Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.



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Kabābīsh

(498 words)

Author(s): Beck, Kurt
The Kabābīsh are the largest of the nomadic Arab tribes of northern Kordofan, numbering approximately 130,000 in 2010. Their economy is based on the highly mobile rearing of camels and sheep and on some cultivation of millet. Like the other tribes of the northern Sudan, they provide a good example for ethnogenetic processes in the shadow of consecutive Sudanese states. In about 1850 they were reported to inhabit the country west of the Nile, from Dongola to El Dueim, their more mobile groups spending the rainy season northwest of the Wādī al-Milk with their herds and flocks. Their chief shayk…
Date: 2018-07-12

Kadın

(597 words)

Author(s): Karakaya-Stump, Ayfer
Kadın (Qādīn, “Woman”) was an Ottoman women’s magazine published in the city of Salonica (Selānīk, present-day Thessaloniki) during the Second Constitutional period (1325–36/1908–18) in the Ottoman Empire. Like many of the 32 Ottoman women’s journals published from 1285 Rumi /1869 to 1923, Kadın’s publication life was brief, consisting of thirty issues, from Teşrīn-i Evvel 1324 Rumi/September 1908 to Māyıs 1325 Rumi/May 1909. Kadın’s publishers were ardent supporters of the Constitutional Revolution of 1908 and had close ties with the İttihat ve Terakki Ce…
Date: 2018-07-12

Kadınlar Dünyası

(637 words)

Author(s): Çakır, Serpil
Kadınlar Dünyası (“The World of Women”), an Ottoman illustrated journal published from 1913 to 1921, is a significant source for the history of the women’s movement in the Ottoman Empire (Çakır, Osmanlı kadın hareketi). The periodical was owned and run exclusively by women. It had an editorial board and printing staff composed of women; the letters and essays it published were written by women contributors; and the press where it was printed bore the same name as the periodical. Kadınlar Dünyası’s goal was “to defend the rights and interests of womanhood,” as expressed on t…
Date: 2018-08-16

Kāhī

(599 words)

Author(s): Sharma, Sunil
Abū l-Qāsim Najm al-Dīn Muḥammad Kāhī (d. 988/1580) was a scholar and professional Persian poet who was connected chiefly to the courts of the Mughal emperors Humāyūn (r. 937–47/1530–40 and 962–3/1555–6) and Akbar (r. 963–1014/1556–1605). He was born in Mian Kal, in Central Asia, but was generally known by the nisba Kābulī. Kāhī encountered the great Tīmūrid Ṣūfī poet and hagiographer Jāmī (d. 898/1492) at the age of fifteen and studied tafsīr (Qurʾānic commentary) and mysticism with him. He was known for his accomplishments in music and the composition of riddles …
Date: 2018-09-13

Kajoran, Raden

(506 words)

Author(s): Ricklefs, M. C.
Raden Kajoran (d. 1679), also known as Panembahan Rama, was a Muslim spiritual leader in Central Java reputed to have had supernatural powers (which are not described in detail in the sources). Kajoran, where he was based, is some sixteen kilometres northeast of the court of Plered, which had been founded by the Mataram dynasty ruler Amangkurat I (r. 1646–77), who stands in Javanese history as the quintessential royal tyrant. He ordered the slaughter of 5,000 to 6,000 Muslim religious leaders and…
Date: 2018-07-12

Kākatīya dynasty

(966 words)

Author(s): Talbot, Cynthia
The Kākatīya dynasty was a line of Indian rulers who controlled parts of the eastern Deccan as independent monarchs from 558/1163 to 723/1323, when their territory was seized by the Delhi Sultanate (r. 602–932/1206–1526). The Kākatīya realm was one of three regional kingdoms that flourished in the Deccan in this period, each associated with a different vernacular literary culture: Telugu in the Kākatīya case, Kannaḍa in Hoysaḷa territory, and Marāťhī in the Yādava region. Similar in being based in…
Date: 2018-07-12

al-Kalābādhī

(1,046 words)

Author(s): Chabbi, Jacqueline
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Isḥāq al-Kalabādhī was the author of the Kitāb al-taʿarruf li-madhhab ahl al-taṣawwuf (“Book of acquaintance with the Ṣūfī school”), a famous treatise on Ṣūfism. His year of death is contested but was perhaps 380/990. He probably came from Kalābādh, a town near Bukhara, where his tomb is located. He is said to have been of the Ḥanafī rite, like many Transoxanians of his time. While it may be questioned whether he was the great jurist, the Indian author ʿAbd al-Ḥayy al-Lakhnawī (d. 1886) (Arberry, xi) made him out to be, he does seem to have been trained as a reporter of ḥadīth
Date: 2018-07-12

Kalatidha, Serat

(472 words)

Author(s): Florida, Nancy
Serat Kalatidha (“The time of darkness/troubles”) is amongst the most celebrated of Javanese poems. This twelve-stanza (108-line) poem was composed in sung verse by the renowned author R. Ng Ronggawarsita (d. 1873), court poet of the Kraton Surakarta, the royal palace of the Central Javanese kingdom of Surakarta. It is generally accepted that Ronggawarsita wrote the poem in 1873, shortly before his death. Often taken as a prophecy, the work is both a critical commentary on the state of society an…
Date: 2018-07-12

Kalijaga, Sunan

(491 words)

Author(s): Fox, James J.
Sunan Kalijaga, a figure of great popular significance, is the most important of the nine walī (wali sanga) who are believed to have been the founders of Islam on Java. The earliest primary source that recounts the life and activities of Kalijaga is the Babad Tanah Jawi (“Chronicle of the Land of Java”), a genealogical narrative that recounts the succession of the rulers of Java, initially compiled in the eleventh/seventeenth century from oral sources at the Kartasura court, the capital of the sultanate of Mataram. According to this Babad, Kalijaga was born at the end of the reign …
Date: 2018-08-29

Kalīmallāh Shāhjahānābādī

(1,394 words)

Author(s): Viitamäki, Mikko
Shāh Kalīmallāh Shāhjahānābādī (1060–1142/1650–1729) was amongst the most influential Ṣūfīs of late Mughal India. He is popularly considered to have initiated the renaissance of the Chishtī Niẓāmī brotherhood (the Chishtiyya was founded in Chisht, a small town near Herat, in about 318/930 by Abū Isḥāq Shāmī, the “Syrian,” d. 328/940, and introduced into India by Muʿīn al-Dīn Sijzī, d. 627/1230. From the ninth/fifteenth and the twelfth/eighteenth centuries on, respectively, two main branches develo…
Date: 2018-07-12

Kalīm Kāshānī

(1,373 words)

Author(s): Meneghini, Daniela
Abū Ṭālib Kalīm Kāshānī (b. c.990–4/1582–6, d. 15 Dhū l-Ḥijja 1061/29 November 1651) was a Persian poet and an exponent of the Indian style (sabk-i hindī), which was ornate and rhetorical, with elaborate abstract figurative language. Kalīm was born in Hamadān but soon moved to Kāshān, hence his nisbas Kāshānī and Hamadānī. He studied at Kāshān and Shiraz before going to the Deccan (c. 1010/1603) to seek his fortune at the Indian Mughal court. Although Kalīm did not enter the court, he became friends with Shāhnavāz Khān of Shiraz (d. 1020/1611…
Date: 2018-12-18

al-Kalwadhānī, Abū l-Khaṭṭāb

(709 words)

Author(s): Saba, Elias
Abū l-Khaṭṭāb Maḥfūẓ b. Aḥmad b. al-Ḥasan al-Kalwadhānī (2 Shawwāl 432–23 Jumādā II 510/5 June 1041–2 November 1116) was a Ḥanbalī jurist and one of the most important early authorities of the Ḥanbalī legal school. He apparently spent his life in Baghdad and was a student of the renowned Ḥanbalī judge Abū Yaʿlā Ibn al-Farrāʾ (d. 458/1066), with whom he studied the majority opinions of Ḥanbalī jurisprudence (al-madhhab), legal theory, and disputed legal points ( khilāf). He was also an authority on inheritance law, which he studied with the jurist Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Ḥusay…
Date: 2018-12-18

Kalyana

(1,152 words)

Author(s): Wagoner, Phillip B.
Kalyana (Kalyāna, Kalyān, Kalyāni) was an historic town in the southern Indian state of Karnataka (latitude N 17.52°, longitude E 76.57°), known today as Basavakalyana in honour of the Virashaiva social reformer Basava (d. 1167 C.E.) who lived there in the mid-twelfth century C.E. The city served as the capital of the Chalukya dynasty, whose kings ruled the entire Deccan region between the eleventh and mid-twelfth centuries C.E. During the Chalukya era, the geographic and main ritual centre of t…
Date: 2018-12-18

Kamāl al-Dīn Iṣfahānī

(1,438 words)

Author(s): Feuillebois, Ève
Kamāl al-Dīn Iṣfahānī (b. c. 568/ 1172, d. 635/1237) was a panegyrist of seventh/thirteenth-century Isfahan, nicknamed Khallāq al-Maʿānī (“creator of ideas,” i.e., a creative artist). 1. Life Kamāl al-Dīn was the son of the celebrated poet Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Iṣfahānī (d. before 599/1202). He began to write poetry at the age of just fourteen and gained fame with an elegy (marthiya) composed for his father’s death, when he was scarcely twenty years old. He sought the patronage of Rukn al-Dīn Abū l-ʿAlāʾ Ṣāʿid (d. 600/1203–4) who had also been his father…
Date: 2018-07-12

Kamālī, Ḥaydar ʿAlī

(628 words)

Author(s): Duvigneau, Julie
Ḥaydar ʿAlī Kamālī (b. Abarkūh, 1869, d. Tehran, 1936), was a poet, novelist, and critic affiliated with the Iranian constitutionalist movement, which existed from 1905 to 1907 and led to the establishment of a parliament under the Qajar dynasty (r. 1789–1925). He was illiterate until the age of twenty-three and worked as a seller of glassware, but he then began to write poetry, and his talent paved his way to membership in the literary circle of Isfahan. He later moved to Tehran, where he met the…
Date: 2018-07-12

Kamaniçe

(844 words)

Author(s): Kołodziejczyk, Dariusz
Kamaniçe (in Ottoman orthography, Qamānīçe; Ukr. Kam’yanets’ Podil’s’kıj; Pol. Kamieniec Podolski) is a town in the Podolia region of present-day Ukraine, which traces its origins to a medieval Ruthenian fort that was conquered by the Mongols in the mid-thirteenth century. After the internal crisis in the Golden Horde in the mid-1300s, it became the centre of a principality ruled by a Lithuanian dynasty and a bone of contention between Lithuania and Poland. From the fourteenth century, the town …
Date: 2018-07-12

Kanafānī, Ghassān

(1,319 words)

Author(s): Enderwitz, Susanne
Ghassān Kanafānī (1936–72) was a Palestinian editor, journalist, writer, and activist. With his short stories, novels, and plays he is considered one of the most eminent Palestinian writers of the twentieth century (Pannewick, 613). At the same time, he was a leading member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the co-founder and editor of its magazine al-Hadaf (“The target”). As a close friend and associate of George Habash (d. 2008), the founder of the PFLP, he changed his political convictions from pan-Arab nationalism to a mo…
Date: 2018-07-12

al-Kānimī

(659 words)

Author(s): Brenner, Louis
Muḥammad al-Amīn b. Muḥammad al-Kānimī (locally al-Kānemī, c. 1775–1837) became de facto ruler of Borno as a result of his military and scholarly interventions in defence of that kingdom against the jihād of Shaykh ʿUthmān b. Muḥammad Fūdī (d. 1817), teacher, writer, religious activist, and founder of the Sokoto Caliphate (1804–1903). Following his studies in Murzuk (his birthplace, an oasis town in present-day southwestern Libya), Tripoli, and Birni Gazargamo (the Borno capital, in present-day northeastern Nigeria), and havi…
Date: 2018-07-12

Kano

(1,539 words)

Author(s): Last, Murray
Kano was an ancient Hausa-speaking amīrate and is now one of the thirty-six states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, in the northwestern zone of the country. At the amīrate’s centre is the Birni Kano (Hausa, walled city of Kano), with the steep, ritually important, flat-topped hill called Dalla rising above the river Jakara. The original core settlement was therefore known as Dalla. The ancient city was in two parts, divided by the river and the city’s old Kasuwan Kurmi (Kurmi Market): on the …
Date: 2018-08-29

Karabakh, Nagorno

(1,205 words)

Author(s): Tsibenko, Veronika
Nagorno Karabakh (Qara Bāgh) is a highland part of the historical and geographical region of Karabakh, in the eastern part of the Armenian plateau. First mentioned in seventh-/thirteenth-century Georgian and Persian sources, the Turkish-Persian term Qara Bāgh means “Black Garden.” “Nagorno” is the Russian term for “upland.” Azeris call the region Dağlıq Qarabağ, while Armenians refer to it as Artsakh, to commemorate the Armenian principality and kingdom of Artsakh, which encompassed the same territory. Excavations at the Azykh cave in Nagorno Karabakh have shown that …
Date: 2018-08-29
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