Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Hecataeus of Abdera

(198 words)

Author(s): Veltri, Giuseppe
[German Version] The philosopher and historiographer Hecataeus was a contemporary of Alexander the Great and of Ptolemy I (Jos. Apion. I 183; Ptolemaic Dynasty). In his famous book, Aegyptiaca, Hecataeus deals with part of Jewish history, as well as Jewish customs, religion and military matters (fragments in Diodoros Siculus XL 3). Josephus cites Hecataeus's essay On the Jews ( Apion. I 183ff., cf. I 214), although its authenticity is doubted. According to Josephus, in this essay, Hecataeus deals with the relationship of the Jews to Ptolemy I, their fid…


(688 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph | Friedrich, Norbert
[German Version] 1. Johannes (Nov 24, 1889, Kammerstein, Middle Franconia – Dec 15, 1965, Tübingen), Protestant teacher of constitutional and church law. After service in the church in Munich and later in Berlin, he became a private lecturer in 1923, and supernumerary professor in Berlin in 1926; in 1928, he was a full professor of public law and church law in Bonn, and in Munich from 1934 (with an interruption), until his retirement in 1957. After his initial labors in the history of church law as …

Hecker, Isaac Thomas

(301 words)

Author(s): Carey, Patrick W.
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1819, New York – Dec 22, 1888, New York) was a Catholic priest and the founder of the Congregation of Missionary Priests of St. Paul the Apostle (CSP). Hecker grew up as a Methodist (Methodists), participated as a young man in 1843 in the communal life of the American Transcendentalists (Transcendentalism: II) on Brook Farm (MA), converted to Catholicism in 1844, and was ordained as a Redemptorist to the priesthood. From 1851 to 1857 he organized congregational evangelism…

Hedderich, Franz Anton

(178 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (religious name Philipp; Nov 7, 1744, Budenheim, near Mainz – Aug 20, 1808, Düsseldorf), theologian and canonist. Hedderich became a Minorite in 1759. From 1774 to 1794 he was professor of canon law in Bonn; from 1803 on he taught at the Rechtsakademie in Düsseldorf. While he was studying law at Trier, he was decisively influenced by the personality and work of J.N. v. Hontheim. As a canonist, he was one of the most influential theoreticians of Febronianism. Hedderich emphasized t…

Hedenius, Ingemar

(172 words)

Author(s): Herrmann, Eberhard
[German Version] (Apr 5, 1908, Stockholm – Apr 30, 1982, Uppsala) was professor of practical philosophy in Uppsala (1947–1973). After his philosophical education with Axel Hägerström (1868–1939) and Adolf Phalén (1884–1931), Hedenius turned to the philosophers G.E. Moore, B. Russell, and Charlie Dunbar Broad (1887–1971) in Cambridge and to logical positivism, according to which philosophy consists of logical analysis based on formal logic and a scientific understanding of reality (Analytic philosophy). In his 1941 Om rätt och moral [Concerning what is right and moral], H…

Hedinger, Johann Reinhard

(218 words)

Author(s): Schöllkopf, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1664, Stuttgart – Dec 28, 1704, Stuttgart), important theologian of early Württemberg Pietism, who translated the theology of P.J. Spener into areas of church praxis, wrote the first Pietist homeletics, catechesis, and poimenics for Württemberg, and published the first hymnal. The Württemberg Confirmation (Protestant) is based on Hedinger's design. His commentary on the Luther Bible (1704) stimulated great discussion and disagreement. During 1687–1694 he was a traveling an…

Hedio, Kaspar

(170 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1494, Ettlingen – Oct 17, 1552, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After education at Pforzheim, Freiburg, and Basel, Hedio became cathedral preacher in Mainz in 1520; he received his Dr.theol. in 1523. From 1523 to 1550 he served as preacher in the Strasbourg Minster. After 1549 he succeeded M. Bucer as president of the Strasbourg consistory. In 1550, as a result of the Augsburg Interim, he was transferred to the Dominican church. He was of great importance for the reform of the church an…


(379 words)

Author(s): Lange, Dietz
[German Version] The word derives from the Greek ἡδονή/ hēdonḗ (“joy,” “pleasure,” “enjoyment”). It appeared in England after 1850 and was first used there in the sense of eudaimonism. Sidgwick (11875) introduced it into philosophy. In current English, hedonism denotes riotous living. In German usage, the word Hedonik first appeared in A. Schopenhauer ( Werke, vol. XI, 62, 1916). It denoted (with no negative connotation) the more cheerful enjoyment of life that was then considered a characteristic of Greek antiquity (26) as an antonym of Asketik. T…

Hedwig, Saint

(145 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Duchess of Silesia; 1174/1178, Andechs – Oct 14, 1243, Trzebnica, Poland), canonized by Clement IV in 1267 because of her charitable works (feast day: Oct 16). She was the daughter of the Count of Andechs-Merania, and was married to Duke Henry I of Silesia (c. 1190). Both took a vow of chastity after 20 years of marriage. Hedwig withdrew to the Cistercian convent in Trzebnica in 1202, which she founded, and led an ascetic life. Her cult was maintained both among the Cistercians a…

Heerbrand, Jakob

(169 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Aug 12, 1521, Giengen/Brenz – May 22, 1600, Tübingen), studied philosophy and theology in Wittenberg (1538–1543, with Luther and Melanchthon, among others), became dean in Tübingen (1543), was removed from office (1548; Augsburg Interim), became pastor and superintendent in Herrenberg and received the Dr.theol. (1551), was professor of theology in Tübingen (1557–1598), while also serving as superintendent after 1561, chancellor of the university (1590–1599), provost and ducal adviser. Heerbrand was a signatory to the Confessio Virtembergica (1551) and w…

Heermann, Johann

(506 words)

Author(s): Bunners, Christian
[German Version] (Oct 11, 1585, Rudna [Ger. Raudten], Poland – Feb 17, 1647, Lezno [Ger. Lissa], Poland), the most prominent Protestant hymnwriter between Luther and P. Gerhardt. The son of a poor furrier and of sickly constitution, Heermann attended schools in Rudna, Wrocław (Breslau), Brzeg (Brieg), and elsewhere, and spent a short time in the house of V. Herberger in Wschowa (Fraustadt) (1602). His studies in Strassburg were short, owing to illness. Officiating as pastor in Köben near Glogow (G…

Hefele, Karl Joseph

(438 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] ([v. Hefele]; Mar 15, 1809, Hochmühle near Aalen – Jun 5, 1893, Rottenburg), priest in 1833, associate professor (1835) and professor of church history in Tübingen (1840, succeeding his teacher J.A. Möhler). Hefele, along with J.E. Kuhn, led the ultramontane-young church party (Ultramontanism) in the bishopric of Rottenburg who fiercely opposed the Württemberg state church and the “late Enlightenment” clergy. He turned, however, to moderate ultramontanism after 1848. Hefele was a …

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

(2,088 words)

Author(s): Jaeschke, Walter
[German Version] I. Life – II. Works (Aug 27, 1770, Stuttgart – Nov 14, 1831, Berlin) I. Life Hegel was the eldest of the three children born to the treasury secretary Georg Ludwig Hegel and his wife Maria Magdalena Luise née Fromm. He attended the Stuttgart Gymnasium, which was conducted in the spirit of the Enlightenment, and developed a strong interest in Latin, Greek, and mathematics. From 1788 to 1793 he studied with a ducal scholarship in Tübingen (II) together with F. Hoelderlin and (from 1790) F.W.J. Sc…


(872 words)

Author(s): Jaeschke, Walter
[German Version] F. Nietzsche diagnoses as Hegelianism in the broad sense a manner of thinking that orients itself to a (reasonable) development. In the narrower sense, Hegelianism refers to the further development of G.W.F. Hegel's philosophy by his disciples, who partly elaborated upon the system he had presented mainly in his lectures and partly adapted it to the needs of individual disciplines: logic (Feuerbach, Rosenkranz), philo-¶ sophical historiography (L. Feuerbach, J.E. Erdmann), and philosophy of law (Gans), art (Hotho), and religion. During the rel…

Hegelund, Peder Jensen

(166 words)

Author(s): Jakubowski-Tiessen, Manfred
[German Version] (Jun 9, 1542, Ribe, Denmark – Feb 18, 1614, Ribe), bishop and author. After studies at Copenhagen, Leipzig, and Wittenberg, where he received his master's degree, in 1569 he was appointed rector, in 1580 canon in the cathedral chapter, and in 1588 pastor of the cathedral church in Ribe, where finally in 1595 he became bishop. He was an admirer of P. Melanchthon and, along with his acquaintance N. Hemmingsen, one of the most important representatives of Philippism in Denmark. Train…


(181 words)

Author(s): van Oort, Johannes
[German Version] According to a late and doubtful tradition, Hegemonius is the otherwise unknown author of the so-called Acta Archelai. These Acta, which were probably written in Greek between 325 and 348 ce and the full text of which is only preserved in a Latin translation from the 4th century, present themselves as an account of the debates between a certain Archelaus, bishop of Carchar (Carrhae/Haran in Osroëne?), and Mani. For several centuries and in various languages, the Acta occupied a very important place among the patristic and medieval texts directed against M…

Hegesippus (Saint)

(165 words)

Author(s): Thornton, Claus-Jürgen
[German Version] (2nd half of the 2nd cent. ce). Probably a Jewish Christian from Palestine or Syria, Hegesippus composed five books of Hypomnemata or memoirs; the genre (church history? apology?), content, and structure of the work do not emerge clearly from the title and the few extant fragments. Attacking Gnosticism (Gnosis/Gnosticism), he sought to safeguard the “uncorrupted testimony” of the apostolic preaching, which he found preserved in Scripture and through apostolic succession. He also traveled via Corinth …

Hegius, Alexander

(158 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut
[German Version] (c. 1439/1440, Burgsteinfurt – Dec 1498, Deventer, Netherlands). Hegius studied the artes liberales in Rostock beginning in 1456. As the director of schools affiliated with the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life (1469 Wesel, 1474 Emmerich, after 1476 Deventer), Hegius placed pedagogy in the service of Humanism (friendship with R. Agricola from 1479) by teaching a method to approach Greek and Latin which is schooled in the ancient sources ¶ and observes the rules of rhetoric. Hegius exerted a strong influence on 16th-century German and Dutch Huma…


(5 words)

[German Version] Monasticism


(271 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (van der Heyden) 1. Caspar (1530, Mechelen, Belgium – May 7, 1586, Bacharach), Flemish Reformed pastor. As a lay theologian, he worked under the most difficult circumstances in the early years of the rebellion against Spain to constitute the life of the Reformed Church as a pastor in Antwerp (1551–1558 and 1579–1585), in Middelburg (1574–1579), in the refugee congregations in Frankfurt amMain and Frankenthal (1558–1574), and, finally, after 1586 as inspector in Bacharach. He participat…
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