Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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Ḥaram

(11 words)

 see house, domestic and divine; sanctity and the sacred Bibliography

Hārūn

(4 words)

 see aaron Bibliography

Hārūt and Mārūt

(794 words)

Author(s): Brinner, William M.
Two angels in Babylon who were given knowledge which, when used by humankind, causes discord on the earth. The Qurʾān mentions these two angels ( malakayn, see angel ) in only one rather enigmatic verse, q 2:102 (cf. Ibn ʿAskar, Takmīl, 52-3). Their names, similar in pattern to Jālūt ( Goliath, q.v.) and Ṭālūt ( Saul, q.v.; q 2:247-51), have been traced etymologically by modern scholars to those of two Zoroastrian “archangels” (amesha spenta) Haurvatat and Ameretat, literally ¶ “integrity” and “immortality,” possibly mediated into the Arabic forms by way of Aramaic. Through later elab…

Harvest

(6 words)

 see agriculture and vegetation Bibliography

Hawā

(6 words)

 see adam and eve Bibliography

Hearing and Deafness

(809 words)

Author(s): van Gelder, Geert Jan H.
The power or process of perceiving sound, and the inability to do so. The root s-m-ʿ denoting “hearing” or “listening,” is, with some 185 occurrences, among the most common ones in the Qurʾān. It is found as a verb, mostly samiʿa, “to hear,” once in the fifth verbal form, “to try to hear/listen” ( issammaʿa, q 37:8), a few times in the eighth form, issamaʿa, “to listen,” and the fourth, asmaʿa, “to cause to hear.” The verb aḥassa is also used in the sense “to hear” (e.g. q 3:52; 19:98); anṣata, “to listen,” is found twice ( q 7:204; 46:29). Other verbs meaning “to listen” such as aṣghā and aṣākha are l…

Heart

(2,209 words)

Author(s): McAuliffe, Jane Dammen
The organ responsible for the circulation of blood. In its singular form ( qalb) the most common Arabic term for ‘heart’ ap-¶ pears 19 times in the Qurʾān, beginning with the second sūra and ending with the 64th. q 33:4 represents its unique occurrence in the dual form of the noun (qalbayn). As a plural (qulūb), however, the term occurs well over 100 times. Textually, the first mention is q 2:7: “God set a seal ( khatama) on their hearts and on their hearing and a cover over their eyes.” This “sealing” of the heart appears again in q 6:46, 42:24 and 45:23 (see Ibrahim, Qurʾānic “sealing of the h…

Heaven

(6 words)

 see heaven and sky Bibliography

Heaven and Sky

(1,351 words)

Author(s): Jarrar, Maher
The expanse or firmament arching over the earth. The Arabic al-samʾ, from the root s-m-w, denotes the upper part of anything, such as a roof, sky or heaven (Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, i, 151; Lane, iv, 1434). In the masculine it means roof or sky or heaven, in the feminine, sky or heaven. In the Qurʾān, it is attested 120 times in the singular, and 190 times in the plural ( samāwāt). In a special usage of the term, God swears by heaven ( q 51:7; 85:1; 86:1, 11; cf. 51:23; see oaths and promises). Creation of heaven As depicted by the Qurʾān, heaven and earth (q.v.) were a mass all sewn up, which God …

Heavenly Book

(1,234 words)

Author(s): Wisnovsky, Robert
The account of all past, present and future events, and the source of revelation to which the qurʾānic terms “mother of the book” ( umm al- kitāb, q 43:4), “hidden book” ( kitāb maknūn, q 56:78) and “guarded tablet” ( lawḥ maḥfūẓ, q 85:22) collectively refer. According to most interpreters, the heav-¶ enly book sits either to the right of or underneath God's throne (see throne of god; anthropomorphism), above the seventh heaven (see heaven and sky ). Others hold that the heavenly book rests upon the brow of the angel Isrāfīl. Given its elevated position the heavenly book is hidden exc…

Hell

(6 words)

 see hell and hellfire Bibliography

Hell and Hellfire

(4,044 words)

Author(s): Gwynne, Rosalind W.
The place or state of punishment for the wicked after death. The Qurʾān portrays a hell that tortures both body and soul. It mentions its names, something of its physical layout, just which human sinners are its fuel, and how people may save themselves from it. Sinners whose wishful thinking minimizes the scope of hell must still face the reality of it, yet when they see it, it will be too late. They will be in hell eternally but the Qurʾān remains ambiguous on ¶ whether hell is eternal in the same way that God is eternal (see eternity ). The names of hell The Qurʾān uses some ten terms to name he…

Hereafter

(12 words)

 see eschatology; resurrection; paradise; hell and hellfire; fire; last judgment Bibliography

Heresy

(1,830 words)

Author(s): Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali
Dissent from commonly accepted doctrine with a tendency towards sectarianism. Heresy, of course, only has meaning in light of orthodoxy, the elaboration of which in Islam seems to have begun as a traditionalist reaction to the politico-theological policies of the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Maʾmūn (r. 198/813-218/833; Lewis, Observations, 43 f.; Makdisi, Ibn ʿAqīl, 26 f.). As the Qurʾān is the foundational text of Islam, it is difficult to locate a strict concept of heresy within the Qurʾān itself. Nevertheless, as Muḥammad is not understood to proclaim …

Heresy [Supplement 2017]

(1,953 words)

Author(s): Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi
Heresy is dissent from commonly accepted doctrine with a tendency towards sectarianism. Heresy, of course, only has meaning in light of orthodoxy, the elaboration of which in Islam seems to have begun as a traditionalist reaction to the politico-theological policies of the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Maʾmūn (r. 198-218/813-33; Lewis, Observations, 43-4; Makdisi, Ibn ʿAqīl, 26-7). Although the Qurʾān is the foundational text of Islam, it is difficult to locate a strict concept of heresy within it. Nevertheless, as Muḥammad is not understood to deliver a new message,…
Date: 2017-08-31
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