Religion Past and Present

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Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Schenkel, Daniel

(200 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1813, Dörperlin, Canton Zürich – May 18, 1885, Heidelberg). After studying in Basel and Göttingen, with W.M.L. de Wette, J.K.L. Gieseler, and G.C.F. Lücke as his most influential teachers, the Reformed student received his habilitation from Basel in 1838. In 1841 he was appointed senior pastor in Schaffhausen; he held a variety of other offices. In 1846 he sharply attacked German Catholicism ( Die protestantische Geistlichkeit und die Deutsch-Katholiken, 21846). In 1850 he succeeded de Wette as professor at Basel; in 1851 he moved to Heidelb…

Scherzer, Johann Adam

(98 words)

Author(s): Hasse, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Aug 1, 1628, Cheb, Bohemia – Dec 23, 1683, Leipzig). After studying philosophy, medicine, and theology at Altdorf, Jena, and Leipzig, Scherzer was appointed professor of Hebrew in Leipzig in 1658. After receiving his Dr.theol. in 1666, he was appointed to a chair of theology in 1667. His philosophical textbooks (e.g. Vademecum sive manuale philosophicum, 1654) were commended by G.W. Leibniz. A committed advocate of Lutheran orthodoxy, he wrote numerous theological works, including compendia ( Systema theologiae, 1680) and polemics against Johannes Scheffl…

Scheuermann, Audomar

(175 words)

Author(s): Geringer, Karl-Theodor
[German Version] (Jul 3, 1908, Nürnberg – May 6, 2000, Munich), theologian and canonist. Scheuermann was ordained to the priesthood in 1932. After earning his Dr.theol., he lectured on canon law at the Franciscan College in Munich from 1936 to 1955 and from 1939 to 1942 at the seminary in Freising as well. From 1947 to 1978 he was professor of procedural and penal canon law (with responsibility for matrimonial and monastic canon law) at the Institute of Canon Law (today the Klaus-Mörsdorf-Studium)…

Scheuner, Ulrich

(220 words)

Author(s): Stolleis, Michael
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1903, Düsseldorf – Feb 25, 1981, Bonn), expert in constitutional and international law, with special interest in canon law and state-church law. After studying at Munich, Münster, and Berlin, where he received his habilitation as a student of Heinrich Triepel, from 1933 to 1940 Scheuner taught at Jena, then at Göttingen (1940) and Straßburg (Strasbourg 1941). From 1950 to 1972 he taught in Bonn, where his real genius flowered, primarily in individual studies on constituti…

Scheurl, Christoph Gottlieb Adolf von (Baron)

(113 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 7, 1811, Nuremberg – Jan 24, 1893, Nuremberg), Lutheran legal historian and canonist. He was appointed associate professor at Erlangen in 1840 and full professor in 1845. Besides Roman law and matrimonial law, his major interest was canon law (IV, 2.b), whose institutions he explained in the spirit of the historical school of law. In confessional disputes, he emphatically took the side of Lutheranism, while at the same time supporting greater independence of the church from the state. Christoph Link Bibliography C.A. Stumpf, Kirchenrecht als Bekenntnisrecht.…

Scheut Missionaries

(174 words)

Author(s): Wijsen, Frans
[German Version] ( Congregatio Immaculati Cordis Mariae, CICM), founded in 1862 by Théophile Verbist (1823–1868) in Scheut, Belgium (IV). Verbist left for China in the same year with two other priests and died there in 1868. After rapid development, both in Europe and in China, new missions were opened in the Congo (1888), the Philippines (1907), Singapore (1931), Indonesia (1937), the United States (1946), Japan (1947), Haiti (1953), Guatemala (1954), the Dominican Republic (1958), Brazil (1963), Cam…

Schian, Martin

(176 words)

Author(s): Hermelink, Jan
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1869, Liegnitz [Legnica] – Jun 11, 1944, Breslau [Wrocław]). After serving as a pastor in Silesia form 1895 to 1908, he taught at Gießen as professor of practical theology from 1908 to 1924. In 1924 he was appointed general superintendent in Breslau; in 1933 he was forced to retire. Actively engaged on a wide range of ecclesiastical, ecclesio-political, and theological fronts, Schian (with O. Baumgarten, P. Drews, et al.) was a protagonist of “modern,” empirical, subject-centered practical theology. He published standard works that were wid…

Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von

(2,726 words)

Author(s): Hinderer, Walter
[German Version] (Nov 10, 1759, Marbach/Neckar-May 9, 1805, Weimar). I. Life Schiller was born in Marbach, the second child of Johann Kaspar Schiller (1723–1796), a surgeon and ¶ officer, and Elisabeth Dorothea Kodweiß (1732–1802). He was not only one of the most gifted German dramatists but also an early example of the modern intellectual: in his “Ueber naive und sentimentalische Dichtung” (1795–1796), he provided a kind of aesthetics of modernity. Long before W. Benjamin and B. Brecht, he argued that the writer must adva…

Schimmel, Annemarie

(135 words)

Author(s): Wild, Stefan
[German Version] (Apr 7, 1922, Erfurt – Jan 26, 2003, Bonn), earned her doctorate in Islamic studies at Berlin in 1941 and received her habilitation at Marburg in 1946. From 1954 to 1959 she taught at Ankara as professor of comparative religion. In 1970 she was appointed professor of Indo-Muslim culture at Harvard and in 1992 was appointed as honorary professor at Bonn. Her publications centered on Islamic mysticism (VI; Islam: II, 5) and Islam in South-East Asia. She also translated numerous text…

Schiner, Matthäus

(210 words)

Author(s): Ries, Markus
[German Version] (1465, Mühlebach, near Ernen, Valais – Oct 1, 1522, Rome), between 1499 and 1522 prince-bishop of Sion, 1511 made cardinal priest of San Pudenziana, from 1512 till 1515 administrator apostolic of the bishopric of Novara, between 1520 and 1522 bishop of Catania. As prince-bishop in Valais, papal emissary (1507), and apostolic legate (1512), Schiner worked on the side of the pope and emperor to oppose France’s advance into Upper Italy; he brokered mercenary alliances between Roman a…

Schinkel, Karl Friedrich

(308 words)

Author(s): Seidl, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 13, 1781, Neuruppin – Oct 9, 1841, Berlin), most important 19th-century German architect. Influenced by Friedrich Gilly and trained by David Gilly after 1797, Schinkel studied from 1799 to 1800 at the Berlin Bauakadmie; after his first commissions, he undertook an extended tour of Italy and France from 1803 to 1805. A member of the Berlin Oberbaudeputation from 1810, he was appointed privy Oberbaurat in 1830 and Oberlandesbaudirektor in 1838; finally in 1838 he became a member of the Berlin ¶ Academy of Arts. One of the most universal artists of the 19th c…

Schirmer, Michael

(131 words)

Author(s): Krieg, Gustav Adolf
[German Version] (baptized Jul 18, 1606, Leipzig – May 4, 1673, Berlin), Lutheran theologian and poet. After studies in Leipzig and service as rector in Freiberg and pastor in Striegnitz, in 1636 Schirmer was appointed subrector and in 1651 deputy rector of the Greyfriars Gymnasium in Berlin. Like his friend P. Gerhardt, he was a theological opponent of the Reformed Prussian ruling house, but he was also inspired by the mysticism of J. Arndt. His poetry was influenced by M. Opitz. Popular during his lifetime ( Poeta laureatus, 1630), he was also famous as the author of religious d…

Schirnding, August Carl Friedrich, Baron of

(174 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Oct 14, 1753, Schleusingen, Thuringia – Jun 11, 1812, Doberlug-Kirchain, Lower Lusatia), forerunner of the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements). Scion of an ancient aristocratic family with roots in Franconia and Vogtland, he served as head forester in Doberlug and, in the spirit of Herrnhut, as sponsor of missionary and charitable programs, including a school ¶ and distribution of Bibles deep in Eastern Europe. Of particular importance was the missionary seminary in Berlin (1800), headed by J. Jänicke, the first German schoo…


(490 words)

Author(s): Pirson, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Concept The origin and history of the term are still obscure. In the 18th century, “splitting of the church” and schism were equivalent terms. In lexicography of the time, the term then meant the “status of the Catholic Church in which, in the wake of the election of multiple popes, the supreme authority of the Church is divided and, thus, the unity of the Church dissolved,” especially in the so-called Great Schism of 1378 to 1417 (Papacy: II). “Church schism” also served to desc…


(438 words)

Author(s): Naber, Dieter
[German Version] Definition and History. In 1896 Emil Kraepelin succeeded in sorting through a multiplicity of symptoms and histories to identify common features of the syndrome (Sickness and healing: I) he called dementia praecox because it involved dementia and often had an early onset. In 1911 Eugen Bleuler revised the concept of the disorder and substituted the name schizophrenia, which we use today, in part because neither dementia nor early onset is invariable, in part because the fundamental disorder consists in inadequate unity, in fragmentatio…

Schlatter, Adolf

(597 words)

Author(s): Neuer, Werner
[German Version] (Aug 16, 1852, St. Gall – May 19, 1938, Tübingen), pioneer in the study of New Testament Judaism, prominent advocate of a theological interpretation of the NT grounded in philology and historical criticism and of a realistic biblical “theology of facts” rooted in “perception.” The restrained, biblical Jesus piety of Schlatter’s parents and their persuasive religious commitment even apart from the church left their mark on Schlatter’s entire life, in the sense of a biblical, christocentric theology, bro…

Schlegel, Friedrich

(413 words)

Author(s): Auerochs, Bernd
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1772, Hanover – Jan 11/12, 1829, Dresden), philologist, literary theoretician, historian, and philosopher. At the heart of Jena Romanticism, Schlegel pioneered the Romantic theory of literature (Romanticism: I, 1) and (with his brother August Wilhelm) set the standards for a comparative historiography of literature and philosophy that took the total cultural context into account. After beginning as a classicist (studies of Greek poetry modeled on the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann), Schlegel caused a stir with the periodical Athenaeum that he edi…

Schleicher, Rüdiger

(181 words)

Author(s): Cymorek, Hans
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1895, Stuttgart – Apr 22/23, 1945, Berlin), received his Dr.iur. from ¶ Tübingen in 1923. He worked in the ministry of transport as an expert on air traffic law; from 1935 until it was dissolved (Aug 14, 1939), he headed the legal department in the air transport ministry, after which he served as an adviser in the civilian ministry of aviation. In 1939 he was appointed honorary professor and head of the Institute for Air Law at the University of Berlin. In 1923 he married a sister of D…

Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst

(8,015 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1768, Breslau [Wrocław] – Feb 12, 1834, Berlin). “He did not institute a school but an age.” What Schleiermacher, defining the concept of greatness, said of Frederick the Great ( KGA I/11, 489) could largely be said of Schleiermacher himself. No other theologian since the Reformation can claim comparable significance and influence. Even the most consistent alternative to his theology to date has to admit that “the man who could not only criticize Schleiermacher but be measured against him... has not yet appeared” (Barth, Protestantische Theologie, 381). More …


(1,155 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] is the northernmost Land of the Federal Republic of Germany; it had a population of 2.832 million in 2009. Its capital is Kiel. I Christianity and the church have a shorter history in Schleswig-Holstein than in other parts of Germany; there is no evidence worth mentioning prior to the mission of Ansgar c. 826, with whom the beginning of Christianity in this area are identified. The archbishopric of Hamburg was moved to Bremen in 845. Until the establishment of the archbishopric of Lund in 1103, the arch…

Schleswig-Holsteinische evangelisch-lutherische Missionsgesellschaft (Mission Society of Schleswig-Holstein)

(179 words)

Author(s): Ahrens, Theodor
[German Version] The society was founded in Breklum in 1876 on the initiative of Pastor C. Jensen, to “train and send missionaries for mission among the heathen.” It combined strains of Pietism and Lutheran confessionalism and therefore initially had difficulty developing an effective program. Its work in India (from 1881) produced the Jeypore Evangelical-Lutheran Church. Its presence in Tanganyika (today in Tanzania) from 1912 to 1916 was initially just an episode, but it returned in 1959. In 192…

Schlier, Heinrich

(209 words)

Author(s): Bendemann, Reinhard v.
[German Version] (Mar 31, 1900, Neuburg Dec 26, 1978, Bonn), received his doctorate in 1926 under R. Bultmann and his habilitation in Jena in 1928 under K.L. Schmidt, with a study of Ephesians. Having lost his venia legendi for political reasons in 1935, he taught at the seminary in Wuppertal. In 1945 he was appointed to a chair at Bonn; at his own request, he was retired in 1952 and taught in the philosophical faculty as an honorary professor, so that he could join the Roman Catholic Church in 1953, following in the footsteps of h…

Schlink, Edmund

(186 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] (Mar 6, 1903, Darmstadt – May 20, 1984, Heidelberg), one of the leading participants in the ecumenical dialogue following World ¶ War II. His academic career began during the Kirchenkampf; he was active in many functions on behalf of the Confessing Church. Initially he taught at Bethel; after the seminary was dissolved by the Gestapo in 1939, he served as a pastor. After the war, he accepted a call to Heidelberg, where the founded the first Ecumenical Institute. His multifaceted ecumenical involvement both in…

Schlümbach, Friedrich von

(117 words)

Author(s): Domsgen, Michael
[German Version] (Jun 27, 1842, Oberröhringen, Württemberg – May 21, 1901, Cleveland, OH). As a Methodist revivalist, he left his mark on the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) and the evangelistic movement in Germany. After emigrating to the United States in 1858, he took part in the American Civil War. After his conversion in 1868, he preached in Baltimore and was appointed secretary general of the YMCA in 1878. On an evangelistic tour in Germany, on Jan 22, 1883, he established the first …

Schlunk, Kurt Albert Martin

(185 words)

Author(s): Ustorf, Werner
[German Version] (Oct 6, 1874, Calicut [Kozhikode], Kerala – Feb 18, 1958, Tübingen), missiologist and functionary. Influenced theologically by G. Warneck, in 1903 Schlunk was appointed inspector and in 1913 director of the Norddeutsche Mission. In 1927 he became director of the Hanseatic mission in Hamburg; from 1928 to 1941 he was professor of missiology in Tübingen. He was a delegate at conferences organized by the International Missionary Council and chair of the most important coucils of Germ…

Schlüsselburg, Konrad

(206 words)

Author(s): Mahlmann, Theodor
[German Version] (Apr 8, 1543, Oldendorf, Schaumburg – Oct 5, 1619, Stralsund), Lutheran theologian. After education at the Karharinenschule in Brunswick, he began his studies in Wittenberg in 1565. He was expelled on Jan 11, 1568, for criticizing the Calvinistic leanings of his teachers but was readmitted on Feb 26, 1586. He received his M.A. in Jena on Jan 10, 1570, and served as a preacher in Königsberg (today Kaliningrad) from 1574 to 1579. In 1581 he was appointed pastor in Antwerp, 1583 in W…

Schmalkaldic Articles

(555 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] I. Origin and Reception The life-threatening illness of M. Luther (I) in the spring of 1536 induced the elector John Frederick to ask him for a “theological testament.” To be signed by leading theologians, it was intended to prevent the doctrinal controversies within Protestantism the elector feared would break out after Luther’s death. A few years later, the urgency of such a doctrinal affirmation was heightened when Pope Paul III called for a general council in Mantua; the elector r…

Schmalkaldic League

(531 words)

Author(s): Weinbrenner, Ralph
[German Version] Schmalkaldic League, a defensive alliance of Protestant princes and cities in Germany from 1531 to 1547, promising mutual assistance should one of its members ¶ be attacked on religious grounds. The league was established in response to the Augsburg Diet of 1530, which did not give the Protestants the recognition they had hoped for but instead ordered enforcement of the Edict of Worms. The members feared the use of force by Emperor Charles V to suppress the Reformation and a wave of trials before the Impe…

Schmaus, Michael

(219 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1897, Oberbaar – Dec 8, 1993, Gauting), Catholic theologian. After receiving his doctorate ( Die psychologische Trinitätslehre des heiligen Augustinus, 1927, 21967) and habilitation, he taught in Prague (from 1929), Münster (from 1933), and Munich (1946–1965); in Munich he founded the Grabmann Institute (named after his teacher, M. Grabmann) for the study of medieval theology and philosophy in 1954. His monumental, widely influential Katholische Dogmatik (1938–1941; several revisions, 61960–1964) set itself apart from contemporary Neoschola…

Schmelen, Johann Hinrich

(182 words)

Author(s): Trüper, Ursula
[German Version] (Jan 5, 1778, Kassebruch, near Bremen – Jul 26, 1848, Komaggas, South Africa), missionary and pioneering linguist. Sent by the London Missionary Society (LMS), in 1811 Schmelen went to Pella in South Africa to work with the Khoekhoe. In 1814 he undertook an expedition to present-day Namibia, where he married Zara, a Khoekhoe, and established the missionary station Bethanie. His letters to the LMS from his extended travels are among the earliest European accounts of Namibia. Beginn…

Schmemann, Alexander

(253 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Michael
[German Version] (Sep 13, 1921, Tallinn, Estonia – Dec 13, 1983, Crestwood, NY). From 1940 to 1945, Schmemann studied theology at the Institut Saint-Serge in Paris; he was ordained to the priesthood in 1946. Beginning in 1951, he taught at St. Vladimir’s Orthodox Theological Seminary in the United States; in 1962 he succeeded G. Florovsky as dean. Influenced by the Renouveau catholique (France, Theology in [II, 1], esp. J. Daniélou, Louis Bouyer, A. Gide, Julien Green) and his Orthodox teachers in Paris (A. Kartachev, Cyprian Kern, and esp. N. Afanasev), …

Schmidlin, Joseph

(234 words)

Author(s): Collet, Giancarlo
[German Version] (Mar 29, 1876, Klein-Landau, Elsaß (Alsace) – Jan 10, 1944, Schirmeck), pioneer of Catholic missiology. After his theological studies, he was ordained to the priesthood in Straßburg (Strasbourg) in 1899. He earned doctorates in philosophy (1901) and theology (1904) at Freiburg im Breisgau and received his habilitation and taught as a lecturer in Straßburg. Afterwards he was appointed associate professor of medieval and modern history and the history of dogma and patristics at Müns…

Schmid, Martin

(150 words)

Author(s): Glüsenkamp, Uwe
[German Version] (Sep 26, 1694, Baar, Switzerland – Mar 10, 1772, Lucerne), Jesuit missionary, musician, and architect. Schmid, a multi-talented pastor, began working among the Chiquitos in the Jesuit province of Paraguay (in modern Bolivia) in 1730. His skill as a composer and instrument maker deserves special mention, as well as his work as an architect of churches in San Rafael, San Javier, and Concepción. After the expulsion of the Jesuits, he was interned in 1769/1770 in Puerto de Santa María…

Schmidt, Georg

(184 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Sep 30, 1709, Kunewalde, Moravia (Kunín) – Aug 2, 1785, Niesky, Upper Lusatia), first Protestant missionary in South Africa. Schmidt, an educated butcher, joined the Herrnhut community (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren). While traveling as an itinerant preacher for the community, he was imprisoned in Moravia (1728–1734). In 1736 he was sent to the Cape Colony, where he worked among the Khoekhoe in the Baviaanskloof (after 1806 Genadendal). After being ordained in writing by N. v. Z…

Schmidt, Johann

(179 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 20, 1594, Bautzen – Aug 27, 1658, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). Forced by the plague to leave Halle for Speyer in 1611, in 1612 Schmidt moved permanently to Straßburg, where he studied philosophy (M.A. in 1615) and theology. In 1617 he traveled to France and England. In 1623 he received his Dr.theol. from Straßburg and was appointed professor of theology, then church president in 1629. He led the Lutheran Church of Elsaß in the Thirty Years War. His personal example and published …

Schmidt, Johann Lorenz

(391 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter
[German Version] (Nov 30, 1702, Zell am Main – Dec 19/20, 1749, Wolfenbüttel), translator of the so-called Wertheim Bible. The son of a clergyman, Schmidt studied philosophy and theology at Jena (with J.F. Buddeus) and was appointed tutor to the comital (i.e. Protestant) House of Löwenstein-Wertheim. In this position he worked on a Bible translation, the first portion of which, the Pentateuch, was published by his pupils in 1735 ( Die göttlichen Schriften vor den Zeiten des Messie Jesus...). It triggered four years of public debate throughout Germany. Primarily at the ins…

Schmidt, Karl Ludwig

(114 words)

Author(s): Merk, Otto
[German Version] (Feb 5, 1891, Frankfurt am Main – Jan 10, Basel), professor of New Testament 1921 in Giessen, 1925 in Jena, 1929 in Bonn, dismissed in 1933, 1935 in Basel. Schmidt’s major work was his Der Rahmen der Geschichte Jesu (1919, repr. 1964, 1969); he also published studies on lexicography, Jesus, and primitive Christianity (some reprinted in his Neues Testament, Judentum, Kirche, ed G. Sauter, 1981, with bibl.). Schmidt was the editor of the Theologische Blätter from 1922 to 1937 and the Theologische Zeitschrift from 1945 to 1952. Otto Merk Bibliography A. Mühling, Karl Ludwig…

Schmidt, Kurt Dietrich

(251 words)

Author(s): Oelke, Harry
[German Version] (Oct 25, 1896, Uthlede – Jul 27, 1964, Hamburg), church historian. Schmidt, a product of North German Lutheranism, received his Lic.theol. in 1923 in Göttingen under C. Mirbt; he received his habilitation in church history there in 1924. He was appointed to a full professorship at Kiel in 1929. Faithful to confessional Lutheranism and active in the Confessing Church, Schmidt was dismissed from university teaching by the National Socialist state in 1935. After serving as a lecturer…

Schmidt, Michael Ignaz

(178 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus
[German Version] (Jan 30, 1736, Arnstein, Lower Franconia – Nov 1, 1794, Vienna). Chaplain in Haßfurt am Main from 1759 and tutor in the service of the count of Rotenhan from 1761, he was called around 1767 to the court of the prince-bishop of Würzburg as an educational reformer. In 1773, after the suppression of the Jesuits, he was appointed to a chair of German imperial history established ad personam in the Würzburg faculty of theology. At the behest of the prince-bishop, he also worked to reform the study of philosophy and theology in the spirit of the Cathol…

Schmidt-Rottluff, Karl

(281 words)

Author(s): Werner, Norbert
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1884, Rottluff, near Chemnitz – Agu 10, 1976, Berlin), German painter and printmaker. In 1905, Schmidt-Rottluff, an autodidact, joined with Erich Heckel and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner in Dresden to form an artists’ group called Die Brücke (“The Bridge”). During summers on the North Sea and the Baltic from 1907 to 1911, he created his characteristic landscapes, nudes, and portraits, with their luminous, expressive colors and monumental forms. During military service from 1915 to 1918, Schmidt-Rottluff concentrated …

Schmidt, Sebastian

(129 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (bapized Jan 6, 1617, Lampertheimin Elsaß [Alsace] – Jan 9, 1696, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After studying theology in Straßburg, Wittenberg, and elsewhere, and Near Eastern languages in Basel with J. Buxtorf the Younger, he held ecclesiastical and educational appointments in Elsaß and southern Germany. In 1653 he was appointed professor of theology and preacher in Straßburg, where he also served as church president from 1666 until his death. A shy scholar, he was the most thorough…

Schmidt, Wilhelm

(400 words)

Author(s): Dupré, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 16, 1868, Hörde, Westphalia – Feb 10, 1954, Fribourg). Schmidt finished his studies with the fathers of the Societas Verbi Divini (SVD; Steyler Missionaries), which he joined after ordination to the priesthood on May 22, 1892. From 1892 to 1895, he studied in Berlin; in 1895 he was called to the order’s seminary of St. Gabriel in Mödling, near Vienna, ¶ where he pursued his interest in linguistics and ethnology. He received the Volney Prize for his studies on the Austro-Asiatic language family. In 1906 he founded the journal Anthropos; in 1931 he established the A…

Schmitt, Carl

(588 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 11, 1888, Plettenburg – Apr 7, 1985, Plettenburg), Roman Catholic jurisprudent and political theorist. Firmly rooted in the traditional Catholic milieu, Schmitt must be considered one of the most brilliant German intellectuals of the 20th century. Despite his partisan advocacy of the “German revolution” of the National Socialists – in part emotional and positional, in part opportunistic, Schmitt, a radical anti-Semite, exercised a strong influence even after his dismissal in …

Schmolck, Benjamin

(170 words)

Author(s): Hasse, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1672, Brauchitschdorf, Silesia [Chróstnik] – Feb 12, 1737, Schweidnitz [Świdnica]). In 1693 Schmolck began his theological studies in Leipzig, where he developed a reputation as an occasional poet; he was awarded the title of an imperial poet laureate ( poeta laureatus). In 1697 he became an assistant to his father, a pastor in Schweidnitz; he succeeded his father in 1702 and remained in that position until his death. He became noted as the writer of ¶ some 1,200 hymns (Church song), for a time among the most popular in the Protestant repertory. Hi…

Schmoller, Gustav (von)

(281 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] (Jun 14, 1838, Heilbronn – Jun 27, 1917, Harzburg), economist. Schmoller taught at Halle (1864–1872), Straßburg (Strasbourg; 1872–1882), and Berlin (1882–1913). He engaged in basic interdisciplinary research, analyzing relationships between economics (Economy) and the related social sciences and integrating them into economics. Methodologically he derived many of his assertions inductively from observations of the past. He emphasized that abstractly axiomatic formalizations of hum…

Schmucker, Samuel Simon

(214 words)

Author(s): Floding, Matthew
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1799, Hagerstown, MD – Jul 26, 1873, Gettysburg, PA). After studying at the University of Pennsylvania, Schmucker completed his theological education at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1820; he was ordained in 1821 and served as a pastor in Virginia. In 1826 he was elected the first president of the Lutheran Theological Seminary in Gettysburg, where he served as professor of theology until 1864. The academy he founded in 1827 was granted a constitution as Pennsylvania C…

Schnabel, Tilemann

(213 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] (c. 1475 – Sep 27, 1559, Alsfeld). An Augustinian Hermit in Alsfeld, Schnabel attended the order’s house of studies in Erfurt, then matriculated at Wittenberg on Jun 18, 1512, receiving his Bacc.biblicus on Oct 14, 1512, his Bacc.formatus on Sep 16, 1513, and his Dr.theol. on Oct 6, 1514. He preached the Protestant cause in Alsfeld in the 1520 and probably in the fall of 1523 as an exile in Wittenberg. From 1523 to 1526 he served as a pastor in Leisnig and from 1526 to 1557 as a p…

Schnackenburg, Rudolf

(208 words)

Author(s): Dautzenberg, Gerhard
[German Version] (Jan 5, 1914, Kattowitz – Aug 28, 2002, Erlabrunn, near Würzburg), Catholic theologian. He received his Dr.theol. at Breslau (Wrocław) and was ordained to the priesthood; he received his habilitation in Munich in 1947. He held professorships in Dillingen (1951), Bamberg (1955), and Würzburg (1957–1982). Schnackenburg had enormous influence on the development of Catholic New Testament exegesis in the decades after World War II, through his revival of the Biblische Zeitschrift in 1957 (with Vinzenz Hamp), his publications (on the church, the kingdom o…

Schneckenburger, Matthias

(281 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1804, Thalheim, near Tuttlingen – Jun 3, 1848, Bern), elder brother of the writer Max Schneckenburger, author of the 1840 “Die Wacht am Rhein” (“The Watch on the Rhine”), the most important German patriotic anthem during the 1870/1871 Franco-Prussian War. Matthias rapidly completed all the stages of theological education in Württemberg. In Berlin in 1826 he attended the lectures of F.D.E. Schleiermacher, P.K. Marheineke, J.W.A. Neander, and G.W.F. Hegel. As a lecturer at the Tübingen Stift at the age of 23, he belonged to the Geniepromotion class that inclu…

Schneemelcher, Wilhelm

(296 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (Aug 21, 1914, Berlin – Aug 6, 2003, Königswinter), Protestant theologian (church historian, with a focus on patristics; student of H. Lietzmann), scholarly organizer, and ecumenist. He earned his Lic.theol. in 1940 in Berlin and received his habilitation in 1949 in Göttingen (documents on the history of the Arian conflict, Athanasian studies). In 1953 he was appointed professor of New Testament and church history (1954) at Bonn, a position he held until his retirement in 1979. Schneemelcher was known internationally for his two-volume Neutestamentliche Apokryph…


(5 words)

[German Version] Shneur/Schneerson

Schneider, Eulogius (Johann Georg)

(262 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1756, Wipfeld am Main – Apr 1, 1794, Paris). Baptized ¶ Johann Georg, Schneider took the name Eulogius when he became a professed Franciscan in 1778. On the feast of St. Catherine in 1785, he delivered a sermon in Augsburg that breathed an anti-Jesuit, irenic spirit. In 1786 he escaped the resulting hostility through an appointment at the court of the Catholic duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg. All too candid criticism lost him the duke’s favor, but in 1789 he was appointed professor of …

Schneider, Johannes

(180 words)

Author(s): Claußen, Carsten
[German Version] (Jul 7, 1857, Höxter an der Weser – Aug 12, 1930, Höxter), Protestant theologian and pastor. Schneider served as a pastor in Warburg (1882–1883), Lichtenau (1883–1891), and Elberfeld (1891–1917). In 1894 he succeeded his father as editor of the Kirchliches Jahrbuch, founded in 1873. In 1918 he was employed by the office of church statistics of the Protestant High Consistory in Berlin; in 1922 he was made an honorary professor of church studies at the University of Berlin. In 1923 he was appointed head of the office of c…

Schneider, Paul

(179 words)

Author(s): Pautler, Stefan
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1897, Pferdsfeld im Hunsrück – Jul 18, 1939, Buchenwald concentration camp). From 1915 to 1918, Schneider fought as a volunteer in World War I. From 1919 to 1922, he studied theology at Giessen, Marburg, and Tübingen; in 1926 he was appointed pastor in Hochelheim. In 1934, at the instigation of the National Socialists, he was transferred to a pastorate in Dieckenschied (Hunsrück). After initial approval of the Nazi takeover, he publicly criticized the church policies of t…

Schneider, Reinhold

(563 words)

Author(s): Hildmann, Philipp W.
[German Version] (May 13, 1903, Baden-Baden – Apr 6, 1958, Freiburg im Breisgau), writer and philosopher of history, and a central figure in the Christian resistance to National Socialism. Already in his youth, he showed signs of an innate melancholy, a feeling of homelessness in the world, and a personal sense of impending death that were to characterize his writing. After bad career choices, in 1926 he was inspired by reading the existential philosopher Miguel de Unamuno (1864–1936), whose conce…

Schneller, Johann Ludwig

(175 words)

Author(s): Löffler, Roland
[German Version] (Jan 15, 1820, Erpfingen – Oct 18, 1896, Jerusalem), missionary and educator associated with the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements) in southern Germany. After working with orphans and released convicts in his home area, in 1847 he was appointed housefather of the St. Chrischona missionary institution near Basel. In 1854 C.F. Spittler sent him at the head of a delegation to Jerusalem, intended to pave the way for an Abyssinian mission. The plan miscarried but Schneller re…

Schnepf (Schnepff), Erhard

(320 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (Dec 15, 1495, Heilbronn – Nov 1, 1558, Jena), began his studies in 1509 in Erfurt, then went to Heidelberg in 1511; after receiving his M.A. in 1513, he studied theology (Bacc.theol. 1518) and then law. It is likely that he was a participant in Luther’s Heidelberg disputation in 1518. In 1520 he was appointed to a position in Weinsberg but was expelled in 1522 for his Lutheran leanings. He was given refuge by Dietrich v. Gemmingen at Castle Guttenberg on the Neckar and in 1524 wa…

Schniewind, Julius

(208 words)

Author(s): Merk, Otto
[German Version] (May 28, 1883, Elberfeld – Sep 7, 1948, Halle), New Testament scholar. Schniewind received his Lic.theol. from Halle in 1910; in 1914 he lectured there and in 1921 was appointed associate professor. In 1927 he was appointed full professor at Greifswald and in 1929 at Königsberg (Kaliningrad). For disciplinary reasons he was transferred in 1935 to Kiel and in 1936 to Halle. In 1937 he was put on administrative leave for political reasons, but he was permitted to teach once more in 1938. In 1945 he was restored to his full professorship and also appointed provost of ¶ Halle-Mers…

Schnitzler, Arthur

(178 words)

Author(s): Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel
[German Version] (May 15, 1862, Vienna – Oct 21, 1931, Vienna), came from a cultured middle-class Jewish family. After studying medicine, he found his first literary inspiration in the Young Vienna group, whose spokesman was Hermann Bahr, but he dissociated himself from the group’s Impressionistic literature and decadence. In Anatol (1893; ET: Anatol, 1982), his first work, he created the stock character of the “frivolous melancholic,” which was taken as the author’s self-portrait. The protagonist’s inability to make decisions and communicate, wh…

Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Julius

(157 words)

Author(s): Thimann, Michael
[German Version] (Mar 26, 1794, Leipzig – May 24, 1872, Dresden), painter and illustrator associated with German Romanticism. From 1811 to 1815, he studied at the Vienna Academy. In 1818 he joined the circle of the Nazarenes (IV) in Rome, though he did not convert to Catholicism. From 1822 to 1827, he created frescoes illustrating Ariosto in the Casino Massimo. Ludwig I called him to the Munich Academy. Between 1831 and 1867, he created a cycle illustrating the Nibelungenlied in the Bavarian palace. Beginning in 1835, he also painted scenes from the lives of the German em…

Schöberlein, Ludwig Friedrich

(149 words)

Author(s): Wüstenberg, Ulrich
[German Version] (Sep 6, 1819, Kolmberg, near Ansbach – Jul 8, 1881, Göttingen), theologian and liturgiologist. In 1841 he began teaching as a lecturer in Erlangen; he was appointed associate professor in Heidelberg in 1850. He became a full professor in Göttingen in 1855. He was appointed consistorial counselor in 1862; in 1878 he was made abbot of Bursfelde. He was a member of the hymnal commission of the regional church of Hannover and a co-founder of Siona, a monthly journal devoted to liturgy and church music. His collection of sources for church music comprehensive…

Schoen, Paul

(135 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (May 16, 1867, Königsberg [Kaliningrad] – Sep 21, 1941, Göttingen), Protestant jurisprudent. He was appointed associate professor at Jena in 1896 and a full professor in 1900; in the same year he was appointed to a full professorship in Göttingen. Besides numerous works on public law, he wrote a major two-volume Das evangelische Kirchenrecht in Preußen (1903–1910, repr. 1967), discussing church law in Prussia without reference to its theological dimension or ecclesiastical politics, developing instead its parallelism with state and co…

Schoeps, Hans-Joachim

(169 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Christhard
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1909, Berlin – Jul 8, 1980, Erlangen), Jewish philosopher of religion and historian. He received his doctorate in Jewish philosophy of religion from Leipzig in 1932 under J. Wach. In 1933 Schoeps supported a synthesis of German nationalism and Jewish religion by founding the Deutsche Vortruppe, a group in the spirit of the German youth movement opposed to “assimilationists and Zionists.” Late in 1938 he emigrated to Sweden, but he returned to Germany in 1946 and taught fo…

Schöffel, Simon

(183 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten
[German Version] (Oct 22, 1880, Nuremberg – May 28, 1959, Hamburg), Dr.phil. He was appointed pastor in Schweinfurt in 1909 and dean in 1920. In 1921 he was appointed senior pastor in Hamburg; in May of 1933 he became regional bishop of Hamburg. In the same year, he became a member of the Interim Leadership and then Lutheran theologian in the Geistliches Ministerium of the German Evangelical Church. A firm believer in Lutheran ideas of order and ethnic ideology, Schöffel fully supported the totali…


(2,856 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Terminology and Assessment Ever since the emergence of medieval studies in the 19th century, the noun Scholasticism has been used as a collective term for a particular kind of scholarly method, especially in medieval philosophy (II) and theology. The adjective scholastic, on which it is based, has a history going back to Aristotle ( Politica, Ethica Nicomachea). The focus of Greek σχολαστικός and Latin scholasticus on the realm of academic instruction (“related to schools,” “educated,” etc.), central to the modern use of scholasticism, had already taken place…

Scholem, Gershom Gerhard

(344 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] (orig. Gerhard; Dec 5, 1897, Berlin – Feb 20, 1982, Jerusalem), the most important scholar in Jewish studies in the 20th century and the founder of the scholarly study of the Kabbalah. He was born to an assimilated Jewish family. In his youth he devoted himself to Zionism, associated with M. Buber and began to learn Hebrew, taking lessons in Talmud. One of his early friends was W. Benjamin; their friendship lasted till Benjamin’s death in 1940. Scholem decided to write his Ph.D. on the Book of Sefer ha- Bahir, which he identified as the earliest work of the Kabbalah …


(164 words)

Author(s): Suchla, Beate Regina
[German Version] Scholium, from Greek σχόλιον/ schólion, an explanatory comment on a section of text needing elucidation. As a rule, it consists of a lemma, i.e. a brief reference to the section, and the interpretament, i.e. the explanation itself. Scholia are usually part of a commentary, i.e. a continuous scholarly explanation of a text, which consists, as it were, of multiple scholia strung together. In the Alexandrinian period, text and commentary were published separately; only with the spread of…

Scholl, Hans and Sophie

(309 words)

Author(s): Pautler, Stefan
[German Version] (Hans: Sep 22, 1918, Ingersheim; Sophie: May 9, 1921, Forchtenberg – Feb 22, 1932, executed at Munich-Stadelheim prison), leading figures in the White Rose resistance movement (Resistance to National Socialism). After initial enthusiasm for National Socialism, they became active members of the Bündische Jugend, leading to Hans’s first arrest in 1937. Brought up in a middle-class liberal Protestant family, they sought out contacts with the reforming Catholics Karl Muth and T. Haecker; coupled with their exposure to the Renouveau catholique (France, Theology i…

Scholten, Johannes Henricus

(153 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 17, 1811, Vleuten, near Utrecht – Apr 10, 1885, Leiden), preacher in Meerkerk in 1840, professor in Franeker in 1840, associate professor of New Testament and dogmatics in Leiden in 1843, promoted to full professor in 1845; from 1877 professor of the philosophy of religion. Influenced by the Tübingen (I) school, Scholten wrote topical studies on the history of early Christian literature, putting historical-critical insights to use for apologetic purposes. More important for t…

Scholz, Heinrich

(251 words)

Author(s): Molendijk, Arie L.
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1884, Berlin – Dec 30, 1956, Münster). From 1903 to 1907, Scholz studied theology and philosophy in Berlin under A. v. Harnack and Alois Riehl (1844–1924). From 1917 to 1919 he was professor of philosophy of religion and systematic theology at Breslau (Wrocław), from 1919 to 1928 professor of philosophy in Kiel and after 1928 in Münster. In 1943 his chair of philosophy was changed to a chair of mathematical logic. He claimed that his discovery of B. Russell’s and A.N. Whitehead’s Principia Mathematica (1910–1913) changed his life decisively. The second ed…

Schönberg, Arnold

(380 words)

Author(s): Jacob, Andreas
[German Version] (Sep 13, 1874, Vienna – Jul 13, 1951, Los Angeles). As a composer, theorist, and teacher, Schönberg had an almost revolutionary impact on musical composition and theory in the 20th century. Around 1909 he broke with the tonality that for centuries had provided a structural frame of reference for music. In the 1920s, he developed instead a system of “composition using 12 tones related only to each other” (dodecaphony), a different form of musical organization generated from tone se…

Schönstatt Movement

(247 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] This movement of spiritual renewal emerged in 1914 from the educational work of Father J. Kentenich at the seminary of the Pallottines in Schönstatt (today a district in Vallendar am Rhein); it became independent in 1964. It seeks to provide support for a humane Christian life in a pluralistic society, through a spirituality and teaching ministry emphasizing the biblical notion of a covenant (V), pursuit of “everyday holiness,” and an apostolic mindset. Its goal is ultimately to t…


(6 words)

[German Version] Education System/Schools

School and Church

(1,047 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] The relationship between school and church reflects the relationship between church and state and current views in education or educational theory (Education, Theory of) and religion or theology – it is therefore subject to change and is subject to different regulations in different countries. In antiquity there were no schools for Christian children. The earliest emerged in monasteries, which – as the Prologus Regulae Benedicti (45) states – could be thought of as dominici scola servitii. Over time – initiated by the ¶ offering of children as oblates (I) – mona…

School Bible

(801 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] A school Bible is a Bible (V, 2) edition prepared for use in schools, replacing the complete Bible in the classroom. Any school Bible must include a variety of biblical content, remembering that it is designed for students studying in school. There are a large number of school Bibles under such titles (in German) as Bible Selections, Student Bible, Bible Stories, or Readings from the Bible; the variety is such that a selective definition is difficult. The various school Bibles run the gamut from maximum fidelity to the complete Bible to free re…

School Bible Club

(181 words)

Author(s): Thierfelder, Jörg
[German Version] The Bibelkränzchen in Elberfeld, established in 1883 (Bible study: II), was the first German school Bible club; it inspired similar student clubs in secondary schools throughout Germany. Clubs for women were a parallel development. Their focus was on Pietistic Bible study, along with games, singing, and hiking. After World War I, the Jugendbewegung led to conflicts within the clubs. In 1928 the Bund deutscher Bibelkreise, an umbrella organization, was formed. In 1933/1934, its leadership resisted being absorbed into the Hitler Yout…

School Legislation

(1,060 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] In the 18th century, the school system in Germany, previously treated as the domain of the church, gradually came under state control. The end of this process was marked by article 144 of the Weimar Constitution: the first clause of the first sentence placed all schooling under state supervision. This statement is repeated in Basic Law art. 7 §1. Originally this language barred all school supervision except that of the state, specifically precluding supervision by the church. Toda…

School Life

(449 words)

Author(s): Wittenbruch, Wilhelm
[German Version] In everyday language, school life is a somewhat vague catch-all term for the social and academic life of a school. Recent years have seen a consensus in educational science that views school life as a field in its own right, which can be shaped intentionally by a reasoned concept of education. This approach rejects the narrow definition of school life that deals only with ¶ isolated elements (e.g. festivals) and sees school life as a separate area, losing the unity of instruction and education that is central to schools; it also rejects an extr…

School of World Mission

(157 words)

Author(s): Shenk, Wilbert R.
[German Version] (SWM), renamed in 2003 as School of Intercultural Studies. The SWM, Pasadena, California, was founded in 1965 with Donald A. McGavran as the first dean. At a time when mission studies were being discontinued by North American theological faculties, McGavran developed a program of ¶ research and writing about Church Growth (Church Growth movement) using social science methods. Initially, SWM offered only a master’s degree geared to the needs of mid-career missionaries (Missionary training). By the 1970s, SWM was attracting a …

School Prayers

(630 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Link, Christoph
[German Version] I. Practical Theology The term school prayers refers primarily to prayers at the beginning or end of the school day or during breaks, along with prayers during religious education classes. In German public schools today – unlike the period of the denominational primary schools (into the 1960s) and also unlike in England, for example – such prayers are a marginal phenomenon. Scattered attempts to reintroduced school prayers like that of the Bavarian government in 1987 (Kaufmann, 32–38) e…

School Program

(379 words)

Author(s): Böhm, Günter
[German Version] Evolution as a process of continuous change in the instruction and organization of a school is inherent the self-conception of modern schools. In this process, schools respond to social change, incorporating advances in pedagogical theory and getting the best out of individual teachers as they reflect on their own professional experience. School programs characterize the latest phase of this process. They also incorporate significant findings of earlier periods of school development. Today’s concept of a program was ¶ anticipated in the 19th century in the …

School Reform

(761 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] The term school reform, or more broadly educational reform, is often limited to particular epochs, like the ambitious reforms of the 1960s. In fact the history of school reform goes back as far as the history of schools and the critique of schools: schools can and should get constantly better and are therefore permanently subject to reform. In school reform, currently age’s dominant notions of culture and education (Education/Formation) and of the life of individuals and society come to t…

School Sisters

(488 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] in the broad sense are members of the many orders and congregations of women whose primary apostolate is in the field of education and teaching; in the narrower sense, the term denotes sisters of the communities whose names reflect their teaching ministry. I. Sisters of the Christian Schools of Mercy (Soeurs des Écoles chrétiennes de la Misericorde, Sisters of St. Mary Magdalene Postel, SMMP), founded in Cherbourg (Normandy) in 1807 by Julie Postel (St.; 1756–1846), a teacher, to educate the rural population. The first Ge…

Schools of Theology

(11 words)

[German Version] Faculties and Schools of Theology

School Worship/Devotions

(615 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] The terms school worship and school devotions (in Catholic contexts also school mass) denote extracurricular school activities of a liturgical or religious nature in school or municipal spaces, directed toward everyone connected with the school (not just students but teachers, other staff, and parents or relatives) or specific groups of students (e.g. a particular grade). A cooperating religious organization or a religion teacher at the school rather than the school itself is responsible for …

Schopenhauer, Arthur

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore
[German Version] (Feb 22, 1788, Danzig [Gdańsk] – Sep 21, 1860, Frankfurt am Main). Schopenhauer’s philosophy is a metaphysics of the will grounded in pessimism (Optimism and pessimism: II). Historically and systematically, it was a transitional philosophy: its understanding of the totality of our lived reality on the basis of the monistic principle of the will kept it linked to the great systematic designs of Idealism (System: I). At the same time, as a forerunner of psychoanalysis and vitalism (…

Schop, Johann

(91 words)

Author(s): Herbst, Wolfgang
[German Version] (the Elder; c. 1590 – 1667, Hamburg), composer and renowned violinist; member of court orchestras in Wolfenbüttel and Copenhagen. From 1621 on he served as director of the Ratsmusik, violinist, and organist in Hamburg. He composed many hymn tunes, some to texts by J. Rist. Wolfgang Herbst Bibliography R. Eitner, ADB 32, 1891, 329–331 K. Stephenson, Johann Schop, 1925 (Ger.) S. Fornaçon, “Johann Schop,” Der Kirchenmusiker 6, 1955, 101–106 K. Stephenson, MGG XII, 1965, 40–43 S. Fillies-Reuter, BBKL IX, 1995, 763 C. Albrecht, HdbEG II, 22001, 281.

Schoppe, Casper

(167 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jun 26, 1576, Pappenberg – Oct 18 1649, Padua), polymath, late Humanist, phi­lologist, controversial theologian, jurisprudent, and politician. The son of a Protestant pastor, he converted to Catholicism in Prague in 1598. In Rome from 1598 to 1607, he cultivated ties with the pope and the Curia. He was sent on several diplomatic missions in Germany and Italy on behalf of the Habsburgs, the Wittelsbachs, and the Curia. He wrote polemics against various ¶ schools of Protestantism. Around 1630, after the emperor’s victory in the Thirty Years War, Schoppe …

Schortinghuis, Willem

(178 words)

Author(s): Jakubowski-Tiessen, Manfred
[German Version] (Feb 23, 1700, Winschoten – Nov 20, 1750, Midwolda). After studying in Groningen, in 1723 Schortinghuis was appointed pastor in Weener (East Frisia), where he became an adherent of the Reformed Pietism dominant there. After 1734 he served as pastor in the village of Midwolda. He expressed his Pietist views in 1740 in his Het innige Christendom (“Internal Christianity”), which discusses the contrast between literalist belief and grasping the truth through inner experience. This work, in which Schortinghuis refers to J. van Lodenstein an…

Schott, Anselm

(171 words)

Author(s): Häußling, Angelus A.
[German Version] (Sep 5, 1843, Staufeneck, near Saalach, Württemberg – Apr 23, 1896, Marria Laach), Benedictine from the archabbey of Beuron. His name is associated with a widely used prayer book, reprinted many times since its initial publication in 1884, which presented the most important Catholic liturgical book, the Missal, in German, “adapted for lay use,” to be read alongside the Latin liturgy. Thanks to its publisher, the title Schott received trademark protection in 1928, creating a kind of monopoly as a prayer book for the mass. It aroused a greater unde…

Schott, Heinrich August

(145 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] (May 12, 1780, Leipzig – Dec 29, 1835, Jena). After studying in Leipzig, Schott was appointed associate professor there in 1808; he served as a full professor in Wittenberg from 1809 to 1812 and in Jena after 1812. An advocate of moderate supernaturalism, he rejected I. Kant’s criticism of rhetoric, arguing that just as prose is addressed to cognition and poetry to feeling, so rhetoric is addressed to the will. Homiletics, a special kind of rhetoric, is distinguished from it by it…

Schrautenbach, Ludwig Carl, Baron of

(187 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Dietrich
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1724, Darmstadt – Aug 12, 1783, Stade, near Lindheim), son of Carl Ernst v. Schrautenbach, governing councilor of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Rebecca v. Oeynhausen, hereditary lady of Lindheim. Beginning in 1737, he was educated in Jena with C.R. v. Zinzendorf and Carl v. Schachmann and then in the seminary of the Moravians. He was a colleague of N. v. Zinzendorf; in 1748 he was sent to England, deputized to negotiate withParliament for recognition of the Bohemian and Moravian B…

Schreiner, Helmuth Moritz

(273 words)

Author(s): Bloth, Peter C.
[German Version] (Mar 2, 1893, Dillenburg – Apr 28, 1962, Münster). In 1921, Schreiner was appointed head of Hamburg City Mission and in 1926 head of the Johannesstift in Berlin-Spandau, engaging in charitable and socio-pedagogical work in the spirit of J.H. Wichern. There he also joined with Carl Gunther Schweitzer to head the Apologetic Center of the Inland Mission, which was forced to close in 1937 for attacking A. Rosenberg’s Mythos des 20. Jahrhunderts ¶ (ET: The Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1982; W. Künneth; Schreiner, “Die Überwindung... / Das Ende des Mythus,” ZW, 12, 1935, 19…

Schrempf, Christoph

(492 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] (Apr 28, 1860, Besigheim, Württemberg – Feb 13, 1944, Stuttgart). Brought up in Pietist tradition as a student, Schrempf was plunged into a crisis of faith by the biblical criticism of K.H. v. Weizsäcker. As a pastor in Leuzendorf, his scruples regarding the official creed grew so strong that in 1891, citing Matt 6:33, he replaced the Apostles’ Creed at baptism with a simple baptismal question of his own composition. When he called attention to this change during an official visit…

Schrenk, Elias

(177 words)

Author(s): Claußen, Carsten
[German Version] (Sep 19, 1831, Hausen, Württemberg – Oct 21, 1913, Bethel), missionary and evangelist. After working as a merchant, in 1854 Schrenk entered the missionary house at Basel (Basel Mission). In 1859 he was sent to the mission field of the Gold Coast in West Africa. Health issues forced him to leave Africa in 1872. In 1874/1875 he was inspired by D.L. Moody and I.D. Sankey to begin an evangelistic ministry. As an itinerant evangelist for the Basel Mission, he worked in the Hessian Comm…

Schröckh, Johann Matthias

(162 words)

Author(s): Schröter, Marianne
[German Version] (Jul 26, 1733, Vienna – Aug 1, 1808, Wittenberg), studied theology ain Göttingen and Leipzig with J.L. v. Mosheim, J.D. Michaelis, and J.A. Ernesti. In 1762 he was appointed to a chair on the philosophy faculty at Leipzig. In 1767 he was appointed professor of poetry at Wittenberg; from 1775 until his death, he occupied the chair of history there. Schröckh lectured and wrote about universal history, church history, the history of scholarship, literary history, political history, i…

Schröder, Joachim

(120 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 9, 1613, Freudenberg, near Ribnitz – Jun 1, 1677, Rostock), preacher from 1637 at the hospice church of St. George in Rostock, retired for health reasons in 1668. With his colleagues J. Quistorp the Younger, H. Müller, and T. Großgebauer, Schröder supported the program of church reform espoused by Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a) in Rostock. He was not their equal as a theologian, but wrote prolifically demanding strict church discipline and personal sanctification. He attacked p…

Schröder, Johann Heinrich

(96 words)

Author(s): Lange, Barbara
[German Version] (Oct 4, 1666, Hallerspringe – Jun 30, 1699, Meseberg, near Magdeburg), Protestant hymnodist. He studied in Leipzig, where he had contact with A.H. Francke, and was a pastor in Meseberg from 1696. According to J.A. Freylinghausen (1704), author of five hymns included in Halle hymnals after 1695. Although criticized in 1716 as “chiliastic,” his “Jesu, hilf siegen” became very popular in the 18th century. The Evangelisches Gesangbuch includes it (373) as well as his “Eins ist not” (386). Barbara Lange Bibliography ADB 32, 1891, 518f. G.A. Krieg, HdbEG II, 1999, 282.

Schröder, Rudolf Alexander

(421 words)

Author(s): Krauss, Meinold
[German Version] Jan 26, 1878, Bremen – Aug 22, 1962, Bad Wiessee), a talented autodidact from a patrician merchant family in Bremen, went to Munich ¶ in 1897 to study architecture and music. At the age of 21, he joined with Alfred Walter Heymel and Otto Julius Bierbaum to found the periodical Die Insel, which later gave birth to the Insel-Verlag. Until 1914 he lived as a writer in Paris, Berlin, and Bremen; along with H. v. Hofmannsthal and Rudolf Borchardt, he edited the Bremer Presse. As an architect and interior designer, he received international awards. He documented his c…

Schrödinger, Erwin

(168 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Burkhard
[German Version] (Aug 12, 1887, Vienna – Jan 4, 1961, Vienna), theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate (1933), professor in Stuttgart, Breslau (Wrocław), Berlin, Oxford, Graz, Dublin, and Vienna. Building on pioneer work on the foundations of quantum mechanics by M. Planck and A. Einstein, in 1925/1926 Schrödinger developed wave mechanics, of similar ¶ fundamental importance for the entire microscopic world (Nuclear physics) as classical mechanics (I. Newton) is for the visible world. The wave equation, named after Schrödinger, is a mathematical fo…
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