Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Schröer, Henning

(153 words)

Author(s): Ruddat, Günter
[German Version] (May 2, 1931, Berlin – Feb 7, 2002, Bonn), from 1971 to 1997 professor of practical theology at Bonn, an inspiring teacher of theology with wide-ranging interests. The interdisciplinary conception of his hermeneutics of practical theology was based on an assessment of the discipline with the goal of church reform. It was influenced particularly by his debate with Luther, J.A. Comenius, F.D.E. Schleiermacher, and S. Kierkegaard, above all in developing homiletic and liturgical stimuli, especially in the context of Kirchentag and Theopoesie, in dialogue with art…

Schubert, Franz Peter

(363 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1797, Vienna – Nov 19, 1828, Vienna). Schubert’s work made enduring contributions to lieder, chamber and orchestral music, keyboard music, as well as to sacred music, including six Mass settings. His crowning achievement was in revolutionizing German lieder, about which Joseph v. Spaun declared him “unexcelled” – his hymn composition was superb in the ensemble of lyrical voicecommand, poetic text, and keyboard accompaniment, especially influenced by the idea of exposition and thematic development of the Vienna…

Schubert, Gotthilf Heinrich von

(281 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Apr 26, 1780, Hohenstein – Jun 20, 1860, Munich). After gymnasial studies in Weimar, where he was strongly influenced by J.G. Herder, and study of theology at Leipzig, Schubert changed his field and went to Jena, where he received his in 1803; he then began to practice in Altenburg. In 1805 he began studies at the mining academy in Freiberg. In 1809 he was appointed director of the technical college in Nuremberg, having delivered public lectures to great acclaim (along wi…

Schubert, Hans von

(283 words)

Author(s): Fix, Karl-Heinz
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1859, Dresden – May 6, 1931, Heidelberg), church historian. Beginning in 1878, he studied humanities and political science in Leipzig, Bonn, Straßburg (Strasbourg), and Zürich; after receiving his Dr.phil. from Straßburg, he studied theology at Tübingen and Halle. From 1887 to October of 1891 he taught at the Rauhes Haus in Hamburg; in November of 1889 he was ordained in Berlin. In 1891 he became associate professor of church history at Straßburg. In 1892 he was appointed…

Schudt, Johann Jacob

(113 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1664, Frankfurt am Main – Feb 14, 1722, Frankfurt). After studying philosophy and theology in Wittenberg (1680–1684), Schudt did five years of special Near Eastern studies in Hamburg with E. Edzard. Returning to Frankfurt in 1689, he began to teach at the Gymnasium in 1691; in 1695 he became deputy rector and in 1717 rector. He was considered the outstanding expert of his time on Judaism; his many publications dealt primarily with Hebrew philology, the history of Judaism, and the Jewish way of life ( Jüdische Merkwürdigkeiten, 1714–1717). Johannes Wallmann Bibli…

Schuler, Alfred

(183 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Nov 22, 1865, Mainz – Apr 8, 1923, Munich), studied law, history, and archaeology in Munich, without completing a degree or any later professional activity. From 1897 to 1904, he and Karl Wolfkehl, L. Klages, and S. George (whose “cult of Maximin” he influenced) formed the core of the Kosmiker (“Cosmics”) in Schwabing. At the heart of his anti-Semitic elitist ideology, which combined the most diverse elements – from apocalypticism and light mysticism to J.J. Bachofen and F. Nietzsche – was a Neo-Pagan attempt at repristination …

Schulte, Johann Friedrich (Ritter von)

(154 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Apr 23, 1827, Winterberg, Westphalia – Dec 19, 1914, Obermais, near Meran), Catholic canonist and legal historian. He was appointed associate professor in Prague in 1854, full professor in 1855; from 1873 to 1906, he taught as a professor in Bonn. Although originally closely tied to the Catholic Church, in 1870 he became one of the most prominent critics of the dogma of papal infallibility and – with J. v. Döllinger – a leading organizer of the Old Catholic movement (Old Catholic…

Schultz, Clemens Eduard Ferdinand Carl

(255 words)

Author(s): Claußen, Carsten
[German Version] (Sep 22, 1862, Hamburg – Jan 13, 1914, Hamburg), pastor and youth minister. From 1896 until his death, he worked in Hamburg-St. Pauli. His focus was on ministry among young males between 14 and 25, for whom he introduced the expression Halbstarke (“half-grown punks”). The attraction of his personality and his pedagogical talent were enormous. He quickly began mentoring 400–600 confirmands. As a result of economic and social changes, many young people were struggling with enormous ¶ social problems and were largely alienated from the church. To provide past…

Schultz, Franz Albert

(456 words)

Author(s): Fehr, James Jakob
[German Version] (Sep 25, 1692, Neustettin [Szczecinek] – May 19, 1763, Königsberg [Kaliningrad]), until the accession of Frederick the Great in 1740 an influential administrator in the Prussian state, founder and administrator of schools, especially in Prussian Lithuania, and Pietist pastor and theologian in Königsberg. Beginning in 1712, he studied with Johann Wilhelm Zierold at the Collegium Groeningianum in Stargard in Pommern (Stargard Szczeciński) and from 1715 to 1718 with A.H. Francke and …

Schulz, David

(241 words)

Author(s): Patsch, Hermann
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1779, Pürben, Lower Silesia [today Peirzwin, Poland] – Feb 17, 1854, Breslau [Wrocław]), professor of theology and consistorial counselor. Growing up without means, he could not begin his studies in Halle until 1803. After receiving his habilitation at Leipzig in 1809, he was appointed associate professor at Halle in 1809 and full professor at Frankfurt an der Oder in 1810. When the faculty moved to Breslau, one of his new colleagues was J.G. Scheibel, whose Lutheran interpretation of the Eucharist he attacked in a diatribe, Unfug an heiliger Stätte [Mischief …

Schumann, Robert

(371 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] (Jun 8, 1810, Zwickau – Jul 29, 1856, Endenich), prolific German composer and musical journalist, a major figure in musical Romanticism, with major contributions to piano, lieder, chamber music, as well as to symphonic and dramatic choral works. He was called by some a “herald of a new poetic age,” combining musical and literary sensibility in new ways in his compositional style. Schumann’s ability as an essayist and critic achieved some notoriety in his writing as a music critic between 1831 and 1844, wel…

Schumpeter, Josef Alois

(405 words)

Author(s): Gerlach, Jochen
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1883, Triesch, Moravia [today Třešť, Czech Republic] – Jan 8, 1950, Taconic, NY), Austrian-born American economist. He began teaching political economy at Czernowitz (Chernivtsi) in 1909 and taught from 1911 to 1921 in Graz. In 1916 became involved in the political debates in his Habsburg homeland. In 1918 he was called to join the Socialization Commission in Berlin. In 1919 he served for seven months as finance minister in Vienna. When ¶ the bank of which he was president was liquidated in 1924, he left Austria permanently. In 1925 he was appoi…

Schupp, Johann Balthasar

(364 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (alias: Ambrosius Mellilambius, Antenor, Ehrnhold, Philander; Mar, 1610, Giessen – Oct 26, 1661, Hamburg), Lutheran theologian, writer, and educator. After attending school in Giessen, he began university studies at Marburg in 1625, spent three years traveling through northeastern Europe, and received his M.A. at Rostock in 1631. Returning to Marburg, he attended lectures on rhetoric; in 1634 he continued his studies at Leiden and Amsterdam. In 1635 he was appointed professor of h…

Schürer, Emil Johannes

(208 words)

Author(s): Merk, Otto
[German Version] (May 2, 1844, Augsburg – Apr 30, 1910, Göttingen), received his Dr.phil. in 1868; in 1869 he received his Lic.theol. and habilitation in New Testament at Leipzig. In 1873 he was appointed associate professor at Leipzig, in 1878 full professor at Giessen, in 1890 at Kiel, and in 1895 at Göttingen. He wrote his major work, Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi (3rd and 4th eds., 1901–1909; publ. 1874 as Lehrbuch der neutestamentlichen Zeitgeschichte) as a moderate, independently liberal theologian. It was far from uncontroversial in its…

Schurman, Anna Maria van

(177 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 5, 1607, Cologne – May 14, 1678, Wieuvert, Friesland), daughter of Dutch Reformed parents, she lived in Utrecht after 1623 and was allowed to study at the university there (e.g. with G. Voetius). Her outstanding erudition and linguistic facility, coupled with artistic talent, gained her renown as the “prodigy of her time.” She corresponded with many scholars, including R. Descartes and Christian Huyghens, and defended the right of women to engage in scientific studies ( Dissertatio de ingenii muliebris ad doctrinam et meliores litteras aptitudine, 1643). Late…

Schütz, Alfred

(159 words)

Author(s): Heesch, Matthias
[German Version] (Apr 13, 1899, Vienna – May 20, 1959, NY), a lawyer, initially explored sociological and economic topics as a sideline. His principal work, Der sinnhafte Aufbau der sozialen Welt, appeared in 1932 (61993; ET: The Phenomenology of the Social World, 1967). Forced to emigrate, Schütz began teaching as professor of sociology in New York in 1943. Following in the footsteps of H. Bergson, he initially sought to understand sociological phenomena on the basis of the structure of self-awareness. Later he tried to put the sociol…

Schütz, Heinrich

(816 words)

Author(s): Werbeck, Walter
[German Version] (baptized Oct 9, 1585, Köstritz – Nov 6, 1672, Dresden), was the most important German composer of the 17th century and probably the first German composer of international rank. His family moved to Weißenfels in 1590, where Heinrich’s father Christoph rose to the position of mayor. Beginning in 1599, Schütz was trained as a choirboy at the court in Kassel. He matriculated in 1608 at the University of Marburg to study law. In 1609 he traveled to ¶ Venice to perfect his musical skills with G. Gabrieli, the organist of the basilica of San Marco; only after Gab…

Schütz, Johann Jakob

(204 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1640, Frankfurt am Main – May 21, 1690, Frankfurt), founder of separatist Lutheran Pietism. After studying at Jena and Tübingen, he began to practice law in Frankfurt am Main. Schütz ascribed his awakening to reading the sermons of J. Tauler. He inspired P.J. Spener to establish the Collegium pietatis in Frankfurt, in which he played a leading role for years, until he finally separated from the unreformable “Babel” of the Lutheran state church and championed an “impartial”…

Schütz, Paul Wilhelm Lukas

(223 words)

Author(s): Hering, Rainer
[German Version] (Jan 23, 1891, Berlin – Jul 26, 1985, Söcking, near Starnberg), received his Dr.phil. at Jena in 1914 and his Lic.theol. at Halle in 1922. From 1930 to 1937 he lectured on practical theology (changed to systematic theology in 1937) at Giessen. From 1925 to 1940 he served as pastor in Schwabendorf; from 1926 to 1928, he was director of the Dr. Lepsius-Deutsche-Orient-Mission. In 1927/1928 he was a member of the executive committee of the International Near East Relief. From 1940 to…

Schwartz, Christian Friedrich

(292 words)

Author(s): Jeyaraj, Daniel
[German Version] (Oct 8, 1726, Sonnenburg, Kostrzyn – Feb 13, Tanjore, India) worked as missionary in Tranquebar (1750–1762), Tiruccirappalli (1762–1772), and Tanjore (1772–1798). He established churches, primary schools, and introduced vaccination for smallpox. Under his leadership, special Christian settlements for persecuted Indian Christians were founded in Tanjore. His language skills (Ger., Gk, Heb., Tamil, Eng., Pers., and Marathi) enabled him to draw insights from different sources and wor…

Schwartz, Eduard

(248 words)

Author(s): Masini, Sabine
[German Version] (Aug 22, 1858, Kiel – Feb 13, 1940, Munich), classical philologist. Schwartz began lecturing at Bonn in 1884 and was appointed professor at Rostock in 1887, at Giessen in 1893, at Straßburg (Strasbourg) in 1897, at Göttingen in 1902, at Freiburg in 1909, at Straßburg once more in 1914, and at Munich in 1919. The high academic reputation of this scholar, who alongside T. Mommsen and U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff was one of the most important German antiquaries of his age, is docume…

Schwartz, Josua

(156 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 7, 1632, Waldau, Pomerania [today Wałdowo, Poland] – Jan 6, 1709, Rendsburg). ¶ After studying at Wittenberg and extensive educational travel, Schwartz was appointed lecturer and pastor in Lund in 1668; in 1680 he became German court chaplain in Copenhagen and in 1684 royal general superintendent of the duchy of Schleswig, to which the duchy of Holstein was added in 1689 (Schleswig-Holstein). Schwartz was best known as a theological controversialist defending Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). …

Schwarzenberg, Friedrich

(114 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Apr 6, 1809, Vienna – Mar 27, 1885, Vienna), of Bohemian high nobility, 1836 archbishop of Saltzburg, 1842 cardinal, 1850 archbishop of Prague, where he was involved in the struggle of the nationalities for equality in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Schwarzenberg was sympathetic to the intellectual openness of A. Günther and his ideas on church reform; he also opposed the monopolization of theology by Neoscholasticism. From the outset less disposed toward Ultramontanism than many, at Vatican I he became a leader of the minority (Papacy: III, 4). Günther Wassilowsky Bi…

Schwarz, Friedrich Heinrich Christian

(269 words)

Author(s): Schoberth, Ingrid
[German Version] (May 30, 1766, Giessen – Apr 3, 1837, Heidelberg). Schwarz, son of Johann Georg Gottlieb Schwarz (1734–1788), professor of theology at Giessen, served as pastor in several churches in Upper Hesse. In 1804 he was appointed professor of Protestant theology and education at the University of Heidelberg. He turned down several offers, including a call to succeed F.D.E. Schleiermacher in 1834. He had a voice in the formulation of the union catechism for Baden (1821–1834). His Grundriß der kirchlich-protestantischen Dogmatik (1817) may be considered the first hand…

Schwarzhaupt, Elisabeth

(195 words)

Author(s): Roser, Traugott
[German Version] (Jan 7, 1901, Frankfurt am Main – Oct 19, 1986, Frankfurt). After studying law, Schwarzhaupt worked for the legal advice center for women in Frankfurt. In 1932 she warned about the position of women in National Socialism. Beginning in 1936, she worked in the legal division of the chancery of the German Evangelical Church; in 1944 she was named executive secretary of the church’s advisory board. After 1945 she served as executive secretary of the Evangelischer Frauendienst and as a…

Schwarz, Karl

(349 words)

Author(s): Patsch, Hermann
[German Version] (Nov 19, 1812, Wiek, on the Isle of Rügen – Mar 25, 1885, Gotha), professor of theology and general superintendent. Son of Theodor Adolph Philipp Schwarz (1777–1850), a pastor and writer, Schwarz studied theology at Halle, Bonn, Berlin, and Greifswald, finishing in 1836. A member of the student league at Halle and Berlin, in 1838 he served a six-month sentence in Wittenberg for his political views, during which he was able to attend the Wittenberg seminary. In 1841 he received his…

Schwarz, Rudolf

(180 words)

Author(s): Freigang, Christian
[German Version] (May 15, Straßburg [Strasbourg] – Apr 3, 1961, Cologne), architect and city planner. Influenced by the Liturgical Movement (R. Guardini) and critical of historicist architecture, Schwarz strove to give church buildings a universally meaningful, “resacralized” form. Interiors with a clear geometrical design, control of light, and reduction of appointments (lamps, armoires) communicate the direct involvement of the building and the assembled community in the liturgical action (expansion of Burg Rothenfels am Main of the ¶ Catholic Jugendbewegung [III] Quic…

Schwebel (Schweblin), Johannes

(213 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1490, Pforzheim – May 19, 1540, Zweibrücken). After studying at Tübingen and Leipzig, Schwebel joined the Hospitalers of the Holy Spirit. In 1511 he began studying at Heidelberg, receiving his B.A. in 1513. In 1514 he was ordained to the priesthood in Straßburg (Strasbourg) and appointed preacher at the Heilig-Geist-Spital in Pforzheim. In 1519 he began to preach in the spirit of the Reformation; in 1521 he left the order and had to leave the city, taking refuge with F. v. Sic…

Schwegler, Friedrich Karl Franz Albert

(197 words)

Author(s): Voigt, Friedemann
[German Version] (Feb 10, 1819, Michelbach an der Bilz – Jan 6, 1857, Tübingen). In 1836 Schwegler began his studies at Tübingen as a student in the Stift. In 1840 he passed his final examination in theology and in 1841 received his Dr.phil. In 1843 he became a lecturer in philosophy at Tübingen; he was appointed associate professor of classical philology in 1848. Schwegler was a student of F.C. Baur; his Das nachapostolische Zeitalter in den Hauptmomenten seiner Entwicklung (2 vols., 1846) was the first complete survey of the early Christian church from the ranks of the …

Schweitzer, Albert

(886 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Andreas Urs
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1875, Kaysersberg, Upper Alsace – Sep 4, 1965, Lambarene, Gabon, Africa). I. Life The son of a liberal Protestant pastor, Schweitzer studied philosophy and theology Strasbourg, Paris, and Berlin, and studied organ with C.-M. Widor (with whom he later prepared the crit. ed. of J.S. Bach’s organ works). He received his Dr.phil. in 1899 with a dissertation on I. Kant’s philosophy of religion. In 1900 he received his Lic.theol.; in the same year, he was appointed assistant at Sankt Nikolai …

Schweizer, Alexander

(191 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Mar 14, 1808, Murten – Jul 3, 1888, Zürich). Following his examinations and ordination, Schweizer did an additional year of study in Berlin. Deeply impressed by F.D.E. Schleiermacher, Schweizer became one of his few students to carry on his work productively. He was appointed associate professor of practical theology in Zürich in 1835 and was promoted to full professor in 1840; after 1844 he also served as pastor of the Großmünster. From a consistent Reformed perspective, he advo…

Schweizer Indianer Mission (SIM)

(99 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Klaus
[German Version] The Schweizer Indianer Mission was founded in 1956; a German branch of this missionary society, established on the principles of the Evangelical Alliance, was founded in 1976. Its purpose is evangelization of ethnic groups in Latin America, especially Indians, with the goal of establishing independent indigenous churches among them. The mission’s areas of operation, where they have training centers and engage in projects of social service, are Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia. Their office is in St. Margareten; the German branch has its office in Trossingen. The SIM-Rep…


(270 words)

Author(s): Weigelt, Horst
[German Version] K. v. Schwenckfeld had followers (“Confessors of the Glory of Christ”) in the 16th century, especially in Silesia and the county of Glatz (Kłodzko), as well as in southwestern Germany. While the Schwenckfelders in Glatz were eliminated by the Counter-Reformation, those in the southwest did not die out until the mid-17th century. Those in the Silesian principalities of Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau and Schweidnitz-Jauer formed larger communities, however – initially in cities and towns, af…

Schwenckfeld, Kaspar von

(733 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (1489, Ossig [Osiek] – Dec 10, 1561, Ulm). After studying at Cologne and Frankfurt an der Oder, Schwenckfeld v. Ossig, scion of a noble Silesian family, returned to diplomatic service in the duchy of Liegnitz, a position he had to resign for health reasons in 1523. An early follower of Luther, he sought to spread the Reformation in Silesia by extensive ¶ preaching and personal influence on Duke Frederick II of Liegnitz (1480–1547). Along with his early dependence on Luther, he also incorporated strong strains of mysticism into his own theology, which h…

Schwendi, Lazarus von

(130 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1522, Mittelbiberach – May 28, 1584, Kirchhofen im Breisgau), imperial diplomat and military commander. After studying at Basel and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he led forces in the Schmalkaldic War, wars with France, and (as commander-in-chief after 1564) in Hungary. In memoranda (esp. 1570 and 1574), he urged improvements in the Empire’s district organization and warfare, with the goal of greater centralization. At the Imperial Diets between 1566 and 1576, he urged public and religious peace, along with religious toleration. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works incl…


(2,396 words)

Author(s): Enskat, Rainer
[German Version] Science is one of the most complex and successful enterprises of sociocultural evolution. Even at the stage of “emergent science” (van der Waerden) – i.e. the 5th and 4th centuries bce –, the need to distinguish science from other, similarly complex activities such as politics had led to extraordinarily ambitious philosophical reflection and formal analysis, with the goal of elucidating the structure of science – in other words, the conditions for success and the conditions of possibility of scientific activit…

Science and Ethics

(890 words)

Author(s): Engels, Eve-Marie
[German Version] In a second sense, ethics of science means ethical reflection on science and its technological applications. Here it can function both as fundamental reflection on science and technology and their growing importance for the total context of our existence and our relation to the world; it can also have individual sciences or fields of study and their realized or intended applications as its object of assessment. As such the ethics of science is an interdisciplinary application oriented e…

Science Fiction

(468 words)

Author(s): Bauschulte, Manfred
[German Version] and fantasy literature are modern literary genres whose narrative forms describe symbolic transitions from the realistic to the imaginary. In them, the Cartesian principles that make one think of extension in terms of space and time are no longer in force. In literary portrayals of fantastic realities, technology takes on a will of its own, and becomes hypertrophic; the world no longer appears as a natural environment, but is regarded as a place where people arrive only by chance,…

Science Law

(1,798 words)

Author(s): Sandberger, Georg
[German Version] Science law is defined by its object, science, and its guiding principle, constitutionally guaranteed freedom of research and teaching (Ger. Basic Law, art. 5 §3). Science law is thus determined from the outset by the basic law governing science, which establishes forth the guidelines and limits for all areas of legislation. Science (or scholarship) as an inclusive term covering both research and teaching is defined in the spirit of W. v. Humboldt as the quest for truth, as “something not yet completely found, which will ¶ never be discovered completely” – in other…

Science Policy

(1,283 words)

Author(s): Sandberger, Georg
[German Version] The object of science policy is configuration of the scientific system. The guarantee of freedom of research and teaching in German Basic Law art. 5 §3 makes it the task of science policy to establish the general framework within which science can be pursued freely. In this context, science includes all kinds of scientific or scholarly activity, without regard to its institutional setting. Science is often viewed instrumentally by politics and legislation in the context of definin…

Science, Theory of

(677 words)

Author(s): Stolzenberg, Jürgen
[German Version] The term Wissenschaftslehre (“theory of science” or perhaps better “theory of scientific knowledge”) was introduced into the technical language of philosophy by J.G. Fichte, who used it to describe his project of establishing systematic philosophy following I. Kant; its first formulation was his Grundlage der gesammten Wissenschaft of 1794/1795. Starting with a system of principles, the first principle being the statement “I am,” he aimed to derive the a priori conditions of Knowledge in a unified deductive chain encompassing both theoretical and p…

Scientology, Church of

(664 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. In a series of organizations that followed each other in hectic succession, Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (Mar 13, 1911 – Jan 24, 1986) sought to capitalize on the unexpected boom of autonomous Dianetics groups that followed upon his self-help bestseller Dianetics, published in 1950, and preceded the Church of Scientology ¶ (as it began calling itself in 1954, initially in California; later Church of Scientology International). The name reflects Hubbard’s expansion of Dianetics “therapy” to a comprehensive philosophy of salvation with the programmatic label Sciento…

Scillitan Martyrs

(166 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] The account, in the form of a legal transcript, of a group of Christians in Africa Proconsularis who suffered martyrdom in Carthage on July 17 (their feast day), 180, is probably the earliest evidence of Christianity in North Africa (III); it is also the earliest text of Christian literature in Latin (Literature, History of: V). Although we do not know where Scillium was, how many Christians were condemned, and when the earliest version of our text was written, its indigenous name…

Scofield, Cyrus Ingerson

(181 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1848, Lewanee County, MI – Jul 24, 1921, Douglaston, NY), Bible prophecy speaker and author. Scofield grew up in Tennessee, studied law in St. Louis, moved to Kansas, and entered politics. While serving a jail sentence for forgery, he underwent an evangelical conversion experience. Ordained a Congregationalist minister, Scofield’s chief fame would come as a defender of dispensational pre­millennial interpretations (Chiliasm: IV) of Bible prophecy. Befriended by such prominent figures as evangelist D.L. Moody, his reputation was sealed with ¶ his immens…

Scopes Trial

(158 words)

Author(s): Eskridge, Larry K.
[German Version] Scopes Trial, also known as “Monkey Trial.” In July 1925, John T. Scopes was tried in Dayton, Tennessee, for breaking a new state law against the teaching of biological evolution in the public schools. The trial came in the wake of an extensive fundamentalist campaign against evolution and the passage of anti-Darwinian laws (C.R. Darwin; Darwinism) in several southern states. The American Civil Liberties Union supplied Scopes’s defense team. Fundamentalists enlisted statesman and …


(2,422 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Scotland, the northern portion of the main island of Great Britain, together with the Hebrides, the Orkney Islands, and the Shetland Islands (78,764 km2), comprises the northern Highlands and the southern Lowlands. Only some 20% of its area is arable farmland. The name recalls the Celtic Scotti, who came from Ireland and formed tribal alliances with Picts, Britons (Britain), and Angles (see also Anglo-Saxons) as they expanded southwards. Scotland’s capital is Edinburgh. Since 1707 Scotland has been part…

Scotland, Theology in

(1,524 words)

Author(s): Fergusson, David
[German Version] The history of theology in Scotland can be discerned from the late Middle Ages, especially following the foundation of the University of St. Andrews in 1411. Glasgow (1451), and Aberdeen (1495) were founded prior to the Reformation, with Edinburgh (1582) emerging shortly thereafter. Earlier Scottish thinkers had come to prominence in continental Europe, most notably Richard of St. Victor (possibly not Scottish) and J. Duns Scotus. Early debates and writings in the 15th century wer…

Scottish Missions

(364 words)

Author(s): Walls, Andrew F.
[German Version] Missionary activity from Scotland began in 1742, when the Society in Scotland for Promoting Christian Knowledge, formed primarily for evangelism and education in the Scottish Highlands, supported the American David Brainerd’s work among ¶ Native Americans. Glasgow and Edinburgh Missionary Societies, on London Missionary Society lines, were formed in 1796 and sent missionaries to Jamaica, India, Africa, and the Russian Empire. In 1796 the Church of Scotland decided not to support the societies nor to begin its own …

Scottish National Covenant

(217 words)

Author(s): Ryken, Philip Graham
[German Version] On February 28, 1638, Scottish Presbyterians swore the oath of the National Covenant. It was a direct response to Archbishop W. Laud’s attempt in 1637 to introduce the Anglican Book of Common Prayer into the Church of Scotland. Nobles and commoners assembled in the Greyfriars churchyard in Edinburgh to swear allegiance to Jesus Christ as the solitary head of the church and to commit themselves to reestablishing Presbyterian church government in Scotland (Covenanters). The Scottish…

Scott, Michael

(281 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jul 30, 1907, Lowfield Heath, Sussex – Sep 14, 1983, London), Anglican priest, and campaigner against apartheid in southern Africa. Scott first went to South Africa in 1926 to recover from tuberculosis. He attended theological college in Grahamstown, but was ordained by Bishop G. Bell of Chichester in 1930. His ministry as a curate in London gave him a radical socialist political consciousness. He worked in India from 1937 to 1939. In 1940 he joined the Royal Air Force, before th…

Scougal, Henry

(94 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jun 1650, Leuchars, Scotland – Jun 13, 1678, Aberdeen, Scotland), was appointed professor of divinity at King’s College, Aberdeen, in 1673. His The Life of God in the Soul of Man, or, The Nature and Excellency of the Christian Religion (1677) stressed the necessity for “true Christianity” in contrast to ecclesiastical formalism. He had great influence on the Wesley brothers and other leading figures of the 18th-century evangelical movement. Mark A. Noll Bibliography The Works of the Rev. Henry Scougal, 1818 D. Butler, Henry Scougal and the Oxford Methodists, 1899.


(489 words)

Author(s): Herget, Ferdinand
[German Version] Scouting is a worldwide, ecumenical, independent movement for young men and women (28 million members as of 2000). It defines itself as an educational method using an integrative process to foster value orientation, social and ecological responsibility, communal activities, and international learning, making them life principles. The scouting method is based on self-education through testing in playful adventures that challenge young people holistically, enabling them to mature in…


(330 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee
[German Version] Screening tests, also called filtering tests, are diagnostically predictive tests, especially mass screening of defined population groups using the methods of molecular genetics, to identify the bearers of specific markers for or predispositions to a disease. The many potential applications of the resulting data – economic (working conditions, insurance), sociopolitical (criminal proceedings, preventive health policies), and psychological (early detection of behavioral syndromes, …

Scribe/Scribal Education in Israel

(416 words)

Author(s): Schmid, Konrad
[German Version] In ancient Israel (II), literacy was limited to a small fraction of the population. When Israel became a state, the emergent need for written documentation in the economic, religious, and political spheres was generally met by professional scribes (Heb. סוֹפֵר/ sôpēr, Gk γραμματεύς/ grammateús). From the monarchy on, scribes are mentioned frequently in the Bible (e.g. 2 Sam 8:17; 1 Kgs 4:3; Jer 32, 36, 43, 45 [“Baruch the scribe”]; Ezra 7:6, 12–26 [“Ezra, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven”]; Neh 13:12f.; Sir 28f.;…

Scribes (Soferim)

(178 words)

Author(s): Jacobs, Martin
[German Version] The office of a scribe in the sense of legal scholar is already attested in ancient Near Eastern sources. In Judaism the development of the scribes is associated with the central role the Torah came to play in the postexilic period. Like Ezra (Ezra 7:6, 11; cf. Neh 8:1ff.), many scribes were priests. Even though the Pharisees shared the ideal of Torah erudition with the scribes, some of the scribes appear to have been Sadducees. With the Pharisees, the scribes were among the group…

Scriptoris, Paul

(173 words)

Author(s): Feld, Helmut
[German Version] (c. 1460, Weil der Stadt – Oct 21, 1505, Kaysersberg, Alsace), Observant Franciscan. He studied, probably in Paris, as a student of his fellow Franciscan Stefan Brulefer (died 1496). Around 1495 he served as a lecturer and guardian at the Franciscan house of studies in Tübingen, lecturing on geometry and cosmography using an astrolabe. In 1498 Johann ¶ Ottmar published his explanation of the first book of J. Duns Scotus’s commentary on the Sentences (the first book printed in Tübingen). Accused of cosmological and Trinitarian heresies, he was suspended…

Scriptural Principle

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] The doctrine of Holy Scripture as the principium of theology was formulated classically in the dogmatic theology of Lutheran and Reformed orthodoxy (II, 2). It succeeded in highlighting Luther’s principle of sola scriptura, i.e. the conviction that the verba divina are the Christianorum prima principia (WA 7, 98.4), and the apostrophization of Holy Scripture as unica regula et norma (FC SD [BSLK 767]) and its own interpreter ( sui ipsius interpres [WA 7, 977.23]), relying on the (neo-)Aristotelian definition of scientific knowledge. Philosophy and m…

Scriptural Proof

(414 words)

Author(s): Law, David R.
[German Version] Scriptural proof is the attempt to substantiate or justify theological doctrines or church dogmas on the basis of Holy Scripture (Bible). The Early Church sought to use the Old Testament to demonstrate that Jesus was the Messiah expected by the Jews. Since it does not speak directly of Christ, the early Christians used alle-¶ gory to find Christ and his message in the OT. What may count as scriptural proof depends on three factors. I. Inspiration For those who believe in verbal or plenary inspiration (Inspiration/Theopneusty), the Bible in its totality i…

Scripture and Writing

(972 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl | Huizing, Klaas
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Writing as a sociocultural and political phenomenon is characterized by the expansion of writing skills within a culture. With the emergence of major writing systems (Paleography), the process of reducing communication to writing began, coupled with specific forms of communication. Also related were the profession of the scribe, scribal training, the development of writing materials, and libraries. From the outset, the agents of written material were scholarly circles, religious officials, priests, and scribes (soferim…

Scripture, Holy

(6 words)

[German Version] Bible

Scripture in Fundamental Theology

(498 words)

Author(s): Law, David R.
[German Version] Fundamental theology’s question regarding the place and function of Scripture is related to the relationship between Scripture and tradition and the doctrine of inspiration (Inspiration/Theopneusty). 1. Place. In the theology of the Reformers, the doctrine of sola scriptura means that the Bible (IV) is the sole source of authoritative theological dicta, while in Roman Catholic theology the tradition (VIII) of the church and the magisterium have a function in fundamental theology alongside Scripture. The Reformation principle of sola scriptura presupposes th…

Scripture, Interpretation of

(10 words)

[German Version] Biblical Studies, Exegesis, Hermeneutics

Scripture Union

(159 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1867, Josiah Spiers established informal religious services for children in Islington, London. These soon became known as the “Children’s Special Service Mission” (CSSM). During the following year, Spiers wrote “God is Love” in the sand at the beach in Llandudno, North Wales, and encouraged children to decorate the letters with shells and seaweed. He then told them stories about Jesus. This would prove to be the first of many CSSM beach services. In 1879, the CSSM was asked to …

Scriver, Christian

(282 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 2, 1629, Rendsburg – Apr 5, 1693, Quedlinburg), was a classic author of Lutheran devotional literature; like J. Arndt, he urged internalization of Christianity, but he was more focused than Arndt on Luther and his doctrine of justification; he ¶ was a brilliant stylist of immense erudition, drawing on secular sources for his writings. After studying in Rostock (with J. Lütkemann), in 1653 he was appointed archdeacon in Stendal; in 1667 he was appointed pastor of Sankt Jacobi in Magdeburg, where he served for 23 year…

Scroll of Fasting

(8 words)

[German Version] Megillat Ta’anit

Scultetus, Abraham

(238 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1566, Grünberg, Silesia [today Zielona Góra, Poland] – Oct 24, 1625, Emden), Reformed theologian. After studies in Wittenberg (1588) and Heidelberg (1590), Scultetus was appointed deacon in Schriesheim in 1594, court chaplain in Heidelberg in 1595, and pastor of the Franziskanerkirche in 1598. He was appointed to the church council in 1600. He carried out reforms of the school system in the Upper Palatinate and the county of Hanau-Münzenberg. He also carried out reforms i…

Scultetus, Johann

(121 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus
[German Version] (actually Anton Schultze, Lat. A. Praetorius; born in the county of Lippe – Dec 6, 1613, Laudenbach), Reformed theologian. He was appointed deacon in Oppenheim in 1589 and pastor in Dittelsheim c. 1595. In 1596 he went to Offenbach am Main and was appointed court chaplain to the count of Wittgenstein in Birstein. In 1597 he opposed the arrest of four women accused of witchcraft. Markus Wriedt Bibliography Works: Gründlicher Bericht von Zauberey und Zauberern, 1598 On Scultetus: AGL VI, 1787, 786 H. Steitz, Geschichte der evangelischen Kirche in Hessen und Nassau, vol. I…


(5 words)

[German Version] Beth-Shean

Seabury, Samuel

(110 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 30, 1729, Groton, CT – Feb 25, 1796, New London, CT). After ordination in the Church of England (1753), Seabury served as a missionary in several American parishes. During the American Revolution (North America: I, 2), he remained a Loyalist. Nominated the first bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church, he was consecrated in Aberdeen in 1784 by bishops of the Scottish Episcopal Church. He then became rector of St. James’ parish church, New London, bishop of Connecticut, and (1790) bishop of Rhode Island. Grayson Carter Bibliography E.E. Beardsley, Life and Corre…


(283 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] Documents and personal property are protected by seals (Seal/Stamp). Sealing is designed to protect against unauthorized appropriation or access; it protects the authenticity and authority of the person affixing the seal (sender, owner) with symbolic power. The meaning of sealing in secular legal usage provides the background for the many references to sealing in religious contexts. Tatoos and amulets, for example, place their bearers in the numinous protective sphere of a deity o…

Seal of the Confessional

(348 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Confession of specific sins in the confessional presupposes trust in the discretion of the confessor. Therefore silence must be preserved with respect to everything that takes place during confession. The seal of the confessional is an element of pastoral confidentiality in general. It includes everything communicated to a member of the clergy in his or her role as a pastor, even outside the confessional. On the other hand, professional confidentiality protects all other privilege…


(1,059 words)

Author(s): Uehlinger, Christoph | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Archaeology Seals are attested in the ancient Near East since the pre-pottery Neolithic (c. 7000 bce), initially in the form of simple round or oval disks or theriomorphic stamps. Beginning in the late 4th millennium (Susa, Uruk), we also find cylinder seals (Good Shepherd: I, fig.). The latter were in use until the end of the first millennium bce, but they are also found in Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean region. In cultures where papyrus or leather was the commonest writing material, smaller stamp seals were preferred. In Egypt c. 2300 bce, carved stamp seals ca…


(145 words)

Author(s): Klein, Wassilios
[German Version] A séance (Fr. “sitting, session”) is a spiritualist session (Spiritism) meant to establish contact with spirits or souls of the departed through a medium. Research literature occasionally connects séances with Greek and Roman oracles and regularly finds a relationship with shamanism. Since the mid-19th century, parapsychology in the United States has viewed séances as a modern alternative to the church. Participants in a séance – often around a table in a darkened room, with hands…


(386 words)

Author(s): Wißmann, Hans
[German Version] Religions have a frequent tendency to rethink steady, continuous changes and developments in space and time from a religious perspective as a series of discontinuous sequential states, marked by distinct transitions; both the alternation and the transition are times of crisis, requiring a religious response, usually in some kind of ritual. The best-known example is the religious and ritual interpretation of continuously changing human life as a sequence of distinct stages. Depending ¶ on astronomical scale, the passage of time, too, is variously organi…

Sebastian, Saint

(357 words)

Author(s): Kühne, Hartmut | Imorde, Joseph
[German Version] I. Church History According to Ambrose, Sebastian came from Milan and was martyred in Rome ( Expositio psalmi CXVIII 20.44; CSEL 62, 466). His legendary Passio (PL 17, 1021–1058) says he came from Narbonne and was an officer in the Praetorian Guard; he was denounced underDiocletian for encouraging Christian martyrs and shot by archers at the emperor’s command, so that the arrows transfixed him “like a hedgehog.” Sebastian survived his wounds but was finally clubbed to death in the hippodrome on the Palati…

Seba (Tell es-Seba)

(352 words)

Author(s): Herzog, Ze’ev
[German Version] ʿʿ(1 hectare) lies at the mouth of Nahal Hebron, where it joins Nahal Beer-Sheba. The earliest settlement dates from Iron I (strata IX–VIII, pit dwellings and storage pits, late 11th to early 10th cent. bce). Stratum VII (part of a wave of settlement in the Beer-Sheba Valley and Negeb plateau, early Iron IIA, late 10th cent.) is a ring of houses surrounding an open area. Following an interphase (stratum VI), the first fortified city was built (stratum V, with a solid wall, glacis, double gate, water system, all re…

Seckendorf, Veit Ludwig von

(335 words)

Author(s): Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] (or Seckendorff; Dec 20, 1626, Herzogenaurach, near Erlangen – Dec 18, 1692, Halle), Lutheran statesman, political philosopher, and historian. After studying at Straßburg (Strasbourg) beginning in 1642, he entered the service of Ernest the Pious of Saxe-Gotha; in 1651 he was appointed councilor and legal adviser, in 1655 privy councilor as well as member and president of the Treasury Council; ¶ in 1663 he was appointed president of the privy council. In 1664 he entered the service of Duke Maurice of Saxe-Zeitz as chancellor and president of…

Second Coming of Christ

(8 words)

[German Version] Parousia

Second Temple Judaism

(8 words)

[German Version] Early Judaism

Second Vatican Council

(7 words)

[German Version] Vatican

Secret Societies

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Olupona, Jacob | Hempelmann, Reinhard
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The function of secret societies in traditional cultures (esp. African) is closely associated with a social structure based on age groups; the phenomena in question have therefore been the subject of anthropological and sociological as well as religious study. Traditional secret societies in indigenous cultures are closely linked to the structure of their religious and sociocultural life. These are often associations of men and to some extent women that are of great benefit to the entire society – morally, ¶ judicially, socially, and religio…


(2,685 words)

Author(s): Dehn, Ulrich | Bochinger, Christoph | Thiede, Werner | Thiele, Christoph
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Both the etymology and the usage of the word sect are disputed. Derivation from Latin secare (“separate”) is possible, as is derivation from secta (from sectus, sequi, “school of thought”). English uses the word in the latter neutral sense, whereas the German equivalent Sekte is usually a pejorative exonym, corresponding to Eng. cult. M. Weber (see II below) distinguished between voluntary membership “of those who are religiously and morally qualified” in exclusive sects, in contrast to compulsory membership in the church as a Gnadenanstalt (“i…

Secular Games

(375 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
[German Version] The interpretation of Rome’s history and present role during the Augustan period found expression in the ludi saeculares. In a mixture of conceptions of time that is no longer perspicuous (including the Etruscan theory of a defined series of saecula; discussed at length by Censorinus, De die natali, 17), the beginning of a new, golden age was celebrated in the year 17 bce, conceived as the fifth recurrence of the centennials of the city of Rome. Whether earlier celebrations of the ludi Tarentini (named for their location on the Campus Martius), for example in 249 bce, had t…

Secular Institutes

(223 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] are institutes of consecrated life in which members of the faithful (clergy and laypeople, hardly distinguishable outwardly) remain in their secular (and often familial) environment while pursuing perfection in love and sanctification of the world from within. Secular institutes were recognized canonically by the pontifical constitution Provida Mater issued in 1947. They are rooted in efforts, observable since the 17th century, to live a life consecrated to God without the characteristic features of the traditional orders, as …


(476 words)

Author(s): Claussen, Johann Hinrich
[German Version] The term secularism was coined in 19th-century England as a self-designation of formal and informal groups with humanitarian and positivistic interests. In the early 20th century, however, it was transformed into a term of derogation used by various theological schools in their campaign against modernism. The 1928 meeting of the International Missionary Council in Jerusalem set the tone, using the term secularism to denounce the entire modern era as a process of “de-Christianization.” Secularism thus became synonymous with godlessness, a st…


(7,317 words)

Author(s): Bergunder, Michael | Lehmann, Hartmut | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Mathisen, James A. | de Wall, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In the 1960s, religious studies began to discuss the continuing decline of religious commitment in Europe intensively. In particular the writings of Bryan Wilson ( Religion in a Secular Society, 1966) and Peter L. Berger ( The Sacred Canopy, 1967), drawing on the ideas of M. Weber, É. Durkheim, and others led to formulation of a so-called theory of secularization, where secularization denotes a natural aspect of the process of modernization, in which the traditional religious legitimation of the world has increasingly lost…

Secular Priest

(93 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter
[German Version] ( sacerdos saecularis), the opposite of a religious priest, who is a member of a religious order, order being understood in the broad sense as a generic term for religious institutes (orders [Orders, Catholic] ¶ in the strict sense and congregations), secular institutes, and societies of apostolic life. A secular priest is therefore any priest who does not belong to one of these groups, regardless of whether he is incardinated into it (Incardination). Peter Neuner Bibliography KanR 2,131997, 60–69 H. Schwendenwein, “Die Zugehörigkeit zu einem geistlichen Hei…

Secular Supremacy

(504 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Secular supremacy ( Kirchenhoheit) refers to the supervisory authority of the state over the churches, based on the sovereignty of the state; this authority was recognized in Germany well into the 20th century. It must be distinguished from Kirchenregiment, which meant not “external” supervision but rather the legally recognized authority of the sovereign within the church itself. The notion of a special authority of the sovereign state to supervise the church had its roots in the theory of territorialism. Both extern…

Secundinus the Manichaean

(86 words)

Author(s): Richter, Siegfried G.
[German Version] Secundinus, an otherwise unknown Manichaean auditor in Rome, wrote a letter to Augustine of Hippo (probably shortly after 404) hoping to convert him to Manichaeism. The ¶ letter, one of the original Latin sources for Manichaeism, was preserved in Augustine’s works along with Augustine’s response. Siegfried G. Richter Bibliography Works: CPL 324 = 725 CSEL 25, 891–901 On Secundinus: J. van Oort, “Secundini Manichaei Epistula,” in: idem et al., eds., Augustine and Manichaeism in the Latin West, NHMS 49, 2001, 161–173 (bibl.).

Secundus the Silent Philosopher

(168 words)

Author(s): Overwien, Oliver
[German Version] (2nd cent. ce) took a vow of silence in response to his mother’s suicide, which he had caused. When Emperor Hadrian himself could not move him to speak, even under threat of torture and death, he finally answered the emperor’s 20 questions in writing; most dealt, broadly speaking, with cosmology or ethics. The only evidence we have regarding Secundus is an anonymous biography (2nd or 3rd cent.), preserved in various recensions and translated into several languages (including Syr., Armenian, Arab., and Eth.). His episodic vita, influenced by various contemporary g…

Security, Internal and External

(567 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard
[German Version] I. Security – from Latin securitas < s( in) e cura – subjectively means the sense of safety or freedom from apprehension; objectively it means a condition of safety and protection. With the emergence of the modern sovereign state, (public) security became a key concept for justifying the state’s monopoly on force (N. Machiavelli, T. Hobbes). The use of the abstract noun coincides generally with the emergence of the centralistic territorial state. Almost immediately there was a sharp termino…

Security, Social (Germany)

(510 words)

Author(s): Cansier, Dieter
[German Version] The main pillars of Germany’s social security system are the benefits guaranteeing basic subsistence for the unemployed who are not eligible for unemployment insurance, family support, and statutory social security. As basic security, needy individuals unable to work receive social assistance (formerly called social welfare); needy individuals who are able to work receive unemployment benefit II ¶ (formerly unemployment assistance). These new regulations came into effect on Jan 1, 2005. Because the goal is to ensure a minimum subsistenc…

Security, Technological

(408 words)

Author(s): Gräb-Schmidt, Elisabeth
[German Version] The notion of security or safety in the technological context must always consider two aspects simultaneously – the assurance of attaining its goals inherent in the concept of technology (I, 1) itself, and dealing with the potential for damage inherent in technological risks – avoiding, minimizing, or eliminating them. The assurance of technology implies using it on the basis of regularities, both on the level of knowing laws that govern nature and society and on the level of tech…


(225 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] In the Middle Ages, this city in the Ardennes was in the borderland between the French kingdom and the German Empire; in the late 16th century, it became an important haven for persecuted Protestants. In 1601 the sovereign Henri de la Tour elevated a school founded in 1579 to the status of a Reformed academy, with faculties of philosophy, theology, and law. After sovereignty passed to Louis XIII in 1642, its work was increasingly hampered in the 1670s; a decree of Louis XIV shut i…

Seder Olam

(300 words)

Author(s): Schlüter, Margarete
[German Version] The “Order of the World,” traditionally ascribed to the Tanna Jose ben Halafta, is usually identified as a chronographic work edited in the early Amoraic period; according to Milikowsky, Flavius Josephus was already using a Proto-Seder Olam, which was revised somewhat later and supplemented and taught by Jose. Its primary purpose – possibly in polemic against the use of non-biblical sources for biblical history in Hellenistic Jewish historiography (VI, 1) – is to determine the dat…

Sedgwick, Daniel

(166 words)

Author(s): Goodall, David S.
[German Version] (Nov 24, 1814, London, UK – Mar 10, 1879, London, UK), publisher and hymnologist. After an apprenticeship in shoemaking, Sedgwick began to deal in secondhand books in 1837. Having married in 1839 he joined a Strict Baptist church in London and became expert in theological books, especially hymnbooks. He later published reprints of little known hymn-writers of the 17th and 18th centuries. Sedgwick did not learn to write until 1840, but then began to edit and publish hymnological books, including A Comprehensive Index of... Original Authors and Translators of P…

Sedlnitzki, Leopold, Count von

(204 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1787, Geppersdorf [Linhartovy] – Mar 25, 1871, Berlin), of Moravian-Silesian nobility. After holding positions in both the bishopric and the state school system, at the instigation of the Prussian government he was elected prince bishop of Breslau in 1835 and was consecrated in 1836. His stance in the Prussian Church Dispute led to a confrontation with the diocesan clergy and with Rome: Sedlnitzki, an ecumenically minded supporter of the state church, wanted to maintain t…

Sedrach, Apocalypse of

(209 words)

Author(s): Schaller, Berndt
[German Version] ( Apoc. Sedr.), apocalyptically conventionalized didactic text, mostly on anthropological themes, named after the biblical Sedrach/Shadrach (LXX and Θ Dan 1:7; 3:12 – corruption of Esdras [Ezra]?). It records Sedrach’s rapture to the third heaven, where he argues with God about the causes of human suffering, the power of the devil, Adam’s sin, the frailness of the body, and the length of sinners’ penance. The date, source, and even the exact compass of the apocalypse are unclear. The text survives fragmen…


(830 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Oswald
[German Version] Human seducibility comes with with human freedom of action (Gen 1:28; 2:15) and linguistic competence (Gen 2:19f.); misjudging its extent in the “vertigo” of possibilities (cf. Kierkegaard, 60), it flirts with the impossible (Gen 3:6). People allow themselves to be seduced when they seek to realize the impossible possibility of being like God (Gen 3:5), so that even the presupposition of creaturely trial and error that is part of freedom of action is called into question or allows…


(85 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (5th cent.), secularly educated Christian, whose Paschale carmen (“Easter Song”) was written to edify educated Christians. It and two other hymns by him were commented on by Remigius of Auxerre. Later Sedulius wrote a prose paraphrase of the Paschale Carmen, the Paschale opus (“Easter Work”), likewise in five books. The two versions became a model for the medieval opus geminatum. Karla Pollmann Bibliography CPL 1447–1449 Ed.: J. Huemer, CSEL 10, 1885 On Sedulius: M. Mazzega, Carmen paschale. Buch III, 1996 (text; comm.).
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