Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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Lala Mustafa Paşa

(730 words)

Author(s): Costantini, Vera
Lala Mustafa (Lālā Muṣṭafā) Paşa, (d. 988/1580) was a tenth-/sixteenth-century Ottoman vizier and military commander. He was born in the Bosnian village of Soqol (on an unknown date) and admitted to the Sultan’s court thanks to his influential family connections. He rose rapidly through the ranks of the Ottoman hierarchy, but incurred the disfavour of the grand vizier Rustem (Rūstem) Paşa (d. 968/1561) in 962/1555. He was associated with the entourage of Süleyman (Süleymān) I’s (r. 926–74/1520–66) most probable successor Bayezid (Bāyezīd, 931–69/1525–61) and was appointed lala ( lā…
Date: 2018-08-29

al-Lamkī, Aḥmad

(392 words)

Author(s): Ghazal, Amal
Aḥmad b. Muhammad b. Nāṣir al-Lamkī (1929–97), a prominent member of the Omani community in Zanzibar, was a political activist, newspaper editor, and ambassador. He was born in Zanzibar to a wealthy Omani family and was sent to Cairo at the age of ten to pursue his education. He resided in Cairo between 1939 and 1951, worked for Radio Cairo, and spent the last two years in prison for his anti-British and anti-monarchy activities. He then moved to London where he co-founded the Association of Zanzibar…
Date: 2018-07-12

Lawu, Sunan

(652 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Sunan Lawu, the spirit of Mount Lawu—an active volcano 3,265 metres high on the border between Central and East Java, Indonesia, east of the court city of Surakarta—appears to be an ancient deity. An Old Javanese manuscript that refers to King Kertanagara (d. 1292) of the East Javanese kingdom of Singhasari and deals with regulations for Hindu-Buddhist religious elites refers to the dewa giri Lalawu (the deity of Mount Lawu) (Pigeaud, 3:132). There are two remarkable fifteenth-century Hindu temples, Candhi Sukuh and Candhi Cetha, on the mountain, both celebr…
Date: 2018-08-29


(1,300 words)

Author(s): Bellér-Hann, Ildikó
The Laz (self-designation, Lazi) are an ethnic group concentrated in the southeastern corner of the Black Sea, in the Turkish provinces of Artvin and Rize. A minority lives on the Georgian side of the modern state border. The Laz in northeast Turkey share space with neighbouring groups, including ethnic Turks, Hemshin, and Georgians. Together with Mingrelian, Georgian, and Svan, their language (Lazuri) belongs to the South-Caucasian family. Migrants from the northeast (today’s southern Abkhazia),…
Date: 2018-07-12

Lembaga Kajian Islam dan Sosial

(707 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Robert W.
Lembaga Kajian Islam dan Sosial (LKIS, Institute for Islamic and Social Studies) is a Muslim non-governmental training institute and publishing house established in 1993 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Although it has experienced financial challenges in recent years, LKIS’s publishing house remains one of Indonesia’s two premier publishers of critical Muslim scholarship on classical fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), human rights, and Muslim feminism. LKIS alumni have spawned an assortment of educational and activist initiatives, most of them aimed at invok…
Date: 2018-08-29


(233 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Leran is a town in East Java where an early gravestone was found that was once and is still occasionally regarded, erroneously, as shedding light on the early Islamisation of Java. Leran was a major port, which, to judge from archaeological evidence, flourished especially from the fifth/eleventh century to the seventh/thirteenth. The stone found there marked the grave of a woman named Bint Maymūn b. Hibatallāh, who died in 475/1082. Recent analysis of the stone by Ludvik Kalus and Claude Guillot…
Date: 2018-12-18

Levant Company

(1,579 words)

Author(s): Vlami, Despina
The English Levant Company was a corporation of English merchants who, under a royal charter granted by Elizabeth I in 1581, enjoyed a trading monopoly with the Ottoman Empire and, after 1592, with Venice. Additionally, the company organized and subsidized British diplomatic representation in the Ottoman Empire. In 1581, for example, William Harborne (d. 1617), a company member and distinguished merchant, was appointed by the queen as ambassador to Istanbul (Constantinople). Subsequently, the compa…
Date: 2018-09-13