Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is an encyclopaedic dictionary of qur’ānic terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis extended with essays on the most important themes and subjects within qur’ānic studies. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online is the first comprehensive, multivolume reference work on the Qur’ān to appear in a Western language.
Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān Online includes direct access to 62 Early Printed Western Qur’āns Online and the Electronic Qurʾān Concordance, a unique online finding aid for textual research.


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(-ḍād- - ʿ-ẓ-r)

(439 words)

-ḍād-   ḍ-b-b    ḍabba    Cosmology   ḍ-b-ṭ    ḍabṭ    Orthography    ḍābiṭ, pl. ḍābiṭūn    Possession and Possessions   ḍ-d-d    taḍādd    Literature and the Qurʾān   ḍ-f-d-ʿ    ḍafādiʿ    Animal Life   ḍ-gh-th    ḍighth, pl. aḍghāth    Agriculture and Vegetation    Foretelling in the Qurʾān    Grasses    Joseph    Popular and Talismanic Uses of the Qurʾān    Prophets and Prophethood    aḍghāth aḥlām   ḍ-j-ʿ    maḍājiʿ    Ethics and the Qurʾān   ḍ-l-l    aḍalla    Astray    Ethics and the Qurʾān    Moses    Path or Way    iḍlāl    Moses    muḍill    Moses    taḍlīl    Pit    Rhymed…

Dahr

(4 words)

 see fate Bibliography

Damnation

(5 words)

 see last judgment Bibliography

Dance

(7 words)

 see ṣūfism and the qurʾān Bibliography

Dār al-Ḥarb

(10 words)

 see community and society in the qurʾān Bibliography

Dār al-Islām

(10 words)

 see community and society in the qurʾān Bibliography

Darkness

(616 words)

Author(s): Karamustafa, Ahmet T.
The absence of light (q.v.). In the Qurʾān, darkness is almost always evoked within the semantic field of the term unbelief ( kufr, see belief and unbelief ) as a metaphorical expression descriptive of the spiritual state of the unbeliever ( kāfir). It is expressed by the word ẓulumāt (the plural of ẓulma/ẓuluma) attested 23 times in the text. The fourth verbal form, which means to become or to make dark ( aẓlama, q 2:20) and its active participle muẓlim ( q 10:27; cf. 36:37), account for the only other qurʾānic references to darkness. Finally, the elative form (aẓlam), where it occurs, is n…

Date Palm

(953 words)

Author(s): Waines, David
Phoenix dactylifera, a widely-cultivated tree of great economic importance in the Middle ¶ East: nakhl (collective noun), nakhīl (plural), and nakhla (nomen unitatis). These forms appear in the Qurʾān a total of nineteen times. The date palm is mentioned in two general contexts. The first is as one of the signs (q.v.) of God's munificence towards his creation, occurring often with the olive and the grape, e.g. q 6:99; 16:11; 80:29. The second is in a metaphorical sense, likening God's punishment of sin (see sin, major and minor; chastisement and punishment) to the “uprooted trunks of…

Dates

(5 words)

 see date palm Bibliography

Dating

(4 words)

 see calendar Bibliography

Daughters

(4 words)

 see children Bibliography

Daughters of God

(19 words)

 see polytheism and atheism; idols and images; idolatry and idolaters; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān Bibliography

David

(1,167 words)

Author(s): Hasson, Isaac
The Israelite king, mentioned sixteen times in the Qurʾān. David (Dāwūd) appears in the Qurʾān as a link in the chain of proph-¶ ets who preceded Muḥammad ( q 4:163; 6:84). Although he is not one of the law giving prophets (ulū al- ʿazm), he is far from a marginal figure. David in the Qurʾān David was the recipient of a written divine book of psalms (q.v.; q 4:163; 17:55). Mountains and birds obeyed him in praising God ( q 21:79; 34:10). He killed Goliath (q.v.; Jālūt) and God granted him kingship ( mulk, see kings and rulers ) after Saul (q.v.; Ṭālūt) and wisdom (q.v.; ḥikma, q 2:251), sometimes exp…

Daʿwa

(4 words)

 see invitation Bibliography

Dawn

(6 words)

 see day, times of Bibliography

Day and Night

(881 words)

Author(s): Dallal, A.
Alternation between light (q.v.) and darkness (q.v.) due to the rotation of the earth upon its axis. The numerous references in the Qurʾān to day and night (al- nahār wa-l-layl) fall under four general themes. First, the phenomenon of day and night itself, or aspects of it, is frequently presented as a sign ( āya, see signs ), lesson ( ʿibra) or expression of God's mercy (q.v.) for the wise to note and remember. The other related aspects of the phenomenon of day and night include their alteration ( ikhtilāf), succession, covering up one by the other and stripping off one from the other (yūliju, ya…

Day of Judgment

(7 words)

 see last judgment Bibliography

Days of God

(531 words)

Author(s): Nawas, John A.
A literal translation of the Arabic expression ayyām Allāh. The expression assumes its fuller significance in analogy to the phrase ayyām al-ʿarab, i.e. battles of Arab tribes in the pre-Islamic era (see pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān ), leading to the more appropriate translation, “battles of God.” The phrase ayyām Allāh occurs twice in the Qurʾān. The first occurrence is q 14:5 ( Sūrat Ibrāhīm), which reflects God's retribution — grace and reward for believers and punishment for unbelievers (see reward and punishment; chastisement and punishment). More specifically, ayyām Allā…

Day, Times of

(4,449 words)

Author(s): Günther, Sebastian
Day ( yawm) together with the corresponding terms night ( layl) and daytime ( nahār), as well as the regular intervals of the day and parts or particular times of the day. Such apparently familiar concepts actually have considerable importance in the Qurʾān. Five sūras are named for times of day or daily natural phenomena: “The Dawn” (al-Fajr, q 89); “The Night” (al-Layl, q 92); “The Forenoon” (al-Ḍuḥā, q 93); “The (late) Afternoon” (al-ʿAṣr, q 103) and “The Daybreak” (al-Falaq, q 113). Times of day serve as a framework for the events of the history of revelation and someti…

D (Dacca - Decius)

(483 words)

Dacca  Printing of the Qurʾān al-Ḍaḥḥāk (King Bīwarasb) see Bīwarasb al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Muzāḥim (d. 105/723)  Exegesis of the Qurʾān: Classical and Medieval  Jesus  Language and Style of the Qurʾān  Paradise  Satanic Verses Dahlan, A.  Teaching and Preaching the Qurʾān Dajjāl see Antichrist Dakake, M.M.  Ṣiffīn, Battle of Dakhla Oasis  Readings of the Qurʾān Dale, G.  Translations of the Qurʾān Dallal, A.  Calendar  Day and Night  Science and the Qurʾān Damascenes  Ritual and the Qurʾān Damascus  Antichrist  Arabic Script  Art and Architecture and the Qurʾān  Cain and Abel  Captives  Cav…
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