Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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Epigraphy

(12,675 words)

Author(s): Hoyland, Robert | Porter, Venetia
Epigraphy is the study or science of inscriptions, i.e. texts traced upon some hard substance for the sake of durability, as on a monument, building, stone, tablet, medal, coin, vase, etc. The use of the Qurʾān in the corpus of Muslim inscriptions will be the focus of this article. Background The durability of inscriptions was observed by pre-Islamic Arab poets who compared them to the traces left by their own desert encampments, both of which seemed able to defy the ravaging effects of time. For that purpose inscriptions had long been used by …

Error

(669 words)

Author(s): Khan, Ruqayya
Departure from truth or accuracy. The qurʾānic terms for error derive from the Arabic verb for “to err, go astray (q.v.), deviate from the right course” ( ḍalla) and are attested at least sixty times in the Qurʾān. In qurʾānic usage the semantic field of ḍalla ranges from accidental mistakes to conscious transgressions in the realms of rightful belief and conduct (see belief and unbelief; sin, major and minor). It is not clear, however, whether the concepts of deviance and mistake conveyed by this term are always regarded as something culpable or whether they co…

Eschatology

(6,709 words)

Author(s): Smith, Jane I.
Doctrine about the final things to come at the end of time. Two of the earliest and most important messages given to the prophet Muḥammad (q.v.), prominent in the Meccan revelations (see chronology and the qurʾān ), were about the oneness of God and the accountability of human beings at the last day ( yawm al-qiyāma, lit. the day of resurrection; see god and his attributes; last judgment; resurrection). These two message were so integrally linked that the Qurʾān in many places suggests that faith in God isfaith in the yawm al-qiyāma, the time when all will be resurrected and held acco…

Eternity

(885 words)

Author(s): Bashir, Shahzad
The state of being in infinite time (q.v.) as contrasted with the ever-changing quality of earthly existence (see cosmology ). In the Qurʾān, God is the only eternal being in both the past and the future, while created beings will dwell in states of bliss or damnation for eternity ( khulūd, abad) only in the afterlife (see eschatology ). In addition, the Qurʾān denounces a pre-Islamic Arab belief according to which existence and death are attributable to nothing more than time ( dahr, see fate; history and the qurʾān). God's eternal existence is denoted in the affirmation that he wa…

Ethics and the Qurʾān

(15,872 words)

Author(s): Reinhart, A. Kevin
The subject matter of this article is elusive, since the word “ethics” itself is used in various ways in English. If we take the definition of a standard reference work, we learn that “ethics” is “(1) a general pattern or way of life, (2) a set of rules of conduct or moral code, and (3) inquiry about life and ¶ rules of conduct…” ( Encyclopedia of philosophy, iii, 81-2). This article's focus, then, will be qurʾānic ethics in senses (1) and (2) above; we might also use the word “morality,” i.e. “beliefs about human nature, beliefs about ideals — what is good fo…

Ethiopia

(84 words)

Author(s): Firestone, Reuven
Derived from the Greek term, Aithiopes, designating mythical or actual peoples defined as having dark skin and living south of Egypt (q.v.), and applied to roughly the area of ancient Axum or Abyssinia (q.v.) in northeast Africa, directly across the Red Sea from Arabia. As the opposition to Muḥammad (q.v.) increased, a group of his followers left Mecca (q.v.; see emigration ), seeking the protection of the Christian king (see christians and christianity ) of the region. See geography . Reuven Firestone Bibliography

Eulogy

(4 words)

 see laudation Bibliography