Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.

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(549 words)

Author(s): Erlich, Haggai
The term Jabarti (Ar. Jabartī) refers traditionally to all Muslim people living in the Horn of Africa, members of diverse communities, of different ethnic origins, and speakers of many local languages. There are several etymologies of the term: Ar. jabbār (strong; strong warrior), Geʾez agbert (servant of God), Tigrinya gabari (servant, tenant), the name of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Jabartī, legendary father of the Darod Somali clan, or the Arabic word jabart (burning land), which was used to describe the territory of present-day southern E…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jābir b. Ḥayyān

(3,398 words)

Author(s): Forster, Regula
Jābir b. Ḥayyān (b. first half of the second/eighth century, d. c. 200/815?) is the alleged author of a vast corpus of mainly…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jābir b. Zayd

(899 words)

Author(s): Francesca, Ersilia
Abū l-Shaʿthāʾ Jābir b. Zayd al-Azdī al-ʿUmānī al-Yaḥmidī al-Jawfī al-Baṣrī was a prominent jurist and traditionist and the founding father of the Ibāḍī movement in Basra. He was born in 18/639 or 21/642 in Nizwā (or Firq, near Nizwā) in Oman. He assumed the leadership of the Ibāḍī community of Basra upon the death of ʿAbdallāh b. Ibāḍ (d. 89/708), the eponym of the movement. Like the latter, Jābir b. Zayd maintained good relations with the Umayyad rulers, but, towards the end of the first/seventh century, he was exiled,…
Date: 2019-05-08

al-Jābirī, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ

(740 words)

Author(s): Idrissi Alami, Ahmed
Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ al-Jābirī (1940–2009), one of Tunisia’s most prominent writers and critics in the post-independence era, was born in Tozeur, Tunisia, where he received his early education. As a teenager, he moved to Tunis, where he obtained his high school diploma before leaving for Iraq to pursue higher studies. After receiving his bachelor’s degree in Arabic literature from the University of Baghdad i…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jabrā, Jabrā Ibrāhīm

(1,190 words)

Author(s): Boullata, Issa J.
Jabrā Ibrāhīm Jabrā (1920–94) was a Palestinian novelist, short-story writer, literary and art critic, free-verse poet, essayist, prolific translator, and amateur painter. Born in 1920 in Bethlehem to a family whose original name was Chelico (as spelled by the family) and who belonged to the Syriac Orthodox Church, he went to school and church in Bethlehem until the age of twelve. He then moved with his family to Jerusalem, where he continued his education and graduated in 1937 from the Arab Colle…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jacob bar Shakkō

(709 words)

Author(s): Takahashi, Hidemi
Jacob bar Shakkō (d. 638–9/1240–1), known also as Severus, was a Syrian Orthodox Christian monk and scholar. Born in the village of Barṭelli, east of Mosul, he entered the nearby monastery of Mār Mattay, and later became its abbot and bishop. The way in which his name is recorded in the sources suggests that Jacob was his episcopal name, while the more episcopal-sounding Severus was the name by which he was known before becoming bishop. Barhebraeus (d. 685/1286, Chronicon ecclesiasticum, Louvain 1872–7, 2:409–11) tells us that Bar Shakkō studied “grammar and the first book…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jacob of Edessa

(547 words)

Author(s): Penn, Michael Philip
Jacob of Edessa (d. 89/708) was a renowned polymath Syriac scholar and the Miaphysite (i.e., Syriac Orthodox or monophysite) bishop of Edessa. His extant writings include many of the most important Christian observations concerning the first century of Islam. According to later mediaeval historians, Jacob was born in about 11/632 in the province of Antioch. Ordained as bishop of Edessa (present-day Urfa, Turkey) in about 64/684, Jacob gained a reputation for strict adherence to church regulations.…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jaʿd b. Dirham

(619 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Date: 2019-05-08


(1,516 words)

Author(s): Lazzerini, Edward J.
Jadidism (from Ar. uṣūl jadīda, new sources) was a late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century project to transform Turco-Islamic cultures within or indirectly influenced by the Russian Empire. Jadidism emerged between the 1840s and 1870s amongst Muslim intellectuals as a fragmented but spirited call for educational reform and wider dissemination of practical knowledge through the modern press. It became, by the early twentieth century, an all-encompassing social movement committed to modernity that…
Date: 2019-05-08


(4,204 words)

Author(s): Balabanlilar, Lisa
Salīm Muḥammad Nūr al-Dīn Jahāngīr (b. 17 Rabīʿ I 977/30 August 1569, d. 27 Ṣafar 1037/29 October 1627), posthumously known, according to the Mughal dynastic tradition, as Janāt Makānī (whose place is in heaven), was the fourth emperor in the Tīmūrid-Mughal line, established in India in 932/1526 by the Tīmūrid-Chaghatay prince Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad Bābur (r. 932–7/1526–30). Although Jahāngīr’s reign began and ended in princely rebellion, the period of his rule was one of relative peace and stability. Unlike the reign of his expansionist father—the emperor Akbar, who asserted Mughal power o…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jahān Sūz

(864 words)

Author(s): O'Neal, Michael
Abū ʿAlī ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusayn Ikhtiyār Amīr al-Muʾminīn (r. 544–56/1149–61), known to posterity as Jahān Sūz (lit., world-burner) for his vengeful sacking of the city of Ghazna, in present-day Afghanistan, is the Ghūrid ruler who first made the dynasty a major regional power. He was one of the seven sons of the chieftain ʿIzz al-Dīn Ḥusayn (r. c.…
Date: 2019-05-08


(2,376 words)

Author(s): Horstmann, Monika
Date: 2019-05-08

Jakarta Charter

(529 words)

Author(s): Feener, R. Michael
The Jakarta Charter (Indon., Piagam Jakarta) is the common name for a text that emerged from debates over the formulation of Sukarno’s Pancasila (five pillars) ideology in 1945, in which the fifth of its pillars (in Sukarno’s original iteration), asserting Belief in God (Ke-Tuhan-an), was further qualified with the addition of a controversial clause that stipulated that Muslims in the new nation would be obliged to observe Islamic law (dengan kewadjiban mendjalankan sjariʿat Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknja). This formulation (which came to be know as the Seven Words) came to be included i…
Date: 2019-05-08


(2,786 words)

Author(s): Sanneh, Lamin
The Jakhanke, a specialised community of religious professionals or clerics with their roots in the Mali Empire (c. 627–1009/1230–1600), have devoted themselves to the tradition of peaceful propagation of Islam in society. Plying the paths of trade and pilgrimage to promote a tradition of peaceful Islam in remote hinterlands, the Jakhanke guided the course of Islam in the provinces of the Mali Empire and beyond. Established in self-contained religious communities, called by Syl…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥsan

(982 words)

Author(s): Tschacher, Torsten
Sayyid Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥsan Kaythalī (r. 734–9/1334–9), sometimes erroneously called Sayyid Ḥasan (e.g., Yaḥyā, 106), was the founder of the short-lived sultanate of Maʿbar in South India and father-in-law of the Moroccan traveller Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (d. 770/1368–9 or 779/1377), who had married Jalāl al-Dīn’s daughter Ḥūrnasab (Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 3:337). He was born into an important family claiming descent from the Prophet, the Sayyids of Kaithal, a town northwest of Delhi (Jackson, 191–2; Yaḥyā, 106). A Sanskrit inscription dating to 1328 (728 A.H., although no hijrī equivalence is mentioned) gives the name of his father as Īsāka (i.e., Isḥāq) (Hira Lal, Batihagarh stone inscription, 46). In the 720s/1320s, Jalāl al-Dīn acted as “deputy-governor of the revenue assignment” (nāʾib-i iqṭāʿ) in the town of Batiyagarh, Madhya Pradesh, India, as revealed in several Persian and Sanskrit inscriptions (Hira Lal, Batihagarh stone inscription, 46–7; Hira Lal, Central Provinces, 58–9; Verma, 112). Sometime before 734/1333–4, Jalāl al-Dīn was dispatched to the recently conquered region of Maʿbar, in India’s extreme south. According to the poet ʿIṣāmī (fl. eighth/fourteenth century), he only held the position of castellan ( kotwāl, ʿIṣāmī, 469), while Ibn Baṭṭūṭa relates that he was given control over the whole of Maʿbar (Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 3:328). Both positions have been defended in secondary scholarship (Husaini, Madura sultanate, 90; Venkataramanayya, 123–4 n. 50, 160). In 734/1334 (Husaini, Chronology), Jalāl al-Dīn rebelled against Delhi, proclaiming himself Sulṭān Aḥsan Shāh (Baranī, 480; Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 3:328–9; ʿIṣāmī, 469; Yaḥyā, 106). He executed nobles loyal to Sulṭān Muḥammad b. Tughluq (r. 725–52/1325–51) and began minting his own coins (Baranī, 480; Husaini, Chronology, 195; Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 3:329; ʿIṣāmī, 469). Jalāl al-Dīn seems to have been able to gain substantial support amongst officials and soldiers, and disaffected noblemen further north conspired to support the rebellion (Baranī, 480; Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 3:329–30; Yaḥyā, 106). Sulṭān Muḥammad b. Tughluq marched with an army against Maʿbar but was forced to abort the campaign when an epidemic reduced the army in the province of Tilang (Telangana), thereby permanently removing Maʿbar from Delhi’s ambit (Baranī,…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jalāl al-Dīn Mangburnī

(2,443 words)

Author(s): Paul, Jürgen
Jalāl al-Dīn Mangburnī, the “last Khwārazmshāh,” ruled in parts of Iran and northwestern India from 617/1220 to 628/1231. He is best known as a heroic fighter against the Mongol invasion. He succeeded in restoring Khwārazmī rule in western Iran and Azerbaijan but was finally defeated by the Mongols in 628/1231.…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jalāl al-Dīn Yazdī

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Ghereghlou, Kioumars
Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh Yazdī (d. 1028/1618) was a Persian astrologer and chronicler whose chronicle, titled Rūznāma-yi Mullā Jalāl but also known as Tārīkh-i ʿAbbāsī, deals with Ṣafavid history from 984/1576 to 1020/1611. Yazdī’s date of birth is unknown. His family hailed from Yazd, but he spent most of his adult life elsewhere. Yazdī started his career as an astrologer in Lāhījān at the court of the last Kārkīā ruler of Gīlān-i Biyah-Pīsh, Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Khān Gīlānī (d. 1009/1600), himself a renowned expert in astrology (nujūm) and astronomy (hayʾa). During his years in Lāhījān, he ranked among Aḥmad Khān’s intimates (Ḥusaynī Qumī, 1086; Mossadegh, 126, n. 4). On at least two occasions, Yazdī acted as Aḥmad Khān’s envoy in Yazd, where he delivered his patron’s letter to Mīr Naʿīm al-Dīn Bāqī Niʿmat…
Date: 2019-05-08

Jālib, Ḥabīb

(889 words)

Author(s): Khan, Imran
Habīb Jālib (1928–93) was an Urdu poet best known for his opposition to military dictatorships and corrupt politics in Pakistan. He has been hailed as a revolutionary poet and a poet of the masses. Jālib was born in Hoshiarpur, British India. He became interested in social issues at an early age, when he began to notice the disparity between social classes in his village. After finishing seventh grade he went to live with his brother in Delhi, where he began to compose poetry. During school holid…
Date: 2019-05-08


(836 words)

Author(s): Krais, Jakob
The jamāhīriyya was a unique political system in force in Libya from 1977 to 2011 under the rule of Colonel Muʿammar al-Qadhdhāfī (1942–2011). The state’s official name during this period was Great Socialist Libyan Arab People’s Jamāhīriyya …
Date: 2019-05-08

Jamāl al-Dīn Iṣfahānī

(974 words)

Author(s): Feuillebois, Ève
Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Iṣfahānī was a poet and painter of the second half of the sixth/twelfth century. Almost all we know about him comes from his Dīvān (collection of poems), but some information can be found also in the Rāḥat al-ṣudūr wa-āyat al-surūr dar tārikh-i Āl-i Saljūq (“Dynastic history of the Great Saljūqs,” written between 599/1202–3 and 603/1206–7) by Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Rāvandī (fl. 575–96/1180–1200), a Persian historian, and in the Dīvān of Jamāl al-Dīn’s son, Kamāl al-Dīn Ismāʿīl Iṣfahānī (d. c.635/1238). Jamāl al-Dīn’s …
Date: 2019-05-08
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