Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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(9 words)

  see psalms; scripture and the qurʾān Bibliography


(5 words)

  see almsgiving Bibliography


(4,990 words)

Author(s): Kifayat Ullah
Abū l-Qāsim Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-Zamakhsharī Jār Allāh (467-538/1075-1144) was one of the last famous and original Ḥanafī Muʿtazilī scholars, and he made significant contributions in the fields of Arabic linguistics, theology, and Qurʾānic exegesis. He was born on 27 Rajab 467/18 March 1075 in Zamakhshar, a small town in Khwārazm (modern Khiva, Uzbekistan), from which his nisba al-Zamakhsharī is derived. He died on 8 Dhū l-Ḥijja 538/12 June 1144 in Jurjāniyya, the capital of Khurāsān.Al-Zamakhsharī was lame (aʿraj) due to one of his feet having been amputa…
Date: 2017-01-04


(812 words)

Author(s): Awa, Salwa M.S.
The tree of Zaqqūm, or the cursed tree mentioned four times in the Qurʾān, with three explicit references ( q 37:62; 44:43; 56:52) and one implicit ( q 17:60). Unlike the beautiful trees with clustered fruits in paradise (q.v.; q 69:23), the good tree of “the good word” ( q 14:24) and the heavenly tree of eternity (q.v.) from which Adam…

Zayd b. Ḥāritha

(10 words)

  see family of the prophet Bibliography

Zayd b. Muḥammad

(2,295 words)

Author(s): David S. Powers
Zayd b. Muḥammad, Zayd b. Ḥāritha b. Sharāḥīl al-Kalbī (b. ca. 580, d. 7 or 8 AH/629 CE), is the only Muslim apart from Muḥammad who is mentioned by name in the Qurʾān (Q 33:37). The reference to Zayd in this verse generated a substantial number of narrative reports that are scattered across Qurʾān commentaries, ḥadīth collections, sīra texts, biographical dictionaries, and historical chronicles. When these reports are assembled and arranged in chronological order, there emerges the rich and colourful life of a man who played an important role in the emergence of Islam.Zayd was born a…
Date: 2017-01-04

Zayd b. Thābit

(10 words)

  see companions of the prophet Bibliography


(8 words)

  see shīʿism and the qurʾān Bibliography

Zaynab bt. Jaḥsh

(10 words)

  see wives of the prophet Bibliography


(814 words)

Author(s): El-Awa, Salwa M.S.
Religious and/or political fanaticism. The main qurʾānic stand on zealotry is expressed in q 2:143 where the Muslim community is described as a “community of the middle,” a community that is “in the middle between any two extremes,” thereby assigning to its members the responsibility of maintaining a community that is just and moderate in all its beliefs and practices (Quṭb, Ẓilāl, 130-2; see ¶ moderation ). This characteristic is, according to the exegetes (see exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval ), what makes the Muslim community the “best community” applauded in q 3:110, “because the middle is the best” (Zamakhsharī, Kashshāf, i, 198; Rāzī, Tafsīr, iv, 108-12). The implication of q 2:143, then, is that in its endeavor to be the best community, the Muslim community should not be extreme in its practice or understanding of its own religion (q.v.). Various prophetic ḥadīths support this view (see ḥadīth and the qurʾān ), such as “Beware of zealotry!” ( iyyākum wa-l-ghuluww fī l-dīn; Albānī, Ṣaḥīḥ, no. 2680, i, 522) and “Death be to zealots!” ( halaka l-mutanaṭṭiʿūn; ibid., no. 7039, i, 1183). Nevertheless, there appears to be no expl…


(1,194 words)

Author(s): Marshall, David