Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics

Get access Subject: Language and Linguistics
Edited by: Geoffrey Khan
Associate editors: Shmuel Bolozky, Steven Fassberg, Gary A. Rendsburg, Aaron D. Rubin, Ora R. Schwarzwald, Tamar Zewi

The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online offers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the history and study of the Hebrew language from its earliest attested form to the present day.
The Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online features advanced search options, as well as extensive cross-references and full-text search functionality using the Hebrew character set. With over 850 entries and approximately 400 contributing scholars, the Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Online is the authoritative reference work for students and researchers in the fields of Hebrew linguistics, general linguistics, Biblical studies, Hebrew and Jewish literature, and related fields.

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Borrowing in Modern Hebrew

(4,033 words)

Author(s): Shlesinger, Yitzhak
1. Introduction Changes in forms, meanings, and the lexicon due to contact between languages are a universal commonplace. Yet Modern Hebrew is remarkable in this respect, because of both the sheer quantity and the distribution of the different types and sources of borrowings it contains. The significance of borrowings in the language is reflected in the publication of (a) לועזי–עברי loʿazi–ʿivri ‘foreign (i.e., borrowings)–Hebrew’ dictionaries (in Hebrew), and (b) slang dictionaries listing numerous foreign borrowings. Two main factors contribute to the prominence of b…


(1,820 words)

Author(s): Kadmon, Hannah
1. Louis Braille’s Method Louis Braille developed his code for the French language arbitrarily, disregarding the prevalence of letters in French and the relative difficulty of discerning the raised symbols under the fingers. The basic Braille’s cell is composed of six raised dots ⠿. With sixty-three possible arrangements of dots in this cell, Louis Braille set his characters in the following order: Base line: Upper two-thirds of the cell ⠁ ⠃ ⠉ ⠙ ⠑ ⠋ ⠛ ⠓ ⠊ ⠚ With addition of dot 3 ⠅ ⡇ ⠍ ⠝ ⠕ ⡏ ⡟ ⠗ ⠎ ⠞ With addition of dots 3 and 6 ⠥ ⠧ ⠭ ⠽ ⠵ ⠯ ⣿ ⠷ ⠮ ⠾ With addition of dot 6 ⠡ ⠣ ⠩ ⢹ ⠱ ⠫ ⠻ ⠳ ⠪ ⠺ ‘Mirror’ characters ⠌ ⠬ ⠼ ⠜ The ch…

Bumper Stickers

(795 words)

Author(s): Salamon, Hagar
Since the latter decades of the 20th century Israel’s roads have become a venue for discourse and dialogue over controversial social and political issues. Car stickers have become emblems of the profound emotions of owners and audience alike, creating a mosaic of slogans engaged in a dynamic discourse characterized by a rhythm of its own, as the acts of applying and removing stickers produce their ebb and flow. A sticker addresses a complex social and/ or political issue in the form of a short message that can be absorbed at a glance. As with other forms of expr…