Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Johanna Pink, Universität Freiburg.

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.

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Reciters of the Qurʾān [Supplement 2016]

(4,301 words)

Author(s): Christopher Melchert | Asma Afsaruddin
The reciters of the Qurʾān are those entrusted with the oral recitation of Qurʾānic passages, or of the entire text. The term “reciter” (Ar. sing. qāriʾ and muqriʾ) in its basic, most general meaning refers to one who reads or recites. With reference to the reciters of the Qurʾān, the plural qurrāʾ is used much more commonly than is muqriʾūn. In a broad sense, the term qurrāʾ is used in various sources to refer to both professional reciters, namely those who accepted payment for their recitation and were often employed by the state, and pious, non-professional…
Date: 2016-11-17


(6 words)

 see reward and punishment Bibliography


(4 words)

 see peace Bibliography

Record of Human Actions

(15 words)

 see book; heavenly book; last judgment; good deeds; evil deeds Bibliography


(7 words)

 see agriculture and vegetation; grasses Bibliography

Reflection and Deliberation

(905 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Thinking about, and deciding a course of action based upon perceptions or observed events. To convey this concept, the Qurʾān most frequently employs the triliteral Arabic root f-k-r. Second and fifth forms of the root f-k-r are attested eighteen times in the Qurʾān. In contrast to certain conceptions in later mystic circles (see ṣūfism and the qurʾān ), the Qurʾān itself does not consider the notion of reflection ( tafakkur) as inferior to remembrance (q.v.) of God ( dhikr). But unlike dhikr, the Qurʾān never uses tafakkur with regard to God. Rather, the Qurʾān mentions the creation …


(19 words)

 see language and style of the qurʾān; form and structure of the qurʾān; rhetoric and the qurʾān Bibliography


(7 words)

 see family; kinship; parents; children Bibliography


(2,328 words)

Author(s): Brodeur, Patrice C.
Prior to the twentieth century, the English word “religion” had no direct equivalent in Arabic nor had the Arabic word dīn in English. They became partially synonymous only in the course of the twentieth century as a result of increased English-Arabic encounters and the need for consistency in translation (see translations of the qurʾān ). In the same way the English word “religion” carries a genealogy of meanings, as revealed in W.C. Smith's groundbreaking book The meaning and end of religion, so does the Arabic word dīn. This co-existence of diverse meanings makes the interpret…

Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān

(12,993 words)

Author(s): Wilde, Clare | McAuliffe, Jane Dammen
In traditional Muslim thought, Muḥammad is the “seal of the prophets,” and his message, contained in the Qurʾān, con-¶ tinues, confirms — and abrogates — all previous prophetic messages. The Qurʾān demonstrates an awareness of those previous messages, at least some of them, and evidences knowledge of a variety of religious groups in its milieu. The earliest commentators on the Qurʾān were alert to these allusions and their efforts at identification became a traditional topic in classical exegetical works (McAuliffe, Qurʾānic, 16-31). Such efforts formed part of a larger age…


(3,076 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Angelika
Recollection; state of being held in mind. Verbal and substantive expressions ( dhikr, dhikrā, tadhkira) derived from the radical dh-k-r appear in 274 verses of the Qurʾān (excluding passages rendering the meaning of “male”) and these have different ¶ connotations depending on context (see Ahrens, Christliches, 39 for discussion of the etymology). In addition to the basic meaning of “remembrance” this vocabulary can be employed in the sense of “thinking of, speaking about, mentioning, reporting on, relating” as well as “admonition, warning.” Remembrance of God The most important…


(603 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
The remains of a destroyed abode of sinful people. The total destruction of former generations (q.v.) is a historical lesson for contemporary sinners (see sin, major and minor ), as stated, for example, in q 19:98: “And how many a generation ( qarn) have we destroyed before them! Do you see any one of them or hear a sound of them?” (see geography; history and the qurʾān). Among these extinct sinners there were the peoples of ʿĀd (q.v.) and Thamūd (q.v.) about whom it is declared in q 69:8 that one cannot see any remnant ( bāqiya) of them. The Qurʾān emphasizes that God has cut off the last of them ( quṭiʿ…

Repentance and Penance

(3,197 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Contrition or regret and self-mortification, with the intention of obtaining God's pardon (see forgiveness ). Repentance is generally designated in the Qurʾān as tawba which basically means “return” (from sin; see sin, major and minor ). For example, in q 66:8 God demands of the believers a “sincere return” (tawbatan naṣūḥan) and he in turn will make them enter paradise (q.v.). God himself is described as “the accepter of tawba” ( q 9:104; 42:25; also q 40:3: accepter of tawb), and this represents a crucial aspect of his compassion for the believers (see mercy ). Repentance can, however,…


(7 words)

 see rhetoric and the qurʾān Bibliography


(6 words)

 see marriage and divorce Bibliography


(2,083 words)

Author(s): Radscheit, Matthias
The relation of an agent to a norm-giving and evaluative instance. It consists of the ¶ imposition of a set of norms, action in regards to these norms, and the assessment of the committed acts according to these norms with any consequences that might ensue. The idea of responsibility is a central feature of social activities, law, ethics and religion (q.v.; see also law and the qurʾān; ethics and the qurʾān; social interactions). As a result of the complexity of the concept of responsibility, there are several Arabic terms relating to different aspects of it. The com…


(5 words)

 see sleep; sabbath Bibliography


(1,221 words)

Author(s): Borrmans, Maurice
The “rising again” of all the human dead before the final judgment. The expression “day of resurrection” ( yawm al-qiyāma) occurs seventy times in the Qurʾān (although the concept of “rising” — from the triliteral root q-w-m — is not limited to this eschatological sense; it is also employed in other instances, with a wider range of meanings). The resurrection of dead human bodies (see death and the dead; burial) follows the annihilation of all creatures (al- fanāʾ al-muṭlaq) and precedes the “day of judgment” ( yawm al-dīn, thirteen attestations in the Qurʾān; see last judgment ) or the “d…


(1,102 words)

Author(s): El Fadl, Khaled Abou
Act of returning like for like. The Arabic term usually rendered as “retaliation” is qiṣāṣ, although qiṣāṣ also means punishment for a wrongful act (see chastisement and punishment; evil deeds). The Qurʾān mentions qiṣāṣ on several occasions, mostly in the sense of punishment for murder (q.v.) or physical injury and once in the sense of retaliation or reprisal for a wrongful act. In Sūrat al-Baqara ( q 2, “The Cow”) the Qurʾān affirms the pre-Islamic practice of considering certain months (q.v.) in the year to be sanctified (see profane and sacred ) and, therefore, of prohibiting warf…


(7 words)

 see reward and punishment; retaliation Bibliography
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