Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.



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Libraries of Arabic and Persian texts in late imperial China

(1,464 words)

Author(s): Weil, Dror
Libraries of Arabic and Persian texts in late imperial China owed their existence to the mobility of people across Asia. Changes in China’s engagement with Arabic and Persian texts were shaped by the socio-political environment and attitudes in China towards foreign knowledge in general and knowledge from the Islamicate world in particular. The earliest application of the Chinese term Hui (translated here as “Arabo-Persian”) appears to have been to the Uyghur population, but the meaning changed in the early centuries of the second millennium to e…
Date: 2020-04-09

Lidj Iyasu

(753 words)

Author(s): Desplat, Patrick
Lidj Iyasu (Prince Iyasu, later Iyasu V), was an Ethiopian ruler born on 3 February 1897, in the region of Dessie/Wollo, and died on 25 November 1935 (place unknown). He was referred to as lidj (prince, lit., child, a title granted to male members of the Ethiopian nobility) because he ruled Ethiopia from 12 December 1913 to 27 September 1916 as an uncrowned emperor. Iyasu never left a defining mark on the nation in the way other Ethiopian rulers did, and the time of his reign remained historically obscure until recently, on acco…
Date: 2020-02-11

Liḥyān

(2,153 words)

Author(s): Macdonald, Michael C. A.
Liḥyān is the name of an Arabian tribe known from Dadanitic inscriptions at the oasis of Dadan (biblical Dedān, modern al-ʿUlā), from Aramaic inscriptions at Taymāʾ, and from Sabaic inscriptions in Yemen, dated to the mid-first millennium B.C.E. The tribe is also mentioned in some Safaitic graffiti of the early centuries C.E. and by historians from the early Islamic period. Some members of the Banū Liḥyān are said to live near Mecca today. It is, however, only an assumption that these sources all refer to the same people. 1. Epigraphic evidence Liḥyān is first mentioned in a Sabaic in…
Date: 2020-02-11

Lisān al-ḥāl

(652 words)

Author(s): Ayalon, Ami
Lisān al-ḥāl (“The mouthpiece”), a Beirut-based newspaper founded in 1877, was one of the earliest and most influential Arabic journals of the nahḍa (cultural-literary “awakening”) era. Its press was located in Beirut’s Zuqāq al-Blāṭ quarter, in the wakāla of the Ayyās family. The emergence of a periodical press was a prominent mark of the literary ferment that swept parts of the Arab Ottoman provinces after the mid-nineteenth century. About twenty journals had preceded Lisān al-ḥāl in Beirut, mostly ephemeral but some more durable. Lisān al-ḥāl was launched as a semiweekly pap…
Date: 2020-02-11

List of Abbreviations

(850 words)

a. Periodicals AI = Annales Islamologiques AIUON = Annali dell' Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli AKM = Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes AMEL = Arabic and Middle Eastern Literatures AO = Acta Orientalia AO Hung. = Acta Orientalia (Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae) ArO = Archiv Orientální AS = Asiatische Studien ASJ = Arab Studies Journal ASP = Arabic Sciences and Philosophy ASQ = Arab Studies Quarterly BASOR = Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research BEA = Bulletin des Études Arabes BEFEO = Bulletin de l'Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient BEO = Bulleti…

List of Abbreviations

(850 words)

a. Periodicals AI = Annales Islamologiques AIUON = Annali dell' Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli AKM = Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes AMEL = Arabic and Middle Eastern Literatures AO = Acta Orientalia AO Hung. = Acta Orientalia (Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae) ArO = Archiv Orientální AS = Asiatische Studien ASJ = Arab Studies Journal ASP = Arabic Sciences and Philosophy ASQ = Arab Studies Quarterly BASOR = Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research BEA = Bulletin des Études Arabes BEFEO = Bulletin de l'Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient BEO = Bulleti…
Date: 2020-02-11

Literacy, in Arabic and Persian, in late imperial China

(1,663 words)

Author(s): Weil, Dror
Literacy in Arabic and Persian became more common in late imperial China, specifically during the Ming and Qing periods (roughly, from the fourteenth to the twentieth century). Three reasons for this development can be identified. First, the Chinese court used Arabic and Persian for diplomacy and desired access to scientific knowledge originating from the Islamicate world. Second, religious communities, most notably Muslims and Jews, persisted in their use of Arabic and Persian (and their related scripts a…
Date: 2020-04-09

Literary criticism, Urdu

(2,444 words)

Author(s): Oesterheld, Christina
The beginning of literary criticism (in the modern sense) in Urdu (tanqīd) is usually attributed to two authors of the late nineteenth century, Mawlānā Muḥammad Ḥusayn Āzād (d. 1910) and Alṭāf Ḥusayn Ḥālī (d. 1914). Literary criticism did, however, exist in Urdu before the colonial encounter. 1. The prehistory of modern Urdu criticism The earliest sources of critical ideas/criteria are brief asides in verses and prefaces to collections of poetry. Thus, Fārūqī regards Amīr Khusraw (d. 725/1325)—although he wrote predominantly in Persian—as a founde…
Date: 2020-04-09

Liyāqat ʿAlī Khān

(2,240 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Francis
Liyāqat ʿAlī Khān (1895–1951) was honorary secretary of the All-India Muslim League from 1936 to 1947 and prime minister of Pakistan from 1947 to 1951. 1. Early life, education, and political activity He was born in the Karnāl district of east Panjāb on 1 October 1895, the second son of a well-to-do landlord, Nawwāb Rustam ʿAlī Khān (d. 1918) of the Mandal family, which claimed to have immigrated five hundred years earlier from Iran and to descend from the Sāsānid king Anūshirwān (Khusraw I, r. 531–79 C.E.). British officials,…
Date: 2020-02-11