Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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Jacob

(728 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew
Biblical patriarch, son of Isaac (q.v.), mentioned sixteen times by name in the Qurʾān and probably referred to by the name Isrāʾīl another two times (see israel ). The form of the name in Arabic, Yaʿqūb, may have come directly from the Hebrew or may have been filtered through Syriac (Jeffery, For. vocab., 291; see foreign vocabulary ); the name was apparently used in pre-Islamic times in Arabia (Horovitz, Jewish proper names, 152; id., ku, 152-3; see pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān ). Most frequently, Jacob is mentioned simply within the list of patriarchs along with Abraham (q.v.) and …

Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq

(5,499 words)

Author(s): Buckley, Ron P.
Jaʿfar  al-Ṣādiq (“the trustworthy”) (c. 83-148/702-65) is the sixth Imām of the Twelver branch of Shīʿī Islam (the Ithnā ʿashariyya), often simply referred to as the Shīʿa, and the eponym of the Twelver school of law (the Jaʿfarī madhhab). He is the most important figure connected with the propagation of a specifically Shīʿī corpus of ḥadīth (“traditions”) comprising religio-legal norms, doctrinal statements, and theology. He was also a major figure within Twelver Shīʿī and Sunnī Ṣūfī Qurʾānic exegesis and a number of independent commentaries are attributed to him. The …
Date: 2018-08-14

Jahannam

(6 words)

 see hell and hellfire Bibliography

Jāhiliyya

(6 words)

 see age of ignorance Bibliography

Jail

(4 words)

 see prisoners Bibliography

Jālūt

(4 words)

 see goliath Bibliography

Jealousy

(4 words)

 see envy Bibliography

Jerusalem

(3,007 words)

Author(s): Busse, Heribert
The holy city sacred to Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Jerusalem (Īliyāʾ, bayt al-maqdis, Ūrīshalayim, al-Quds) is not mentioned by name in the Qurʾān. As Islam is, however, deeply rooted in Judaism and Christianity (see jews and judaism; christians and christianity), many stories with a biblical background are undoubtedly situated in Jerusalem and some of these stories have been included in the holy book of the Muslims (see narratives ). Further, one must bear in mind that the designation bayt al-maqdis (lit. “house of the holy,” from Heb. Bēt ha-miqdāsh, the Temple), has three …

Jest

(5 words)

 see laughter; mockery Bibliography

Jesus

(9,179 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Neal
The first-century Jewish teacher and wonder worker believed by Christians to be the Son of God, he is named in the Qurʾān as one of the prophets before Muḥammad who came with a scripture (see book; christians and christianity; prophets and prophethood). The qurʾānic form of Jesus' name is ʿĪsā. It is attested twenty-five times, often in the form ʿĪsā b. Maryam, Jesus son of Mary. The Qurʾān asserts that he was a prophet and gives him the unique title “the Messiah” (see anointing ). It affirms his virginal conception (see mary; holy spirit); cites miracles which he ¶ performed by divine permis…

Jewels and Gems

(8 words)

 see metals and minerals Bibliography

Jews and Judaism

(8,618 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Terminology The Arabic term denoting “Jews” is ya hūd, which occurs seven times in the Qurʾān. The form hūd also denotes the same and appears in this sense three times. The singular, yahūdī, occurs once. From yahūd/hūd was derived the secondary verb hāda, which means “to be a Jew/Jewish.” “Those who were Jews” (hādū) is mentioned ten times. This verb appears once with the complementary ilā ( q 7:156), in which case it denotes “to return to.” It is put into the mouth of Moses (q.v.), who says to God: “We have returned (hudnā) to you.” Obviously, this is a play on yahūd, on behalf of whom Moses is…