Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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I (al-Iṣfahānī, Abū l-Faraj (d. 356/967) - Islamist(s))

(699 words)

al-Iṣfahānī, Abū l-Faraj (d. 356/967)  Orality and Writing in Arabia  Recitation of the Qurʾān Isfandiyār  Informants al-Isfarāyinī, [al-Ustādh] Abū Isḥāq (d. 418/1027)  Creeds Ishmael [Ismāʿīl]  Abraham  Agriculture and Vegetation  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Book  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Consecration of Animals  Elijah  Elisha  Ethics and the Qurʾān  Festivals and Commemorative Days  …

Ibāḍīs

(4 words)

 see khārijīs Bibliography

Iblīs

(110 words)

Author(s): Rippin, Andrew

Iconoclasm

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Sahas, Daniel J.
Opposition to the religious use of images. The term “iconoclasm,” which literally means “image breaking,” became a religious and socio-political movement in the eighth and ninth century c.e. The Byzan-¶ tine empire (see byzantines ) under the pretext of its opposition to icons turned officially against many forms of spirituality, including the cults of saints and monasticism, for more than a century (726-843 c.e.; see monasticism and monks ). Inasmuch as opposition to icons had been expressed long before the rise of Islam, any relationship between Byzantine icon…

Idolatry and Idolaters

(3,334 words)

Author(s): Hawting, Gerald R.
Worship of a created thing as a god; those who engage in such worship. The Arabic root used most frequently in the Qurʾān in words and expressions suggestive of the ¶ idea of idolatry is sh-r-k. That root commonly appears in Arabic in various words connected with the idea of “sharing, participating, associating,” etc., and the basic level of meaning is …

Idols and Images

(2,125 words)

Author(s): Hawting, Gerald R.
Physical representations — usually of deities or supernatural powers; also, any false god. Various words in the Qurʾān are understood by the commentators (see exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval ), sometimes not unanimously, as referring to, or in some way connected with, such representations. The most obvious are two of the most common Arabic words for idols, awthān (sing. wathan) and aṣnām (sing. ṣanam), both of which occur in the Qurʾān only in their plural forms. The words ṭāghūt and jibt are often understood to refer to idols in general or to a particular idol, sometimes in other ways, and a similar uncertainty surrounds the words nuṣub a…

Idrīs

(1,386 words)

Author(s): Erder, Yoram
A qurʾānic prophet (see prophets and prophethood ) blessed with the virtues of piety (q.v.) and patience (see trust and patience ). There is no doubt that his uniqueness is the result of his ascent to a high station by the hand of God ( q 19:56-7; 21:85). Muslim tradition claims that he ascended to heaven while still alive and there he was awarded eternal life and a permanent home in the fourth heaven, although some traditions place him in the sixth heaven (see heaven and sky ). Indeed, the prophet Muḥammad meets him in heaven during his nocturnal journey ( isrāʾ, see ascension ). Other traditions…

ʿIfrīt

(829 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Thomas
Mentioned once in the Qurʾān as designation of a jinn (q.v.), the word ʿifrīt (pl. ʿafārīt) gave rise to numerous interpretations. In the qurʾānic version of the story about Solomon (q.v.) and the Queen of Sheba (see bilqīs ), the former asks for somebody to fetch him the Queen's throne, whereupon an ʿifrīt of the jinn offers to bring it even before Solomon can rise ¶ from his place ( q 27:39). The duty is not given to him, however, but t…

Ignorance

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Shepard, William E.
Lack of knowledge (see knowledge and learning ). The words ignorance, ignorant, etc., usually translate Arabic words derived from the root j-h-l, which appear twenty-four times in the Qurʾān. One of these words, jāhiliyya, is discussed in the article age of ignorance. The present article discusses the others and also briefly considers other roots that convey ideas related to ignorance. The classical Arabic dictionaries define j-h-l mainly in contrast to ʿ-l-m, knowledge, but Goldziher, Izutsu and others have argued that in pre-Islamic literature j-h-l almost always refers to e…

Ignorance [Supplement 2016]

(1,344 words)

Author(s): William E. Shepard
Ignorance indicates a lack of knowledge (see knowledge and learning). The English words ignorance, ignorant, etc., are usually used to translate Arabic words derived from the root j-h-l, which appear twenty-four times in the Qurʾān. One of these words, jāhiliyya, is discussed in the article Age of Ignorance. The present article discusses the other words, and also briefly considers other roots that convey ideas related to ignorance.The classical Arabic dictionaries define j-h-l mainly in contrast to ʿ-l-m, knowledge, but Goldziher, Izutsu, and others have argued that in pre-Islamic literature
Date: 2016-11-17