Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

Get access Subject: Jewish Studies
Executive Editor: Norman A. Stillman

The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online (EJIW) is the first cohesive and discreet reference work which covers the Jews of Muslim lands particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods. The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online is updated with newly commissioned articles, illustrations, multimedia, and primary source material. 

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Yosef ben Isaac Ben Nayim

(13 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Ben Nāʾīm Family Norman A. Stillman

Yosef, Ovadia

(1,128 words)

Author(s): Avi Picard
Ovadia Yosef was the R ishon le-Ṣiyyon and Sephardi chief rabbi of Israel from 1972 to 1983 and has been the spiritual leader of the Shas national party since 1984. He was born in Baghdad in 1920, but his family moved to Jerusalem when he was four. He was sent to a Sephardi Talmud Torah in Jerusalem that was close to Ashkenazi ḥaredi circles. Ovadia advanced in his studies despite his fatherʾs desire for him to help run the familyʾs grocery store and eventually went on to Porat Yosef, the main Sephardi yeshiva in the Old City of Jerusalem. At the very youn…

Yoshevet Ṣiyyon Society (Tunis)

(247 words)

Author(s): Haim Saadoun
Founded in 1914,Yoshevet Ṣiyyon (Isaiah 12:6) was a Zionist organization that was active in Tunis. Jules Bonan, one of its founders, explained that its aims were to spread Hebrew studies by modern methods. The founders considered Yoshevet Ṣiyyon to be ideologically affiliated to Mizrachi, the Religious Zionist party. They founded it after splitting off from the Agudat Ṣiyyon society, the first Zionist organization in Tunis, founded three years earlier. The main difference between the two organizations had to do with religion. In the view of the founders of Yoshevet Ṣiyyon, Agudat Ṣiyyon was much too liberal. …

Young Turk Movement, Jews and

(559 words)

Author(s): Feroz Ahmad
The Jews of the Ottoman Empire, unlike its other minority communities, did not have separatist tendencies, and as a result developed a special relationship with the radical Young Turks after the revolution of July 1908. Even before the revolution, which restored the 1876 constitution, members of the Jewish intelligentsia were active in the opposition to Sultan Abdülhamid II (1876–1909). Emmanuel Carasso (Karasu) was a member of the underground Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) in Salonica, as was Abraham Galante in Cairo.  …

Yūdghān

(388 words)

Author(s): Yoram Erder
Yūdghān was the founder of one of the many Jewish sects in Babylonia and Persia around the beginning of the gaonic period. According to Jacob al-Qirqisānī (10th century), he was a student of Abū ʿĪsā of Isfahan, which indicates that he was active at the beginning of the Abbasid caliphate in the second half of the eighth century. As is the case for the other Jewish sects of this era, our information about Yūdghān’s doctrines comes from Karaite and Muslim sources. His followers referred to him as the “shepherd,” meaning that they considered him the “shepherd of the nation.” According to the …

Yunus Nadi

(9 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Nadi, Yunus Norman A. Stillman

Yürüm, Yuda

(219 words)

Author(s): Leslie Abuaf
Yuda Yürüm was born in Ankara on May 17, 1946. He began his academic career in science as an undergraduate in the Department of Chemical Engineering of the Middle Eastern Technical University in Ankara. In 1970 he went on to earn his master’s degree followed by a Ph.D. from the Department of Chemistry at Hacettepe University in Ankara. During the course of his career he has held teaching positions at universities in Turkey and abroad, including the University of Tennessee in the United States an…

Yūsuf al-ʿAskarī

(440 words)

Author(s): Frank Weigelt
Yūsuf b. Salāma b. Yūsuf al-ʿAskarī was a Samaritan scholar active in the first half of the eleventh century. A contemporary of Abū ʾl-Ḥasan al-Ṣūrī, he was one of the first Samaritans to write in Arabic (cf. Bible exegesis, Samaritan). His nisba, al-ʿAskarī, possibly refers to the village of ʿAskar in the vicinity of Nablus, which until the Crusades housed a Samaritan community. The only example of al-ʿAskarī’s work that has come down to us is the Kitāb al-Kāfī, which according to his statement in Ms. British Museum Add. 19656, fol. 32v, was written in 433/1042. The full…

Yūsuf al-Baṣīr

(2,579 words)

Author(s): Gregor Schwarb
Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf ibn Ibrāhīm al-Baṣīr (Heb. Joseph ben Abraham ha-Roʾeh)  is one of the chief representatives of the Golden Age of Karaite Judaism in Jerusalem during the late tenth and early eleventh centuries. As a theologian ( mutakallim; see Kalām ) and authority on Karaite law, he made a major contribution to the efflorescence of the Jerusalem school of Karaite learning which exerted considerable influence over the communities of the Karaite diaspora and served as the foundation of Karaite literature and culture for generations. Owing to the absence of a detailed account of…