Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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Madanī, Ḥusayn Aḥmad

(1,463 words)

Author(s): Metcalf, Barbara D.
Mawlānā Sayyid Ḥusayn Aḥmad Madanī (1879–1957) was the foremost madrasa-based Islamic scholar to participate actively in the Indian nationalist movement and oppose, on both pragmatic and Islamic grounds, the creation of the separate state of Pakistan…
Date: 2018-09-13


(1,361 words)

Author(s): Pribadi, Yanwar
Madura, an island in the Java Sea and part of the Indonesian province of East Java, is characterised by a mixture of strong Islamic characteristics and a distinctive local culture. It comprises an area of approximately 4,250 square kilometres and consists of four regencies ( kabupaten), which are, from west to east: Bangkalan, Sampang, Pamekasan, and Sumenep. According to the 2015 census, the island had a population of 3,808,533. The main language spoken is Madurese. There are two dialects, with varying levels of prestige accorded to them,…
Date: 2018-12-18

Maḥbūb b. al-Raḥīl, Abū Sufyān

(776 words)

Author(s): Gaiser, Adam R.
Abū Sufyān Maḥbūb b. al-Raḥīl (or al-Ruḥayl) al-Qurayshī al-Makhzūmī al-ʿAbdī was a Basran Ibāḍī jurist, theologian, and historian who became a leader of the Basran Ibāḍī community after the death of Wāʾil b. Ayyūb, in about 190/806. His dates are uncertain: Crone and Zimmerman (310–1) propose his birth before 140/757 and his death in about 210/825; equally uncertain are his tribal identifications as a Qurayshī (al-Saʿdī, 8:303) or an ʿAbdī (i.e., a member of the ʿAbd al-Qays) (al-Darjīnī, 2:278), both of which Wilkinson doubts (Ibāḍism, 164). When his mother re-married, he became a stepson of the Ibāḍī luminary al-Rabīʿ b. Ḥabīb (d. c.170/787). In his early life, Abū Sufyān collected stories about the formative period of Ibāḍism and the third- and fourth-generation Ibāḍīs of Basra, such as his adoptive grandfather al-Mulayḥ (d. late second/eighth century) and ʿAbd al-Malik al-Ṭawīl (d. late second/eighth to early third/ninth century) (al-Shammākhī, 1:222–3, 226). Later, as leader of the Basran Ibāḍī community, Abū Suf…
Date: 2018-09-13

Maḥfūẓ, Najīb

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Allen, Roger M.A.
Najīb Maḥfūẓ (10 December 1911–30 August 2006) was Egypt's most prominent writer of fictional narratives in the twentieth century. In 1988 he was the first Arab author to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.…
Date: 2019-01-09

Maḥmūd, ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm

(876 words)

Author(s): Aishima, Hatsuki
ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm Maḥmūd
Date: 2018-07-12

Maḥmūd Gāvān

(3,038 words)

Author(s): Flatt, Emma
Khvāja ʿImād al-Dīn Maḥmūd Gīlānī (813–86/1411–81), commonly known as Maḥmūd Gāvān, was a powerful vizier of the Bahmanī sultanate of South India. Born into a politically important family in Gīlān, Gāvān seems initially to have entered service with the rulers of Gīlān (Sherwani, Gawan, 22–4, citing al-Sakhāwī). Following the death of his father, Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Khvāja Kamāl al-Gīlānī, Maḥmūd and his elder brother Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad were forced into exile by a rival political faction, headed by two men who had once been protégés of the brothers’ own family ( Riyāḍ al-inshāʾ, 22–8). Leaving their widowed mother behind, Shihāb al-Dīn travelled to Mecca and Maḥmūd to Cairo, where he met the Egyptian
Date: 2018-07-12

al-Majdhūb, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(647 words)

Author(s): Rodríguez Mediano, Fernando
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān…
Date: 2018-07-12


(582 words)

Author(s): Muranyi, Miklos
Al-Mājishūn, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAbdallāh b. Abī Salama, Abū ʿAbdallāh, Abū Aṣbagh (d. 164/780–1), a mawlā (client) of the Āl al-Munkadir b. al-Ḥuḍayr al-Taymī in Medina, was, with Mālik b. Anas (d. 179/796), one of the most renowned disciple…
Date: 2019-01-10

Makhdūm-i Aʿẓam, Aḥmad

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Gardner, Vika
Aḥmad b. Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Khwājagī Kāsānī Makhdūm-i Aʿẓam (866–949/1461–1542) was a Ṣūfī, the author of approximately thirty religious treatises, and the founder of saintly lineages in the Naqshbandiyya Ṣūfī order. He was born in Kasan-sai (Kosonsoi), in the Farghāna (Fergana) valley, in present-day Uzbekistan, and buried in Dahbīd (Dahpīd), outside Samarqand. The Maṭlab al-ṭālibīn, written in the mid-eleventh/seventeenth century by Abūl-ʿAbbās Muḥammad Ṭālib b. …
Date: 2018-07-12

Makhlūf al-ʿAdawī, Muḥammad Ḥasanayn, al-Mālikī

(898 words)

Author(s): Chih, Rachida
Muḥammad Ḥasanayn Makhlūf al-ʿAdawī al-Mālikī (1861–1936) was an Egyptian scholar and Ṣūfī, father of Ḥasanayn Muḥammad Makhlūf (d. 1961), muftī of Egypt from 1946 to 1950.…
Date: 2018-07-12

Malay and other languages of insular Southeast Asia

(2,454 words)

Author(s): Wieringa, Edwin P.
Malay is an Austronesian language spoken by most inhabitants
Date: 2018-09-13

al-Mālikī, Abū Bakr

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Hentati, Nejmeddine
Abū Bakr ʿ…
Date: 2018-07-12

al-Mannūbiyya, Sayyida ʿĀʾisha

(904 words)

Author(s): Boissevain, Katia
Sayyida ʿĀʾisha al-Mannūbiyya (595–665/1199–1267, accor…
Date: 2018-07-12

Mardāvīj b. Ziyār

(1,419 words)

Author(s): Jarrar, Maher
Mardāvīj b. Ziyār (lit., he who hangs people, Ibn al-Wardī, 1:267; Justi, 194; Minorsky, 14; d. 323/935–6, r. 319–23/931–5) and his older brother Vushmgīr (lit., purchaser of quails, Minorsky, 14; called Washmgīr in Justi, 359; r. 323–56/935–67) were founders of the Ziyārid dynasty (Bosworth, New Islamic dynasties, 166–7), which ruled Ṭabaristān and Jurjān from 319/931 to abo…
Date: 2018-08-29

Maşizade Fikri Çelebi

(947 words)

Author(s): Özyıldırım, Ali Emre
Maşizade Fikri Çelebi (Māşīzāde Fikrī Çelebi) was a tenth/sixteenth-century Ottoman poet renowned for his mesnevis ( methnevīs). His real name was Derviş (Dervīş) and his pen name Fikri (Fikrī). He was born in Istanbul, probably towards the end of the reign of Selim (Selīm) I (r. 918–26/1512–20). His father, Şemseddin Ahmed (Şems al-Dīn Aḥmed) who died while working as
Date: 2018-07-12

Masʿūd-i Saʿd-i Salmān

(1,538 words)

Author(s): Sharma, Sunil
Masʿūd-i Saʿd-i Salmān (b. 438–41/1046–9?, d. 515/1121–2) was a Persian court poet and royal librarian of the later Ghaznavid period. His
Date: 2018-07-12

Maʿṣūm ʿAlī Shāh Dakanī

(1,835 words)

Author(s): van den Bos, Matthijs E.W.
Sayyid Mīr ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Maʿṣūm ʿAlī Shāh Dakanī (b. c. 1147/1734–5, d. end twelfth/eighteenth century) was an Indian-born spiritual master of the Niʿmatallāhī Ṣūfī order who revived Niʿmatallāhī Ṣūfism in Persia in the second half of the twelfth/eighteenth century (the Niʿmatallāhiyya, historically influential in Central Asia and India but today mostly in Iran, with significant groups in the West, goes back to Shāh Niʿmatallāh Valī, d. 843/1431, a Syrian-born Iranian mystic and author who settled in K…
Date: 2018-12-18

Megiser, Hieronymus

(845 words)

Author(s): Stein, Heidi
Hieronymus Megiser (c. 1554/5–1619) was a German polymath who wrote the first systematic grammar and dictionary of Turkish ever published in print, Institutionum linguae turcicae libri IV (1612). As a humanist scholar, he was interested in the study of the vernaculars, and he collected Turkish materials that reflected the spoken language of the time. His Turkish grammar, which gives the words in Latin transcription, belongs to the corpus of Ottoman-Turkish transcription texts and is essential for Ottoman historical linguistics. Born in Stuttgart (Württemberg), Megiser stud…
Date: 2018-07-12

Mehdizadə, Abbasqulu (Abbas Səhhət)

(361 words)

Author(s): Heß, Michael R.
Abbasqulu Əlabbas oğlu  Mehdizadə ( Abbas Səhhət, 1874–1918) was an Azerbaijani poet, writer, journalist, and translator. His pen name Səhhət means “health,” referring to the poet’s medical career and the supposedly healing effect of his work. Mehdizadə was born in the town of Şamaxı, in 1874. From 1894 to 1900, he studied at various religious schools ( madrasas) in Iran. He gained a degree in ophthalmology from Tehran University. In 1900–1, he worked as an ophthalmologist at a local notable’s court in Iran. From 1906 until his death, he worked as a language teacher in his hometown. Abbas…
Date: 2018-07-12

Mehmed Esad, Sahaflar Şeyhizade

(864 words)

Author(s): Abu-Manneh, Butrus
Mehmed Esad, Sahaflar Şeyhizade (Meḥmed Esʿad, Ṣaḥḥāflar Şeykhi-zāde, 1204–64/1789–1848) was a leading member of the ulema (ʿulamāʾ) in the mid thirteenth/nineteenth century. An eloquent orator, an historian, and a poet, he was a man of many talents who served in a number of state positions, including kadı (qāḍī), vakʿanüvis ( vaqʿa-nüvīs, Ottoman court historiographer), and chief editor of the official gazette Takvim-i Vekayi. Mehmed Esad was born in Istanbul on 18 Rebiyülevvel (Rabīʿ I) 1204/6 December 1789, the son of Ahmed (Aḥmed) Efendi (d. 1219/1804).…
Date: 2018-07-12
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