Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE

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Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies

Edited by Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson with a team of more than 20 section editors.

EI-Three is the third edition of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam which sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live.

The Third Edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam is an entirely new work, with new articles reflecting the great diversity of current scholarship. It is published in five substantial segments each year, both online and in print. The new scope includes comprehensive coverage of Islam in the twentieth century and of Muslim minorities all over the world.



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Jabarti

(549 words)

Author(s): Erlich, Haggai
The term Jabarti (Ar. Jabartī) refers traditionally to all Muslim people living in the Horn of Africa, members of diverse communities, of different ethnic origins, and speakers of many local languages. There are several etymologies of the term: Ar. jabbār (strong; strong warrior), Geʾez agbert (servant of God), Tigrinya gabari (servant, tenant), the name of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Jabartī, legendary father of the Darod Somali clan, or the Arabic word jabart (burning land), which was used to describe the territory of present-day southern Ethiopia and the home of mediaev…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jābir b. Ḥayyān

(3,398 words)

Author(s): Forster, Regula
Jābir b. Ḥayyān (b. first half of the second/eighth century, d. c. 200/815?) is the alleged author of a vast corpus of mainly alchemical writings. Scholars, however, dispute his very existence and his authorship of that corpus. 1. Biography The earliest biography (with extensive bibliography) is in Ibn al-Nadīm’s Fihrist (c. 380/990, ed. Flügel, 354–8, ed. Sayyid, 2/1:450–8, trans. Fück, 95–104). From this and other biographic accounts—e.g., Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, 61, trans. Blachère, 111; Ibn al-Qifṭī, 160–1; Ibn Khallikān, 1:291 n. 128 (on Jaʿfa…
Date: 2018-09-13

Jābir b. Zayd

(899 words)

Author(s): Francesca, Ersilia
Abū l-Shaʿthāʾ Jābir b. Zayd al-Azdī al-ʿUmānī al-Yaḥmidī al-Jawfī al-Baṣrī was a prominent jurist and traditionist and the founding father of the Ibāḍī movement in Basra. He was born in 18/639 or 21/642 in Nizwā (or Firq, near Nizwā) in Oman. He assumed the leadership of the Ibāḍī community of Basra upon the death of ʿAbdallāh b. Ibāḍ (d. 89/708), the eponym of the movement. Like the latter, Jābir b. Zayd maintained good relations with the Umayyad rulers, but, towards the end of the first/seventh century, he was exiled,…
Date: 2018-09-13

al-Jābirī, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ

(740 words)

Author(s): Idrissi Alami, Ahmed
Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ al-Jābirī (1940–2009), one of Tunisia’s most prominent writers and critics in the post-independence era, was born in Tozeur, Tunisia, where he received his early education. As a teenager, he moved to Tunis, where he obtained his high school diploma before leaving for Iraq to pursue higher studies. After receiving his bachelor’s degree in Arabic literature from the University of Baghdad in 1971, he returned to Tunisia and taught at the high school level before joining the Ministry of…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jabrā, Jabrā Ibrāhīm

(1,190 words)

Author(s): Boullata, Issa J.
Jabrā Ibrāhīm Jabrā (1920–94) was a Palestinian novelist, short-story writer, literary and art critic, free-verse poet, essayist, prolific translator, and amateur painter. Born in 1920 in Bethlehem to a family whose original name was Chelico (as spelled by the family) and who belonged to the Syriac Orthodox Church, he went to school and church in Bethlehem until the age of twelve. He then moved with his family to Jerusalem, where he continued his education and graduated in 1937 from the Arab Colle…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jacob bar Shakkō

(709 words)

Author(s): Takahashi, Hidemi
Jacob bar Shakkō (d. 638–9/1240–1), known also as Severus, was a Syrian Orthodox Christian monk and scholar. Born in the village of Barṭelli, east of Mosul, he entered the nearby monastery of Mār Mattay, and later became its abbot and bishop. The way in which his name is recorded in the sources suggests that Jacob was his episcopal name, while the more episcopal-sounding Severus was the name by which he was known before becoming bishop. Barhebraeus (d. 685/1286, Chronicon ecclesiasticum, Louvain 1872–7, 2:409–11) tells us that Bar Shakkō studied “grammar and the first book…
Date: 2018-12-18

Jacob of Edessa

(547 words)

Author(s): Penn, Michael Philip
Jacob of Edessa (d. 89/708) was a renowned polymath Syriac scholar and the Miaphysite (i.e., Syriac Orthodox or monophysite) bishop of Edessa. His extant writings include many of the most important Christian observations concerning the first century of Islam. According to later mediaeval historians, Jacob was born in about 11/632 in the province of Antioch. Ordained as bishop of Edessa (present-day Urfa, Turkey) in about 64/684, Jacob gained a reputation for strict adherence to church regulations.…
Date: 2018-09-13

Jaʿd b. Dirham

(619 words)

Author(s): Judd, Steven C.
Jaʿd b. Dirham was an Umayyad-era heretic who was executed by Khālid al-Qasrī sometime during the latter’s reign as governor of Iraq (105–120/724–738), either in Kufa or in the provincial capital Wāsiṭ. Details about his activities, origins, and beliefs are both limited and tainted by later exaggerations and revisions. None of his writings or doctrinal statements survive. Jaʿd reportedly lived for a time in Damascus, but originated in either Khurāsān or Ḥarrān, in the Jazīra. He eventually fled fr…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jadidism

(1,516 words)

Author(s): Lazzerini, Edward J.
Jadidism (from Ar. uṣūl jadīda, new sources) was a late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century project to transform Turco-Islamic cultures within or indirectly influenced by the Russian Empire. Jadidism emerged between the 1840s and 1870s amongst Muslim intellectuals as a fragmented but spirited call for educational reform and wider dissemination of practical knowledge through the modern press. It became, by the early twentieth century, an all-encompassing social movement committed to modernity that…
Date: 2018-08-16

Jahāngīr

(4,204 words)

Author(s): Balabanlilar, Lisa
Salīm Muḥammad Nūr al-Dīn Jahāngīr (b. 17 Rabīʿ I 977/30 August 1569, d. 27 Ṣafar 1037/29 October 1627), posthumously known, according to the Mughal dynastic tradition, as Janāt Makānī (whose place is in heaven), was the fourth emperor in the Tīmūrid-Mughal line, established in India in 932/1526 by the Tīmūrid-Chaghatay prince Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad Bābur (r. 932–7/1526–30). Although Jahāngīr’s reign began and ended in princely rebellion, the period of his rule was one of relative peace and stability. Unlike the reign of hi…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jahān Sūz

(864 words)

Author(s): O'Neal, Michael
Abū ʿAlī ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Ḥusayn Ikhtiyār Amīr al-Muʾminīn (r. 544–56/1149–61), known to posterity as Jahān Sūz (lit., world-burner) for his vengeful sacking of the city of Ghazna, in present-day Afghanistan, is the Ghūrid ruler who first made the dynasty a major regional power. He was one of the seven sons of the chieftain ʿIzz al-Dīn Ḥusayn (r. c.493–540/1100–46) and, upon his father’s death, governed Wujīristān, the district west of Ghazna, as an appanage under his brother Sayf al-Dīn Sūrī (r. c.540–4/1146–9). …
Date: 2018-08-16

Jakhanke

(2,786 words)

Author(s): Sanneh, Lamin
The Jakhanke, a specialised community of religious professionals or clerics with their roots in the Mali Empire (c. 627–1009/1230–1600), have devoted themselves to the tradition of peaceful propagation of Islam in society. Plying the paths of trade and pilgrimage to promote a tradition of peaceful Islam in remote hinterlands, the Jakhanke guided the course of Islam in the provinces of the Mali Empire and beyond. Established in self-contained religious communities, called by Sylvain Golberry, a tw…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥsan

(982 words)

Author(s): Tschacher, Torsten
Sayyid Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥsan Kaythalī (r. 734–9/1334–9), sometimes erroneously called Sayyid Ḥasan (e.g., Yaḥyā, 106), was the founder of the short-lived sultanate of Maʿbar in South India and father-in-law of the Moroccan traveller Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (d. 770/1368–9 or 779/1377), who had married Jalāl al-Dīn’s daughter Ḥūrnasab (Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 3:337). He was born into an important family claiming descent from the Prophet, the Sayyids of Kaithal, a town northwest of Delhi (Jackson, 191–2; Yaḥyā, 106). A Sanskrit inscription dating to 1328 (728 A.H., although no hijrī equivalence is mentione…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jalāl al-Dīn Mangburnī

(2,443 words)

Author(s): Paul, Jürgen
Jalāl al-Dīn Mangburnī, the “last Khwārazmshāh,” ruled in parts of Iran and northwestern India from 617/1220 to 628/1231. He is best known as a heroic fighter against the Mongol invasion. He succeeded in restoring Khwārazmī rule in western Iran and Azerbaijan but was finally defeated by the Mongols in 628/1231. His name is read and explained in various ways. Earlier scholars had Mangubirti (or similar forms); the forms most frequently used now are Mangburnī (with a birthmark on the nose) (Mīnuvī) or Mingīrinī (valiant fighter worth one thousand men, equivalent of Persian hazārmard) (Ja…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jalāl al-Dīn Yazdī

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Ghereghlou, Kioumars
Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh Yazdī (d. 1028/1618) was a Persian astrologer and chronicler whose chronicle, titled Rūznāma-yi Mullā Jalāl but also known as Tārīkh-i ʿAbbāsī, deals with Ṣafavid history from 984/1576 to 1020/1611. Yazdī’s date of birth is unknown. His family hailed from Yazd, but he spent most of his adult life elsewhere. Yazdī started his career as an astrologer in Lāhījān at the court of the last Kārkīā ruler of Gīlān-i Biyah-Pīsh, Jalāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Khān Gīlānī (d. 1009/1600), himself a renowned expert in astrology (nujūm) and astronomy (hayʾa). During his year…
Date: 2018-08-29

Jālib, Ḥabīb

(889 words)

Author(s): Khan, Imran
Habīb Jālib (1928–93) was an Urdu poet best known for his opposition to military dictatorships and corrupt politics in Pakistan. He has been hailed as a revolutionary poet and a poet of the masses. Jālib was born in Hoshiarpur, British India. He became interested in social issues at an early age, when he began to notice the disparity between social classes in his village. After finishing seventh grade he went to live with his brother in Delhi, where he began to compose poetry. During school holid…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jamāhīriyya

(836 words)

Author(s): Krais, Jakob
The jamāhīriyya was a unique political system in force in Libya from 1977 to 2011 under the rule of Colonel Muʿammar al-Qadhdhāfī (1942–2011). The state’s official name during this period was Great Socialist Libyan Arab People’s Jamāhīriyya (al-jamāhīriyya al-ʿarabiyya al-lībiyya al-shaʿbiyya al-ishtirākiyya al-ʿuẓmā). The neologism al-jamāhīriyya (from al-jamāhīr, the masses) pertained to its alleged character as a self-administrating stateless society, that is, a total and direct democracy without any bureaucratic institutions. Influenced …
Date: 2018-09-13

Jamāl al-Dīn Iṣfahānī

(974 words)

Author(s): Feuillebois, Ève
Jamāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Iṣfahānī was a poet and painter of the second half of the sixth/twelfth century. Almost all we know about him comes from his Dīvān (collection of poems), but some information can be found also in the Rāḥat al-ṣudūr wa-āyat al-surūr dar tārikh-i Āl-i Saljūq (“Dynastic history of the Great Saljūqs,” written between 599/1202–3 and 603/1206–7) by Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Rāvandī (fl. 575–96/1180–1200), a Persian historian, and in the Dīvān of Jamāl al-Dīn’s son, Kamāl al-Dīn Ismāʿīl Iṣfahānī (d. c.635/1238). Jamāl al-Dīn’s date of birth is unknown. Rāvand…
Date: 2018-07-12

Jamālzada, Muḥammad ʿAlī

(1,925 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Claus Valling
Muḥammad ʿAlī Jamālzada (1892–1997) was a leading Iranian writer and intellectual, who spent most of his life outside Iran. He introduced the European short story (die Novelle) to the Iranian reading public through his groundbreaking short-story collection Yikī būd-u yikī nabūd (“Once upon a time”), and he initiated the modernist and realist literary trend in Iranian literary history. 1. Life Muḥammad ʿAlī Jamālzada was born in Isfahan, the oldest child of the famous preacher and revolutionary, Sayyid Jamāl al-Dīn Vāʿiẓ Isfahānī (d. 1908), who was one of…
Date: 2018-07-12

al-Janbīhī, Muḥammad

(789 words)

Author(s): Chih, Rachida
Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Nabī al-Janbīhī (1842–1927), known as al-Miskīn (the poor), was an Egyptian religious scholar, preacher, and Ṣūfī. He attended the Qurʾānic school in his native village of Janbiyya, in the Buḥayra Governorate in the Nile Delta, and then studied at al-Azhar University, where he obtained the ʿālamiyya (the highest degree awarded by the university before its reconstitution by the government in 1963). He settled in Cairo, where he worked as a preacher in al-Muṭahhar mosque. Although al-Janbīhī took part, through his writings a…
Date: 2018-07-12
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