Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(292 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t.), from older Turkish yug̲h̲ur -, Ottoman yog̲h̲urmaḳ / yoǧurmak “to knead [dough, etc.], yoghourt, a preparation of soured milk made in the pastoralist, more temperate northern tier of the Middle East, Central Asia and the Balkans, appearing as yog̲h̲urt / yog̲h̲rut in Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, i, 182, ii, 189, iii, 164, 190; Brockelmann, Mitteltürkischer Wortschatz , 92. Cf. also Radloff, Ver such eines Worterbuch der Türk-Dialecte , iii/1, 412-13; Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersichen , iv, 173-5 no. 1866; Clauson, An …


(708 words)

Author(s): Schumann, O.
, the name of a city in central Java, Indonesia, capital of the former sultanate and present-day Special District of Yogyakarta. Inhabitants (in 2002): ca. 448,760 (city) or ca. 3,068,000 (whole district). Together with the city and area of Surakarta [ q.v.] it was formerly part of the kingdom of Mataram [ q.v.] located in the southern parts of central Java. The first kraton (palace) of Mataram was built in 1582 in Kuţa Gĕdé, a present suburb of Yogyakarta, by Kyai Gĕdé Pamanahan. After his death in 1584 his son took over the kraton and military installations and was recognized by Sulta…


(664 words)

Author(s): Kellner-Heinkele, Barbara
, a Türkmen tribe, or rather a tribal confederacy, in Central Asia. Today, most of them live in the Republic of Türkmenistan (1926: ca. 100,000; contemporary state policy takes no cognisance of individual tribes). About 130,000 (in the 1960s, cf. Irons 1974) inhabit Iran (east of the Caspian sea, from the Gurgān plain north to the border of Türkmenistan), and between 125,000 and 400,000 (Adamec) live in northwestern Afg̲h̲ānistān (north of the Paripamisus range). The etymology of the name is unclear. The Yomut do not …

Yorgan Ladik

(6 words)

[see lād̲h̲iḳ. 2].


(723 words)

Author(s): Reichmuth, S.
, a people of West Africa. The present article deals with the role of Islam among the Yoruba. The earliest attested presence of Islam among this people of what is now Nigeria would seem to date back to the Old Ọyọ empire in the 16th century. The role of Songhay-speaking Muslim traders in the early spread of Islam is reflected in a number of Songhay loanwords in Yoruba. The earliest term for ¶ the Muslims, ìmalé “People from Mali”, probably refers to this group. Islam apparently first took root among traders, craftsmen (especi…


(3,093 words)

Author(s): Kellner-Heinkele, Barbara
, Yürük , a term applied to pastoral nomadic groups in the Ottoman empire. Three main meanings are attested in the literature: (1) in the Ottoman empire, primarily a special term with legal, administrative and fiscal implications denoting a particular class of nomads obliged to serve in the Ottoman army; (2) in modern ethnological and anthropological literature, a term for, and also a self-designation of, nomadic pastoralists, including elements in various stages of sedentarisation, used in an ethnic sense as opposed to Türkmen [ q.v.], Kurdish [see kurds , kurdistan …

Young Turks

(7 words)

[see yeñi ʿot̲h̲mānli̊lar ].


(474 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, a town of north central Anatolia, lying some 160 km/100 miles east of Ankara on both sides of a tributary of the Delice Irmak (lat. 39° 50’ N., long. 34° 48’ E., altitude 1,320 m/4,330 feet). It was founded by members of the D̲j̲ebbārzāde/Čapanog̲h̲lu family (supposedly yoz means “pasture, herd”, while gat is a dialectal word for “town”). On record since 1116/1704, this dynasty, possibly of Mamalu-Türkmen background, constituted one of the major aʿyān lines of central Anatolia, controlling a territory far beyond its original power-base in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Bozoḳ ( wilāyet

Yücel, Ḥasan ʿAlī

(406 words)

Author(s): Özman, Aylİn
(1897-1961), Turkish statesman, educator and author. He was born, the son of a post and telegraph inspector ʿAlī Riḍā and Neyyire, the daughter of an army colonel, in Istanbul on 17 December 1897. Ḥasan ʿAlī attended the Wefaʾ Iʿdādīsi between 1911-5, and then, after military service during the First World War, graduated from Istanbul University in 1921. Until 1927, he worked as a teacher in several lycées in Izmir (Erkek Muallim Mektebi) and Istanbul (Kuleli, Istanbul Erkek, Galatasaray) where he lectured on p…


(803 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, the first local dynasty to emerge in the Yemen in the Islamic period (232-387/ 847-997). The name is often erroneously vocalised “Yaʿfurids”, but the 4th/10th century Yemeni scholar al-Hamdānī, who was a contemporary of the Yuʿfirids, makes it clear that Yuʿfirids is the correct spelling ( al-Iklīl , Südarabisches Muštabih , ed. O. Löfgren, Uppsala etc. 1953, 36, and al-Iklīl, ii, ed. Löfgren, Uppsala 1965, 71). The family was of D̲h̲ū Ḥiwāl, a tribe from S̲h̲ibām-Kawkabān some 40 km/25 miles north-west of Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.]. The founder of the dynasty, Yuʿfir b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al…


(298 words)

Author(s): Ed,
“land of the South Slavs”, a Balkan state which came into being through the peace treaties consequent on the end of the First World War, 1919-20 (St-Germain, Neuilly, Trianon), as the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes under the ruling house of its largest component, Serbia. According to the constitution which came into effect on 1 January 1921, this was to be a unitary state, but this was never fully achieved, and arrangements in August 1939 envisaged a federal stru…

Yūḥannā b. Sarābiyūn

(510 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, A.
, a Christian (Nestorian) physician of the 3rd/9th century. He wrote in Syriac a medical compendium ( kunnās̲h̲ ) in two different forms, one with seven, the other with twelve maḳālāt . The second, called the large compendium ( al-kunnās̲h̲ al-kabīr ), was corrected by the Ṣābian Abu ’l-Ḥasan T̲h̲ābit b. Ibrāhīm b. Zahrūn (d. 369/980). An extract was made by Yaḥyā b. D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn al-Ḥīrī al-Mutaṭabbib al-Ḥalabī (who was still alive in 1198/ 1783). The complete work has been preserved in the Istanbul ms. Ayasofya 3716. According to Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa, the first compendium, called …

Yulbārs K̲h̲ān

(357 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the Uyg̲h̲ur Turkish leader of a Muslim rebellion at Ḳomul [ q.v. in Suppl.] in Eastern Turkistan or Sinkiang [ q.v.] during the 1930s, b. 1888, d. ? in the mid-1970s. In 1928 the second Republican Chinese governor of Sinkiang, Chin Shu-jen, overthrew the last autonomous k̲h̲ānate of Central Asia, that of Ḳomul in the extreme eastern end of the province, adjacent to the frontiers ¶ with Mongolia and Kansu. His anti-Muslim policies provoked a rebellion there in April 1931 of the Uyg̲h̲urs, and possibly some of the Tungans [ q.v.], under the joint leadership of Yulbārs K̲h̲ān, who had…


(1,437 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F.
refers to the ancient Greeks, reflecting the name “Ionians”. Yūnānī means Greek (noun and adjective) and al-yūnāniyya or, less commonly, al-yūnānī (with or without lug̲h̲a or lisān ), the ancient Greek language. The vocalisation yūnānī , instead of yawnānī favoured by some (cf. al-Tawḥīdī, Baṣāʾir , ed. W. al-Ḳādī, Beirut 1408/1988, iii, 11), is stated to be the generally accepted form by al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, xiii, 536, and may have been favoured by the Arabic word formation fuʿlān . The ancient Near Eastern designation of the “Greeks” a…


(1,859 words)

Author(s): Sublet, Jacqueline
, Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Fatḥ Mūsā b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh, Syrian historian and Ḥanbalī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , b. Damascus in 640/1242, d. Baʿlabakk in 726/1326, best known as the author of the D̲h̲ayl Mirʾāt al-zamān , a continuation of the Mirʾāt al-zamān of Sibṭ Ibn al-D̲j̲awzī (d. 654/ 1256 [ q.v.]). Al-Yūnīnī belonged to a scholarly family originally from Yūnīn, a small town in the region of Baʿlabakk; his family claimed descent from D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādik [ q.v.] and in some sources, bore the nisba al-Ḥusaynī. Following the death of hi…


(1,434 words)

Author(s): Saguchi, T.
( Yün-Nan ), a province in the southwest of China, bounded in the east by the provinces of Kuei-chou, Kuang-hsi and in the north by the province of Ssū-ch’uan, and in the south to west by Vietnam, Laos and Burma. 1. History. The province, first established under the Mongol Great K̲h̲ān Ḳubilay in A.D. 1253, received its name from that of ancient Yunnan county, which is identified with Hsian-yun Prefecture, Yunnan province. Yunnan Province is a highland country; the climate is generally mild, but agricultural products are not always plen…


(1,434 words)

Author(s): , B. Heller-[A. Rippin]
b. Mattā , the prophet Jonah, son of Amittai (II Kings xiv. 25). The name entered Arabic ultimately from the Greek Septuagint rendering of the Hebrew, most likely transmitted through Christian Palestinian. The Ḳurʾān mentions Jonah four times as Yūnus, without giving his father’s name, once as D̲h̲u ’l-Nūn (XXI, 87) and once (LXVIII, 48) as ṣāḥib al-ḥūt “the Man of the Whale”. Yūnus is the only one of the major and minor biblical prophets who is mentioned by name in the Ḳurʾān; a prophet who is swallowed by …

Yūnus b. Ḥabīb

(350 words)

Author(s): R. Talmon
, prominent Baṣran grammarian and philologist ( ca. 90-182/708-98). In the early sources, his important position as a grammarian is indicated by the 230 occurrences of his name in both syntactic and morphological parts of Sībawayhi’s Kitāb . He is mentioned as a direct source of information in Abū ʿUbayda’s Mad̲j̲āz al-Ḳurʾān (transmitting Abū ʿAmr b. al-ʿAlāʾ’s teaching), and the books of al-Farrāʾ and al-Ak̲h̲fas̲h̲. In al-D̲j̲umaḥī’s Ṭabaḳāt , Yūnus describes personally the development of grammatical studies from the early days of ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Isḥāḳ (d. 117/728 [ q.v.]). His …

Yūnus Emre

(1,681 words)

Author(s): Ambros, Edith G.
, an immensely popular Anatolian Turkish mystic poet of the second half of the 13th and the first quarter of the 14th century. The information on Yūnus Emre’s life is fragmentary and inconclusive in many respects, being partly of a legendary character (see the hagiological writings especially of the Bektās̲h̲iyye) or dependent on the interpretation of some passages in his Dīwān . Yūnus Emre’s birthplace is uncertain; the likeliest site seems to be a village in the environs of either Sivrihisar (Eskişehir) or Bolu. There are indications that Yūnus Emre marr…

Yūnus al-Kātib al-Mug̲h̲annī

(766 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H.G. | Neubauer, E.
, Abū Sulaymān Yūnus b. Sulaymān b. Kurd b. S̲h̲ahriyār, wellknown musician and writer on music in the first half of the 2nd/8th century. He was the son of a jurist ( faḳīh ) of Persian origin and a mawlā of the family of al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām (Ḳurays̲h̲). Yūnus was born and grew up in Medina. He entered the local dīwān as a scribe, hence his surname al-Kātib. Early in life, however, he was attracted by music, and he is said to have taken lessons mainly from Maʿbad [ q.v.], but also from Ibn Surayd̲j̲, Ibn Muḥriz, al-G̲h̲arīḍ [ q.vv.], and Muḥammad b. ʿAbbād al-Kātib. He was also a gifted po…
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