Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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Gabriel

(1,066 words)

Author(s): Webb, Gisela
The angelic being who “brings down” the qurʾānic revelation to the prophet Muḥammad's heart (q.v.; q 2:97), Gabriel (Ar. Jibrīl, also Jabrāʾīl; Heb. Gabrīʾēl) is named three times in the Qurʾān, q 2:97, 98 (where Michael [q.v.], too, is mentioned), and q 66:4. Commentators on the Qurʾān such as al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923), al-Zamakhsharī (d. 538/1144) and al-Bayḍāwī (d. ca. 716/1316-7) identify Gabriel as the messenger who brings the revelation to Muḥammad, and understand the two visions of Muḥammad recorded in q 53:1-18 to be the Prophet's sighting of Gabriel (Pedersen, Djabrāʾ…

Gambling

(1,661 words)

Author(s): Karic, Enes
Playing or gaming for money or other stake with the participants in such activity having no control over the outcome. Although related qurʾānic concepts (discussed below) include such terms as “playing, gaming” ( l-ʿ-b), “betting” (associated with q 30:1-4), and “the casting of lots” ( qurʿa, in relation to q 3:44; 37:141), the most precise qurʾānic example of gambling is al- maysir. al-Maysir and games of chance The term al-maysir is mentioned three times in the Qurʾān, always with the general connotation of gambling (games of chance). A first occurrence is in q 2:219: “They question …

Garden

(3,307 words)

Author(s): Afsaruddin, Asma
A fertile tract of land for the cultivation of flowers, herbs, vegetables or fruits. In Arabic, the term janna refers to “garden” in general; with the definite article al-, it refers particularly to paradise (q.v.), the celestial abode promised to the righteous in the next world (see reward and punishment ). As a single word al-janna is the most frequently used term in the Qurʾān to designate paradise (e.g. q 2:214; 7:43; 19:63). It is also found in phrases such as jannat (or jannāt) ʿadn, “garden(s) of Eden” ( q 13:23; 16:31; 18:31; 61:12; etc.), jannat al-khuld, “garden of perpetuity” ( q 25:…

Garlic

(6 words)

 see food and drink Bibliography

Gehenna

(7 words)

 see hell and hellfire; fire Bibliography

Gender

(3,077 words)

Author(s): Badran, Margot
A religious and cultural construction, including prescribed, proscribed, and suggested behaviors and practices relating to women and/or men. Although there is no qurʾānic term for “gender” as such, both “gender-specific” and non-gendered (i.e. the enunciation of principles pertaining to all human beings) language pervade the qurʾānic text. (Another word that is absent from the Qurʾān is the biological term “sex” [see sex and sexuality ]. The common, contemporary term al- jins did not exist in Arabic at the time of the Qurʾān's origins but appeared later as a loanw…

Generations

(542 words)

Author(s): Newby, Gordon Darnell
Stages in the succession of natural descent. Generations ( qarn, pl. qurūn) is used some twenty times in the Qurʾān to refer to the ¶ groups of people (i.e. nations; cf. Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, xi, 26, ad q 6:6) who had been destroyed by God for their disobedience (q.v.) and failure to heed his message (e.g. q 6:6; 10:13; 11:116; 17:17; 19:74, 78; 23:31; 38:3; 50:36); the same word, qarn, also refers to the people who replace those generations. These destroyed peoples are cited as examples of wrongdoing and as warnings not to follow their doomed ways. The destroyed peop…

Generosity

(9 words)

 see god and his attributes; gift-giving; almsgiving Bibliography

Gentiles

(7 words)

 see jews and judaism; illiteracy Bibliography

Geography

(12,059 words)

Author(s): Neuwirth, Angelika
This entry starts with a short general overview of the geography of the Qurʾān, i.e. the geographical setting of the genesis of the text. It then proceeds to survey the geographical representations in the Qurʾān. As Kenneth Cragg (Event) has correctly pointed out, the events which are pivotal in the Qurʾān are located in a space shaped ¶ by pagan notions (see polytheism and atheism; south arabia, religion in pre-islamic). Geography in the Qurʾān thus appears constructed against the pre-qurʾānic Bedouin (q.v.) views of space transmitted in ancient Arabic poetry (see age of ignorance; p…

G (Gabriel [Jibrīl] - Ginat, J.)

(672 words)

Gabriel [Jibrīl]  Abraham  Air and Wind  Angel  Apocalypse  Ascension  Belief and Unbelief  Bilqīs  Book  Calf of Gold  Cave  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Cleanliness and Ablution  Dog  Ethics and the Qurʾān  Everyday Life, Qurʾān In  Faith  Foreign Vocabulary  Foretelling in the Qurʾān  Gabriel  Heavenly Book  Holy Spirit  Informants  Intercession  Jesus  Jews and Judaism  Kaʿba  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Last Judgment  Lot  Mary  Michael  Miracles  Musaylima  Muḥammad  Night of Power  Noah  Noon  Nāmūs  Paradise  Philosophy and the Qurʾān  Prayer  Profane and Sacred  …

G (-ghayn- - gh-s-l)

(475 words)

-ghayn-   gh-b-n    taghābun    Cheating   gh-b-r    ghubār    Arabic Script    Manuscripts of the Qurʾān    Material Culture and the Qurʾān   gh-d-w    ghadan    Time    ghadā    Day, Times of    ghadāt [ghadāh]    Day, Times of    Evening    Grammar and the Qurʾān    Morning    Prayer    Time    ghadāʾ    Day, Times of    Morning    ghuduww    Day, Times of    Evening    Morning    Prayer    Theophany    Time   gh-f-l    ghafala    Teaching    ghafla    Barzakh   gh-f-r    ghafara    Forgiveness    Judgment    ghaffār    Forgiveness    God and his Attributes    ghafūr    Basm…

G (-ghayn- - gh-s-l-n - gh-ṭ-ṭ)

(343 words)

gh-s-l-n    ghislīn    Fire   gh-s-q    ghasaq    Day, Times of    Evening    Time    ghassāq    Fire    ghāsiq    Magic   gh-sh-y    aghshā    Word of God    ghashiya    Day and Night    Smoke    ghāshiya    Last Judgment    Pit   gh-th-ʾ    ghuthāʾ    Colors   gh-w-l    ghawl, pl. ghīlān    Spiritual Beings    Springs and Fountains    ghūl    Spiritual Beings   gh-w-r   Expeditions and Battles    ghār    Cave    maghārāt    Cave    mughīr    Expeditions and Battles   gh-w-y    aghwā    Cosmology    Theology and the Qurʾān    ghawā    Disobedience    Error    Ethics and the Qur…

G (God - Gril, D.)

(548 words)

God   House of   City   Throne of   Medina   Throne of God   Water of Paradise Goddard, H.  Baptism Goethe, J.  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Early Modern and Contemporary  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Translations of the Qurʾān Gog [Yajūj]  Alexander  Antichrist  Apocalypse  Conquest  Gog and Magog  Last Judgment  Narratives  Noah  Power and Impotence  Resurrection  Trips and Voyages Goitein, S.  Fasting  Fātiḥa  Night of Power  Ramaḍān Golden Gate  Jerusalem Goldenberg, G.  Grammar and the Qurʾān Goldman, S.  Joseph Goldziher, I.  Abrogation  Age of Ignorance  Contemporary Cri…

G (Grimme, H. - Günther, S.)

(147 words)

Grimme, H.  Chronology and the Qurʾān  Contemporary Critical Practices and the Qurʾān  Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān  [Al-]Ukhdūd Grohmann, A.  Arabic Script  Manuscripts of the Qurʾān  Material Culture and the Qurʾān Gruendler, B.  Arabic Script  Orality and Writing in Arabia  Sheets von Grünebaum, G.E.  Festivals and Commemorative Days  Revision and Alteration Guillaume Postel see Postel, Guillaume (d. 1581) Guillaume, A.  Contemporary Critical Practices and the Qurʾān Guinea  Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān Gujarat  Material Culture and th…