Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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(-ḥāʾ- - ḍ-ḥ-y)

(312 words)

-ḥāʾ-   aḥmad   Names of the Prophet    anā aḥmad bi-lā mīm    Names of the Prophet   miḥrāb, pl. maḥārīb   Aqṣā Mosque   Archaeology and the Qurʾān   Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān   Calligraphy   Geography   Mary   Material Culture and the Qurʾān   Mosque   Numismatics   Prayer   Sacred Precincts   Solomon   Syria   ḥ-b-b    aḥabba    God and his Attributes    Love and Affection    Rhymed Prose    Ritual and the Qurʾān    aḥabbu    Love and Affection    maḥabba    Love and Affection    Trust and Patience    ḥabb    Agriculture and Vegetation    Earth    Geography    ḥabba…

Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān

(12,841 words)

Author(s): Juynboll, G.H.A.
One important genre in Arabic literature comprises the sayings attributed to the Prophet Muḥammad, descriptions of his deeds as well as accounts of events supposed to have occurred during his lifetime. This literary genre is the tradition literature, the ḥadīth, which is a term for the literature as well as for a single tradition. This article is divided into eleven sections: (1) general introduction; (2) traditions about the beginning of the divine revelations and what the Prophet is reported to have experienced while receiving them (see revelation and inspiration ); (3) traditions…

Ḥafṣa

(833 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
A wife of the prophet Muḥammad and a daughter of the caliph ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb. Ibn Saʿd relates that she was born in Mecca five years before Muḥammad's first revelation (ca. 605 c.e.). Her mother was Zaynab bt. Maẓʿūn. Ḥafṣa emigrated to Medina with her first husband, Khunays b. Ḥudhāfa, of the Sahm, a clan of the Quraysh (q.v.). He is believed to have died shortly after the battle of Badr (q.v.; 2/624) in which he participated (Ibn Saʿd, Ṭabaqāt, viii, 81), although some say that he was killed during the battle of Uḥud (Ibn Ḥajar, Iṣāba, vii, 582; see expeditions and battles ). Ibn Qutayba, how…

Hagar

(4 words)

 see abraham Bibliography

(-ḥāʾ- - ḥ-d-th - ḥ-f-ẓ)

(679 words)

ḥ-d-th    aḥdatha    Hidden and the Hidden    Inimitability    iḥdāth    Philosophy and the Qurʾān    muḥaddith, pl. muḥaddithūn    Anthropomorphism    Createdness of the Qurʾān    Philosophy and the Qurʾān    Scripture and the Qurʾān    Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān    muḥdath    Contamination    Createdness of the Qurʾān    Innovation    Muʿtazila    Philosophy and the Qurʾān    Remembrance    muḥdith    Philosophy and the Qurʾān    Ritual and the Qurʾān    ḥadath    Ritual Purity    Ritual and the Qurʾān    ḥadīth, pl. ahādīth    Aaron    Abortion    Abrogation    Adam an…

(-ḥāʾ- - ḥ-j-b - ḥ-k-m)

(551 words)

ḥ-j-b   Trade and Commerce    ḥijāb    Barrier    Barzakh    Clothing    Community and Society in the Qurʾān    Epigraphy    Eschatology    Furniture and Furnishings    God and his Attributes    People of the Heights    Prophets and Prophethood    Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾān    Textual Criticism of the Qurʾān    Veil    Wives of the Prophet    Women and the Qurʾān    min warāʾi ḥijāb[in]    ʿ_ʾisha bint Abī Bakr    Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān    ḥijāban mastūran    ḥājib    Soothsayer   ḥ-j-j    iḥtajja    Politics and the Qurʾān    ḥajj    Almsgiving    Caravan    Cave…

(-ḥāʾ- - ḥ-k-y - ḥ-q-q)

(543 words)

ḥ-k-y    hikāya, pl. ḥikāyat    Literature and the Qurʾān    Narratives    Revelation and Inspiration    Speech    ḥ-l-f    aḥālif    ḥalafa    ḥalf    ḥallāf    ḥalīf, pl. ḥulafāʾ    ḥilf, pl. aḥlāf    ḥ-l-l    aḥalla    istaḥalla    muḥill    taḥlīl    ḥalla    ḥalāl    ḥill    ḥilla    ḥ-l-m    ḥalīm    ḥilm    ḥulm, pl. aḥlām    ḥulum    ḥālim    ḥ-l-q    ḥalq    ḥalqa    ḥ-l-w/ḥ-l-y    ḥilya    ḥulwān    ḥulī    ḥ-m-d    maḥmūd    muḥammad    taḥmīd    ḥamada    ḥamd    ḥāmidūn    ḥ-m-ʾ    ḥamaʾ, pl. ḥamaʾāt    ḥamāʾ   ḥ-m-d-l    ḥamdala    Praise    Prayer For…

(-ḥāʾ- - ḥ-r-b - ḥ-s-b)

(590 words)

ḥ-r-b    muḥāribūn    Rebellion    ḥaraba    Expeditions and Battles    ḥāraba    Expeditions and Battles    Fighting   ḥ-r-d    taḥrīd    Taxation   ḥ-r-f    taḥrīf    Chronology and the Qurʾān    Forgery    Gospel    Jews and Judaism    Pit    Polemic and Polemical Language    Pre-1800 Preoccupations of Qurʾānic Studies    Revision and Alteration    Shīʿism and the Qurʾān    Torah    taḥrīf al-maʿānī    taḥrīf al-naṣṣ    taḥrīf wa-qarmaṭa    Ṣūfism and the Qurʾān    taḥrīfāt    Ḥadīth and the Qurʾān    ḥarf, pl. ḥurūf, aḥrūf    Chronology and the Qurʾān    Everyday L…

(-ḥāʾ- - ḥ-s-d - ḥ-y-s)

(437 words)

ḥ-s-d    ḥasad    Envy    Eyes    ḥasada    Envy    ḥāsid    Envy   ḥ-s-n    aḥsan    Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval    God and his Attributes    aḥsana    Beauty    Ethics and the Qurʾān    Paradise    alladhī aḥsana    aḥsana ṣuwwarakum    lilladhīna aḥsanū    istiḥsān    Law and the Qurʾān    Modesty    Politics and the Qurʾān    iḥsān    Belief and Unbelief    Chastity    Ethics and the Qurʾān    Honor    Justice and Injustice    Oaths    Piety    Virtues and Vices, Commanding and Forbidding    bi-l-wālidayni iḥsānan    iḥtisān    Justice and Injusti…

(-ḥāʾ- - ḥ-y-y - ḥarb)

(466 words)

ḥ-y-y    aḥyā    Cain and Abel    Cosmology    Crucifixion    Laughter    Martyrs    Resurrection    Word of God    istaḥyā    Modesty    istiḥyāʾ    Modesty    muḥyī    Resurrection    ḥayawān    Animal Life    Paradise    ḥayy    Adam and Eve    Death and the Dead    God and his Attributes    Kinship    Life    Pairs and Pairing    Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān    Tribes and Clans    ḥayy al-qayyūm    ḥayya, pl. ḥayyāt    Animal Life    ḥayāt[ḥayāh]    Angel    Boast    Community and Society in the Qurʾān    Grammar and the Qurʾān    Life    Nature as Signs    Resurrection    Spatial Relations    Transitoriness    World    ḥayāt al-dunyā    ḥayāt al-ākhira   ḥ-y-ḍ    maḥīḍ    Anatomy    Everyday Life, Qurʾān In    Menstruation    Ritual Purity    ḥayāḍ    Marriage and Divorce    ḥayḍ    Ritual Purity    Ritual and the Qurʾān    ḥāʾiḍ    Anatomy    Ritual and the Qurʾān   ḥ-z-b    ḥizb, pl. aḥzāb    Community and Society in the Qurʾān    Contracts and Alliances    Ethics and the Qurʾān    Everyday Life, Qurʾān In    History and the Qurʾān    Ma…

Ḥajj

(4 words)

 see pilgrimage Bibliography

Ḥalāl

(8 words)

 see lawful and unlawful; prohibited degrees Bibliography

Hāmān

(650 words)

Author(s): Johns, Anthony Hearle
The chief minister of Pharaoh (q.v.) who with him rejected Moses' (q.v.) call to worship the true God and to set free the children of Israel (q.v.). In the Qurʾān, there are six attestations of his name. In q 28:6 he is mentioned alongside Pharaoh. They both have armies, and share guilt in the slaughter of the sons of the Israelites. God declares that they will be overthrown by the people they so oppress, who will then be heirs to their power and wealth (q.v.; q 28:4-5). There is thus an irony in the fact that when Pharaoh's household to…

Hāmān [Supplement 2017]

(617 words)

Author(s): Anthony H. Johns
Hāmān was the chief minister of Pharaoh who, together with the latter, rejected Moses’ calls to worship the true God and to free the Children of Israel. In the Qurʾān, there are six attestations of his name. In Q 28:6 he is mentioned alongside Pharaoh. They both have armies, and share guilt in the slaughter of the sons of the Israelites. God declares that they will be overthrown by the people they so oppress, who will then be heirs to their power and wealth (Q 28:4-5). There is thus an irony in the fact that when Pharaoh’s household took the infant Moses from the river — an in…
Date: 2017-08-31

Ḥamza b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib

(728 words)

Author(s): Leemhuis, Frederik
Paternal uncle of the Prophet (half-brother of the Prophet's father), as well as his foster brother (Muslim, Ṣaḥīḥ, K. al-Riḍāʿ, 14; Ṭabarī, Taʾrīkh, i, 970; id. History, v, 172; see fosterage ). One of the great heroes of the earliest period of Islam. Ḥamza appears to have had a close relationship with the Prophet; he accompanied him when he went to ask Khadīja's (q.v.) father for her hand and, apparently out of solidarity wit…

Ḥanafīs

(7 words)

 see law and the qurʾān Bibliography

Ḥanbalīs

(7 words)

 see law and the qurʾān Bibliography

Hand(s)

(862 words)

Author(s): Denny, Frederick Mathewson
The terminal part of the arm; also, figuratively, control or agency. The hand, in both its literal and symbolic senses, is most often expressed in the Qurʾān by the Arabic yad (dual yadān, pl. aydī), with some 119 occurrences, found in all chronological periods of revelation (see chronology and the qurʾān ). (The expression bayna yaday, “between two hands,” as in q 36:12 [cf. 36:45, bayna aydīkum, “between your (pl.) hands”], means “…

Ḥanīf

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
A believer who is neither a polytheist ( mushrik) nor a Jew or a Christian (see polytheism and atheism; jews and judaism; christians and christianity). The Arabic root ḥ-n-f initially means “to incline,” so that ḥanīf (pl. ḥunafāʾ) is most probably understood in the Qurʾān as one who has abandoned the prevailing religions and has inclined to a religion of his own. It occurs once as a synonym of muslim ( q 3:67) and also in juxtaposition with the verb aslama ( q 4:125). The qurʾānic prototype of the ideal ḥanīf is Abraham (q.v.; q 3:67; 16:120), and being a ḥanīf signifies belonging to the “rel…

Ḥarām

(9 words)

 see forbidden; lawful and unlawful; prohibited degrees Bibliography
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