual father and model the already elderly Gottlieb Friedrich Machtholf (1735–1800), who once brought him the ten heavy folio volumes of Luther's collected works, carrying them on his back for a journey of four hours. In addition to holding several administrative positions in Leonberg and its environs, Hoffmann became one of Württemberg's leading Pietists. The Pietists at the time, beset by Rationalism, were often inclined to em…

Hoffmann, Daniel

(219 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter
[German Version] (c. 1538, Halle/Saale – Nov 30, 1611, Wolfenbüttel), Lutheran theologian. Hoffmann was appointed professor of philosophy in Helmstedt in 1574/1576 and professor of theology in 1578. In association with V. Strigel, S. Musäus, and T. Heßhus, Hoffmann attempted to preserve the integrity of Luther's doctrine against Philippistic (P. Melanchthon) and Flacian (M. Flacius) deviations, but also, while defending the Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist, against the “new dogma” of ubiquity (J…

Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Amadeus

(315 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1776, Kaliningrad [Königsberg], Russia – Jun 25, 1822, Berlin), lawyer, poet, and composer. Extremely talented musically, he studied organ. After studying law in Königsberg (1792–1795), he had a legal career that took him from Königsberg via Głogów (Glogau), Berlin, Poznań (Posen), and Płock (Plock) as far as Warsaw. He participated as a singer, among other things, in Catholic worship. Hoffmann composed a mass in D minor. He became the music director of the Bamberg Theater in 1808 and composed, among other pieces, a Miserere (1809), a confession of faith …

Hoffmann, Melchior

(364 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (c. 1500, Schwäbisch-Hall – 1543, Strasbourg) was a Spiritualist (Spiritualism: II, 1) and an Anabaptist. Hoffmann was active from 1523 as a lay preacher in Livonia. He placed the mysticism of suffering imparted by A. Bodenstein von Karlstadt in an apocalyptic context. The time before the Last Day announced for 1533 was to bring Christians suffering, but also knowledge, directly conveyed by the Spirit. Despite a certificate of orthodoxy issued by Luther in 1525, Hoffmann was expel…

Hoffmeister, Johannes

(196 words)

Author(s): Weinbrenner, Ralph
[German Version] (1509/1510, Oberndorf/Neckar – Aug 21, 1547, Günzburg/Donau), OESA. Hoffmeister fought as a monastic and a theologian against the Reformation and for the survival of the Augustinian Hermits in Germany. After entering the order at an early age in Colmar, he studied in Mainz in 1526/1527, then from the end of 1528 in Freiburg im Breisgau. In 1553 he became prior in Colmar and in 1543 provincial of the Rhenish-Swabian province. H. Seripando, the superior of the order, appointed him v…
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