Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(3,640 words)

Author(s): Guidi, M. | Morony, M.
“chief of the Mad̲j̲ūs”, the Farsi form of MP magupat (OP * magupati ). This title occurs in Manichaean Parthian as magbed , in Armenian as mogpet or movpet , in Syriac as mōpatā and mōhpatē , in Greek as μαυιπτάς, μαυπιτάς, μαύτης, μαύπησ and μάπτα, and in Arabic as mawbad̲h̲ or mūbad̲h̲ with the plural mawābid̲h̲a . The reputation of this Zoroastrian priest for religious learning and legal responsibility led al-Yaʿḳūbī to explain this term as ʿālim al-ʿulamāʾ while al-Masʿūdī explained it as ḥāfiẓ al-dīn and derived it from mu = “religion” and bad̲h̲ = “protector”…


(7 words)

, Musical [see maḳām ].


(1,452 words)

Author(s): Bées, N.A.
, a town in the Morea [ q.v.] on the south-west point of Messenia, about 20 miles northwest of Cape Akritas, opposite the island of Sapienza at the foot of Mount Tomeus. Modon is frequently mentioned in ancient times under the names Μεθώνη and Μοδώνη; from the latter comes the Italian name of the town, Modon, under which it has been ¶ known since the Middle Ages in Europe. In the Middle Ages it was of much greater importance than in antiquity. The good harbour of the town, sheltered by cliffs of varying heights, has long been a haven of refuge and of supp…

Mogadiscio, Mogadishu

(6 words)

[see maḳdishū ].


(4 words)

[see al-ṣawīra].


(5 words)

[see al-suwayra ].


(459 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
“the land of the Mongols”, the name used from the time of the Mongols (13th century) onwards to designate the steppe, plateau and mountain region of Inner Asia lying to the north of Transoxania or Mā warāʾ al-nahr [ q.v.] and the Syr Darya, hence including inter alia the region of Semirečiye, Turkish Yeti-su “the land of seven rivers”, which comprised the basins of the Ili and Ču rivers [ q.vv.]; this part of Mog̲h̲olistān corresponds in large measure with the modern Kazakh SSR. But the region also extended eastwards across the Tien Shan and Ala Tau ranges into th…


(363 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an ethnie and, until recently, a linguistic group originally concentrated in westcentral Afg̲h̲ānistān, in the modern province of G̲h̲ōrāt, and carrying on there a semi-pastoral and semi-agricultural way of life; now however groups of them have become dispersed throughout northern and central Afg̲h̲ānistān. They number at most 10,000 souls. For other communities in Afg̲h̲ānistān of mixed Turkish-Mongol origin, see hazāras in Suppl. Unlike the S̲h̲īʿī Hazāras, the Mog̲h̲ols are Sunnī. The origins of these Mog̲h̲ols probably lie in the appearance in Afg̲h̲ānistān o…


(5 words)

[see mug̲h̲al ],


(1,272 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
(Ottoman Mihāč), a town in the county of Baranya, in southern Hungary. In its vicinity two important battles (a, b) took place, while the settlement itself gave name to an Ottoman


(1,153 words)

Author(s): Davies, C. Collin | Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a Pat́hān or Afg̲h̲ān tribe on the North-West Frontier of what was formerly British India, now forming the boundary between Pakistan and Afg̲h̲anistān. The Mohmands in fact straddle the frontier, and their members, estimated at ca. 400,000, are divided between the two countries. The Mohmand territories extend from northwest of the Pes̲h̲āwar district, with Mālākand and the Yūsufzay territories on the east, up to and beyond the Afg̲h̲an frontier on the west, and northwards towards the princely state of Dīr [ q.v.]. The Mohmand Agency, created by Pakistan (see below)…


(479 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, an Indian gold coin. The name is the Persian muhr , which is a loanword from the Sanskrit mudrā , seal or die. The earliest occurence of the word on coins is on the forced currency of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ where it has the literal meaning of “sealed” or “stamped”. By the 10th/16th century it had come to be used as a popular rather than precise name for gold coins in general. Very little gold had been issued in India for two centuries before the reign of Akbar. One of his reforms was the issue of an extensive coinage in gold. In addition to many pieces which had onl…


(5 words)

[see muk̲h̲ā ].


(5 words)

[see bog̲h̲dān ].


(4,259 words)

Author(s): Calmard, J.
, a title derived from the Arabic mawlā ¶ [ q.v.] in its sense of “lord” or “master”, employed currently with composite forms of mawlā, incorporating pronominal or adjectival suffixes, in use in various periods and regions of the Muslim world: mawlāy [ q.v.]/ mūlāy , “my lord” among the S̲h̲arīfī sovereigns of Morocco (Saʿdids, ʿAlawids), the Naṣrids and the Ḥafṣids [see also laḳab ]; mawlānā /(Turkish) mewlānā , “our master”, a title very widespread in the Turco-Iranian world, and still in use today, especially in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent where it denotes Muslims of high rank ( ʿulam…

Mollā Ḳābiḍ

(461 words)

Author(s): Imber, C.H.
(?-934/1527), a member of the Ottoman ʿulamāʾ executed for heresy in Ṣafar 934/October-November 1527. D̲j̲alālzāde Muṣṭafā [ q.v.], who was at this time Secretary to the Dīwān [ q.v.] and private secretary to the Grand Vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], gives the earliest account of the case. He states that “some zealous ʿulamāʾ” brought Ḳābiḍ before the Imperial Dīwān for preaching in public that Jesus was superior to Muḥammad. The wazīrs made the case over to the ḳāḍī ʿasker [ q.v.] of Rumelia, Fenārīzāde Muḥyī al-Dīn Čelebī and the ḳāḍī ʿasker of Anatolia, Ḳādirī…

Mollā Ṣadrā

(7 words)

[see mullā ṣadrā ].
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