Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

Get access Subject: Jewish Studies
Executive Editor: Norman A. Stillman

The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online (EJIW) is the first cohesive and discreet reference work which covers the Jews of Muslim lands particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods. The Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online is updated with newly commissioned articles, illustrations, multimedia, and primary source material. 

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Thebes (Istifa)

(682 words)

Author(s): Yitzchak Kerem
The city of Thebes in the Boeotia region of Greece, northwest of Athens, has been an administrative center since the tenth century and was known for its silk production, an industry in which the local Jews took an active part. In 1147 George of Antioch attacked the city and expelled or enslaved many of the local Jews, sending them to Sicily to work in silk manufacturing. Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Thebes in 1167, reported that it had two thousand Jewish inhabitants, and a number of first-class talmudic and rabbinic scholars who engaged in congenial disput…

Thrace Riots (1934)

(698 words)

Author(s): Omer Turan
The Thrace Riots were a series of anti-Jewish incidents that occurred in some of the cities of western Turkey in 1934. Although Turkey disapproved of the Nazi government in Germany in 1933, and welcomed Jewish academicians who fled from Nazi Germany, small racist and anti-Jewish groups emerged in various parts of the country. Cevat Rıfat Atilhan, a Nazi sympathizer who went to Germany to garner support, defended the Nazi program in his journal Milli İnkilap (National Revolution). The first fruit of the anti-Jewish campaign was a boycott in Çanakkale in mid-June 1934. Numerous Jew…

Tiaret (Tahert)

(874 words)

Author(s): Richard Ayoun
Tiaret (Tahert; Ar. Tāhart, Tīhart; Ber. Tagdemt) is a city in western Algeria, on the site of ancient Tingartia, located at the southern foot of the Ouarsenis Mountains in a pass of the Jebel Guezoul, at an altitude of 1,375 meters (4,511 feet). It was founded in 778 by the Ibāḍī Rustamid imāmate as its capital. Jews settled in the lower town and the community developed with the rapid growth of Tahert (this name will be used in reference to the premodern town) until the Fatimid conquest in 909.…

Tiferet Yisrael School (Ar. al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya)

(384 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
The Tiferet Yisrael (Glory of Israel) School in Beirut, known in Arabic as al-Madrasa al-Waṭaniyya al-Isrā'īliyya (The Jewish National School), was established by Ḥakham Zakī Cohen and his son Salīm in 1874. It was one of the first and more successful indigenous attempts to create a modern Jewish religious school in the Arab world. Due to financial difficulties, the school closed after one year, but it reopened as a boarding school in 1878 and attracted students from Damascus, Aleppo, Jaffa, and even as far away as Istanbul and Izmir. By 18…

Tifnout (valley)

(454 words)

Author(s): Yossef Chetrit
The valley of the Tifnout region is located below Mount Toubkal (4,167 meters/13,671 feet), between the High Atlas Mountains on the west and the Sirwa massif on the east, above the Sous Valley in Morocco. It hosted a number of small Jewish communities. Their precise origin is unknown, but they were probably not very old (the earliest evidence dates from the beginning of the twentieth century, suggesting that Jews may have been in the region in the nineteenth century). They were among the very few communities in Morocco that were primarily monolingual Judeo-Berber speaking until the twe…

Tillin

(341 words)

Author(s): Yossef Chetrit
The town of Tillin in the Sous region of southwestern Morocco is 10 kilometers (6 miles) from Anzi, in a valley in the territory of the Aït (Ida) Oultit tribe. The Tillin Jewish community was one of the most important in the region. It probably dated from the sixteenth century, but Jews may have settled there as early as the eleventh century, Until its gradual dispersion in the twentieth century, when its members moved on to Tiznit, Inezgan, Agadir, Casablanca, and finally to Israel (in 1963), the Tillin community consisted of about fifty families. They trad…

Timbuktu

(431 words)

Author(s): Aomar Boum
Located in West Africa near the river Niger in the country of Mali, Timbuktu developed as an important trading center of the Empire of Mali in the fourteenth century. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, under the Songhai Empire, the city became one of the most prosperous trans-Saharan entrepôts and attracted many scholars and merchants. In 1591, Timbuktu was conquered by the army of the Moroccan Saʿdi sultan, Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-Dhahabī (r. 1578–1603). The descendants of the Moroccans maintained an independent state in Timbuktu until the nineteenth century.       In the fiftee…

Timsit, Daniel

(746 words)

Author(s): Jessica Hammerman
Daniel Timsit (1928–2002) was born in Algiers on January 16, 1928 to a traditional Jewish family. His parents had both spoken only Arabic as children, and none of his grandparents knew French; his paternal grandfather, the chief rabbi of Constantine, had never worn European dress. The neighborhood where Timsit grew up was adjacent to the Casbah, and because of his family’s Arabic-speaking heritage he felt a certain rapport with the country’s Muslims. In 1940 the Jews of Algeria were deprived of French citizenship by the Vichy government. Their citizenship was restor…

Tinghir

(7 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
see Todghra Norman A. Stillman

Tinjdad

(304 words)

Author(s): Yossef Chetrit
Tinjdad is a town in south-central Morocco that became a regional center in the time of the French protectorate. It is located in the Ferkla Valley, which offers a natural passage between the Dadès, Todgha, Dar‘a, and Ziz (Tafilalet) valleys. Not far from Tinjdad, in the Asrir district, the two small mellahs of Aït Lbzem and Aït Far were settled in the sixteenth century. They were close to each other and shared a cemetery but fell under the protection of different Berber tribes, according to tradition. Some Jews owned farmland in the valley. One, in fact, was one of the largest land…

Tire

(732 words)

Author(s): Onur Yildirim
Tire is a town in western Anatolia, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) southeast of Izmir (Smyrna). Its small community of Romaniot Jews antedated the Ottoman conquest (1390). Some of them were  moved to Istanbul as part of the forced population transfers ( sürgün ) after the Ottoman conquest of the city in 1453. In the late fifteenth century, Sephardic immigrants to the Ottoman Empire began to settle in Tire. According to Ottoman tax-registers for the period between 1512 and 1530, the town had a  Jewish quarter with sixty-four Jewish households and eighteen unmarried Jews. Betwee…

Tiryaki

(162 words)

Author(s): Aksel Erbahar
Tiryaki was a monthly Jewish periodical published in Istanbul by former Şalom writer Moşe Grosman from 1994 to 2000. Printed in Turkish and Ladino, Tiryaki had forty-eight pages and followed the format of Albert Kohen’s popular paper La Boz de Türkiye. Under Grosman’s editorship, Tiryaki focused on opinion and art, and at times criticized Turkish Jewry’s communal administration. In 1998, the popular journal had about a thousand subscribers. It often published writings by influential figures like Yekta Güngör Özden, the former head of Turkey’s constitutional court, the r…

Tiznit

(6 words)

Author(s): Daniel Schroeter
see Sous Daniel Schroeter

T (La Tunisie Nouvelle (The New Tunisia, journal) - Turkey: Ottoman Empire)

(1,640 words)

La Tunisie Nouvelle (The New Tunisia, journal), Alliance Judéo-Musulmane (Comité de l’Union judéo-musulmane) Ṭur see Arba‘a Ṭurim Tūrān Shāh al-Ayyūbī, Taʿizz Turanism, Vambery, Arminius turbans, Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up, Clothing, Jewelry and Make-up Turcoman tribes, Ismāʽīl I, Shāh  in Iran, ʿAbbās I, Shāh, ʿAbbās II, Shah turcos, Uruguay Les Turcs à la recherche d’une ƒme nationale (P. Risal/Moïse Kohen), Kohen, Moïse (Tekinalp, Munis) Turgul, Yavuz, Medina, Cefi (Jeffi) Turgut, Serdar, Tuvi, Yusuf Turhan Valide Sultan (mother of Ottoman sultan), Abravanel, …

Tlemcen

(2,104 words)

Author(s): Norman A. Stillman
Tlemcen (Ar. Tilimsān) is a city in western Algeria situated 138 kilometers (86 miles) southwest of Oran, 91 kilometers (56 miles) west of Sidi Bel Abbès, and 63 kilometers (40 miles) east of Oujda across the Moroccan border. Nourished by springs and called Pomaria (city of orchards) in Roman times, Tlemcen lies at the crossroads of major east-west and north-south trade routes. Although Arab historians state that Judaizing Berber tribes lived in the area at the time of the Islamic conquests, there is no evidence for a Jewish presence in Tlemcen at that time.  1.  Middle Ages to the Almoh…