Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Johanna Pink, Universität Freiburg.

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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Revelation and Inspiration

(6,859 words)

Author(s): Madigan, Daniel A.
The communication of God's knowledge (see knowledge and learning ) and will (see power and impotence ), warning (q.v.) and promise to humanity. The English word “revelation” covers a range of qurʾānic terms, principal among them waḥy, “communication” and tanzīl, “sending down,” with their cognate verbal forms. In the Qurʾān revelation is always mediated, rather than being direct: first, in the sense that it consists in the transmission of a message rather than the “unveiling” of God himself implied by the English word ¶ with its Christian origins and, secondly, because even th…


(4 words)

 see vengeance Bibliography

Revision and Alteration

(1,864 words)

Author(s): Lowin, Shari
The idea and the charge that the text of the Qurʾān (and the Bible) underwent changes and emendations over time. According to traditional Muslim accounts, the revelations that make up the Qurʾān were originally collected together by the second caliph (q.v.) ʿUmar (d. 23/644), under the editorship of Zayd b. Thābit, approximately twenty-five years after Muḥammad's death (see collection of the qurʾān ). ʿUmar died before the task was completed, however, and the collected sheets were transferred to his daughter ¶ Ḥafṣa (q.v.) for safekeeping (see also wives of the prophet ). Around 30/65…

Reward and Punishment

(5,929 words)

Author(s): Raven, Wim
A return or recompense made to, or received by, a person or a group for some service or merit or for hardship endured; and its opposite, judicial chastisement ¶ intended to make a person or a group suffer for an offence, whether as retribution or as caution against further transgression. Both terms together merge into a word like “requital.” …
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