Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Edited by: Geoffrey Khan
Associate editors: Shmuel Bolozky, Steven Fassberg, Gary A. Rendsburg, Aaron D. Rubin, Ora R. Schwarzwald, Tamar Zewi

The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online offers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the history and study of the Hebrew language from its earliest attested form to the present day.
The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online features advanced search options, as well as extensive cross-references and full-text search functionality using the Hebrew character set. With over 850 entries and approximately 400 contributing scholars, the Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online is the authoritative reference work for students and researchers in the fields of Hebrew linguistics, general linguistics, Biblical studies, Hebrew and Jewish literature, and related fields.

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Micrography of Hebrew Script and Art

(2,834 words)

Author(s): Halperin, Dalia-Ruth
Micrography ‘minute writing’ was used primarily to add מסורה masora to the margins of Hebrew Bible manuscripts (Masora, Babylonian; Masora, Tiberian). The Masora was used as a means of stabilizing and maintaining the accuracy of the biblical text. It was compiled around the 8th century C.E. in both Babylonia and Tiberias, but the Tiberian Masoretic Text was the one that prevailed. Stern (2008) has recently showed that this formative period paralleled the transition from the oral to the written tradition. The origins of the Masora, however, might well be somewhat earlier. Althou…

Micrography of Hebrew Script and Art

(2,850 words)

Author(s): Dalia-Ruth Halperin
Micrography ‘minute writing’ was used primarily to add מסורה masora to the margins of Hebrew Bible manuscripts (Masora, Babylonian; Masora, Tiberian). The Masora was used as a means of stabilizing and maintaining the accuracy of the biblical text. It was compiled around the 8th century C.E. in both Babylonia and Tiberias, but the Tiberian Masoretic Text was the one that prevailed. Stern (2008) has recently showed that this formative period paralleled the transition from the oral to the written tradition. The origins of the Masora, however, might well be somewhat earlier. Althou…
Date: 2014-10-01

Middle Constructions

(926 words)

Author(s): Uziel-Karl, Sigal
The term ‘middle’ or ‘mediopassive’ refers to verbs like נשבר nišbar ‘to break (intrans.)’,נרטב nirṭav ‘to become wet’, התנפח hitnapeax̱ ‘to be inflated’, and התפוצץ hitpoṣeṣ ‘to pop (intrans.)’, which exemplify the middle voice. While sentences with an active verb have an agent subject that performs the action, e.g., דני פוצץ את הבלון dani poṣeṣ ʾet ha-balon ‘Dani popped the balloon’, and in sentences with a passive verb an agent may be present or implied, e.g., הבלון פוצץ (על ידי דני) ha-balon puṣaṣ (ʿal yede dani) ‘The balloon was popped (by Dani)’, middle verbs downgrade the…

Mimation

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Gzella, Holger
Generally speaking, mimation refers to the consonantal element - m which follows the vocalic case markers in unbound forms in various Semitic languages (Moscati 1964:96–99; Diem 1975; Lipiński 2001:279–280). It is usually assumed that this reflects the situation in Proto-Semitic, hence the respective endings are reconstructed as *- um (nominative), *- im (genitive), and *- am (accusative) in the singular, whereas the dual and plural markers originally contained an - n- (Nunation) followed by another short vowel. Since it has no clearly identifiable function of its…

Miqṣat Maʿaśe ha-Torah (4QMMT)

(1,416 words)

Author(s): (Eliyahu)Yuditsky, Alexey
Miqṣat Maʿaśe ha-Torah is an epistle sent by the Qumran Community ( Yaḥad) to a contemporary Jewish leader. Its style is more popular and it contains fewer literary elements than most of the other compositions found at Qumran (see Morag 1997). Qimron and Strugnell (1994) published an extensive description of the scroll in the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert series ( DJD X); see also Talshir (1995). The grammar of the scroll’s text is very similar to that of the language of the other scrolls (Dead Sea Scrolls: Linguistic Features). Below we present some of the prominent linguistic f…

Mishqal

(2,373 words)

Author(s): Schwarzwald, Ora (Rodrigue)
1. Introduction Mishqal (משקל mišqal; pl. משקלים mišqalim) is the Hebrew name for the nominal derivation patterns, as opposed to בניין binyan (pl. בניינים binyanim), the name for verbal derivation patterns (Binyanim: Modern Hebrew). A mishqal consists of specific vowels between the root consonants (radicals); some also include prefixes and/or suffixes. For representing the mishqalim the consonantal roots קט״ל q-ṭ-l and (less frequently) פע״ל p-ʿ-l are used. For instance, the root גד״ל g-d-l, with meanings related to ‘growing’, occurs in several nominal patterns: qṭula = C1C2uC3a…

M (m (mem) - mythical figures, in Biblical poetry)

(7,977 words)

m (mem)  final Mimation, Morphology: Biblical Hebrew  pronunciation of Italy, Pronunciation Traditions ma (what) Affixation: Pre-Modern Hebrew, Clitics: Pre-Modern Hebrew, Comparative Clause: Rabbinic Hebrew, Interrogative: Biblical Hebrew, Interrogative: Rabbinic Hebrew, Interrogative Particles and Adverbs in Hebrew, Interrogative Sentences, Negation: Pre-Modern Hebrew, Relative Clause: Rabbinic Hebrew, Relative Clause: Modern Hebrew ma˒amar be-mahut han-nefeš (Treatise of the Essence of the Soul) Glosses in Medieval Hebrew Philosophical Texts Ma˓arive (news…

Mnemonic: Medieval Period

(2,360 words)

Author(s): Vidro, Nadia
Mnemonics (Hebrew סימנים simanim) are words or phrases intended to assist memory. Rabbinic and medieval texts employ various techniques for creating mnemonic signs. Some mnemonics are formed from Biblical or Talmudic phrases, proverbs, or sentences made up of catchwords each referring to a different topic or saying. Others are alphabetical, i.e., composed of initial letters of catchwords to be remembered, resulting either in existing Hebrew words or in meaningless combinations of letters. This article deals only with the latter type of mnemonics. 1. Mnemonics in Rabbinic Lite…