Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(2,812 words)

Author(s): Lambton, Ann K.S.
(t.), trial, interrogation, the Mongolian tribunal or court of justice (Doerfer, iv, 58 ff. n. 1784), hence yarg̲h̲uči , a judge. Čing̲h̲iz K̲h̲ān’s adopted brother (or according to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, adopted son, D̲j̲āmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ , i/1, ed. A. Romaskevič, L. K̲h̲etagurov and A.A. Alizade, Moscow 1965, 178; ibid., ed. B. Karīmī, Tehran 1970, i, 414) S̲h̲igi-Ḳutuku was made yarg̲h̲uči at the ḳuriltay held in 1206 (D.O. Morgan, The Mongols , Oxford 1986, 97). He was to judge certain criminal cases on an ad hoc basis and to supervise the distribution of subject peoples and to…


(2,444 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of the Tarim basin, Eastern Turkestan, now coming within the Sinkiang/Xinjiang Autonomous Region of the People’s republic of China and having in Chinese the (revived) name of So-chʾe/Shache (lat. 38° 27’ N., long. 77° 16’ E., altitude 1,190 m/3,900 feet). Yārkand lies on the river of the same name, which rises in the northern part of the Karakoram mountains near the imperfectly delineated border between Kas̲h̲mīr and China and then flows eastwards to join the Tarim river; with its perennial flow, it is the main source stream of …


(2,024 words)

Author(s): Heywood, C.J.
, Yarli̊ḳ , a term of Inner Asian Turkish origin, employed in the chanceries of the Mongol empire and in those of certain of its successor states both before and after their Islamisation, in its original (i.e. pre-Mongol and pre-Islamic) meaning of “[Imperial] decree, edict, command”. In general, in Islamic chancery practice, yarli̊g̲h̲ s are contextually equivalent to the more specific documentary forms of firmān , ḥukm or barāt [ q.vv.; and see diplomatic. iii]; cf. Clauson, Dictionary , 966: “a command from a superior to an inferior, sometimes wit…


(1,708 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | W.E. Kaegi
, the main left bank affluent of the Jordan river [see al-urdunn. 1], famed in history as the site of a historic battle between the Arabs and Byzantines. 1. Geography. The Yarmūk flows into the Jordan some 9 km/5 miles to the south of Lake Tiberias, with headwaters on the southwestern slopes of the Ḥawrān [ q.v.] in southern Syria. It follows a deeply-incised valley which nevertheless provides the main access through the eastern wall of the Jordan rift valley, the G̲h̲awr or G̲h̲ōr, to the north-south routes along the western fringes of the Syrian De…


(639 words)

Author(s): G.R. Smith
(a., pl. Yaʿāriba, sing. Yaʿrubī), a dynasty of ʿUmān [ q.v.] who ruled the country, mostly from al-Rustāḳ but also from D̲j̲abrīn [ q.vv.] and al-Ḥazm, ca. 1024-1164/1615-1749. There are a number of different versions of the date on which the first imām of the dynasty, Nāṣir b. Murs̲h̲id, was given the oath of allegiance: al-Sālimī (ii, 4) suggests it was 1024/1615, whereas Nāṣir’s biographer, ʿAbd Allāh b. K̲h̲alfān b. Ḳayṣar (13), and the author of Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲umma , Sirḥān b. Saʿīd b. Sirḥān (Ross, Annals , 46), give 1034/1624. The origins of the dyna…


(473 words)

Author(s): E. van Donzel
, Banū , a conglomeration of tribes which in the 18th century ranged in the interior of al-Ẓafra [ q.v.; see also al-d̲j̲iwāʾ ; dubayy], the region in the United Arab Emirates [see al-imārāt al-ʿarabiyya al-muttaḥida , in Suppl.] extending southward from the Gulf. The island of Ṣīr Banī Yās [ q.v.] is mentioned by the Venetian traveller Gasparo Balbi in 1580, who thus implies that the Banū Yās were already in the area at that time (Slot, The Arabs , 39-40, 143). They are also mentioned in the early 17th century (Slot, op. et loc. cit.) and by Niebuhr in the 18th century ( Beschreibung


(1,357 words)

Author(s): Morgan, D.O. | C.E. Bosworth
(thus the usual orthography in Arabic script, Mongolian ǰasaq , ǰasaγ , see Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen , iv, 71-82 no. 1789 s.v. yāsāq ) may be translated variously, according to context, as “law” or, virtually synonymous with yarli̊g̲h̲ [ q.v.], as “decree” or “order”. Hence the sources for the Mongol period speak of what is generally called “the Great Yāsā of Čingiz K̲h̲ān”, in the sense of a comprehensive legal code laid down by the founder of the Mongol empire; but in many if not most instances of …


(5 words)

[see Ḳanūnnāme ].


(227 words)

Author(s): Viré, F.
, Yāsimīn, Yāsamūn (a.), a masc. noun denoting the jasmine shrub, of the Oleaceae tribe, family of jasmines (Jasminaceae). It was cultivated for its yellow or white or purple flowers and for the oil obtained from it by distillation. In the poets, the abbreviated forms yāsam , yāsim , are found. Several sub-species of jasmine are found in the Arabic-speaking lands, sc. (a) Jasminum floribundum , called habb al-zalīm “male ostrich seeds”; (b) J. fructicans, called yāsamīn al-barr “country jasmine”; (c) J. grandiflorum; (d) J. grasissimum , called ḳayyān “flourishing, blooming”, and suway…


(6 words)

[see aḥmad yasawī ].


(2,887 words)

Author(s): Zarcone, Th.
, a Ṣūfī brotherhood present in Transoxania, in K̲h̲wārazm, in the Kazak̲h̲ steppe and in the Tatar world in Eastern Turkestan, in Turkey, in China and even in India. Its eponymous founder was Aḥmad Yasawī (d. 562/1166-7 [ q.v.]). It had as its centre the town of Yasi̊ (or Ḥaḍrat), modern Turkistān [ q.v.] in present-day Ḳazak̲h̲stān [ q.v. in Suppl.], where the mausoleum of the founder described as “the Kaʿba of Turkistān” (cf. Bernardini) is situated. Concerning the spiritual filiation of the Yasawiyya, the Naḳs̲h̲bandī sources (e.g. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn Wāʿiẓ ¶ Kās̲h̲ifī, Ras̲h…


(4 words)

[see Suppl.].


(1,473 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the Ottoman Turkish form of the name of the Romanian town of Iaşi, conventionally Jassy. It lies on the plain of northeastern Moldavia near the confluence of the Bahlui river with the Prut (lat. 47° 10′ N., long. 27° 35′ E.). ¶ In Ottoman times, it was the capital of the principality of Bog̲h̲dān [ q.v.] or Moldavia. Dimitri Cantemir, from 1121-2/1710 to 1122-3/1711 resident in this town as prince of Moldavia, stated that the seat of government had been transferred to Yas̲h̲ by Stephen the Great (838 or 9-909 or 10/1435-1504; in reality this was do…


(2,104 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Sheila S. Blair and J.M. Bloom
(p.), the Persian term for the mineral generally termed jade. This is made up of one or the other hard, fine-grained translucent stones jadeite or nephrite, the first a silicate of sodium and aluminum and the second a silicate of calcium and magnesium. Both may be white or colourless, but are often found in a variety of other colours, such as green, brown, yellow, etc., because of the presence of traces of other elements such as iron, chromium and manganese. 1. In Islamic history. Nephrite was known to Eastern Turkic peoples as ¶ kas̲h̲ (see Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirt…


(446 words)

Author(s): Böttcher, Annabelle
, a Ṣūfī order of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya [ q.v.], founded by ʿAlī Nūr al-Dīn b. Muḥammad b. Nūr al-Dīn Aḥmad al-Mag̲h̲ribī al-Yas̲h̲ruṭī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Tars̲h̲iḥī ( ca. 1218-1309/ ca. 1804-91) from Banzart [ q.v.] in Tunisia. After having been initiated into the ṭarīḳa [ q.v.] of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya-Madaniyya [ q.v.] in Miṣrāta [ q.v.] by Muḥammad b. Ḥamza Ẓāfir al-Madanī (d. 1263/1847), ʿAlī Nūr al-Dīn travelled extensively. In 1266/1850 he settled in ʿAkkā on the Palestinian coast where he married the wealthy widow K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a Tūsīz. In 1297/1862-3 he opened his first zāwiya [ q.v.…


(5 words)

[see al-madīna ].


(2,043 words)

Author(s): Chaumont, E. | R. Shaham
(a.) denotes a child, below the age of puberty, who has lost his father. 1. In the Ḳurʾān and classical Islamic law. According to the lexicographers, this term, which occurs in the Ḳurʾān, denotes in the human realm a fatherless child, whilst in the animal world, it denotes a young one that has lost its mother (in both cases, it is a question of the loss of the one regarded as its nourisher). A child who has lost its mother is called munḳaṭiʿ , and a child who has lost both father and mother, i.e. an orphan, is called laṭīm . But at the age of puberty, the fatherless child is no longer called yatīm


(877 words)

Author(s): Robin, Ch.
, a god of pre-Islamic Arabia, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān in a speech of Noah: “They have said: Forsake not your gods. Forsake not Wadd, nor Suwāʿ, nor Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲, Yaʿūḳ and Nasr!” (LXXI, 22-3). Traditionists and commentators have exercised their ingenuity in the effort to track down the god Yaʿūḳ, with little success. In his “Book of the Idols” ( Kitab al-Aṣnām , §§ 7d, 9d, 45e, and 52b), Ibn al-Kalbī (d. 204/819 or 206/821), relates that: “Ḵh̲aywān adopted Yaʿūḳ; he was in one of their villages called Ḵh̲aywān, in the region of Ṣanʿāʾ…


(216 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. ayyām ), “day” (a Common Semitic word, e.g. Akkad. ūmum , Hebr. yōm , Aram. yawmā , ESA ywm ), denoting the whole 24-hour cycle making up a day, whereas nahār means “the daylight period”, i.e. from sunrise to sunset. See further on this, al-layl wa ’l-nahār . Yawm occurs as an isolated term in various specialised uses, in particular, in pre- and early Islamic times in the meaning of “day of battle”; for this, see ayyām al-ʿarab . The pl. ayyām can also occur, especially in early Arabic poetry, in a similar sense to its apparent antonym layālī


(376 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
(t.), lit. “pedestrian”, denoted, in Ottoman military usage of the 8th-10th/14th-16th centuries, infantryman. Originally forming part of the k̲h̲āṣṣa army serving directly under the ruler, in the 10th/16th century the yaya were considered part of the provincial forces. According to Meḥmed Nes̲h̲rī [ q.v.], under Sultan Ork̲h̲ān peasant taxpayers were offered the opportunity of joining the army as yaya, and large numbers of people applied. Under Murād II, the yaya were supposedly given the nickname enik (puppy) as a form of derision (Nes̲h̲rī, Kitâb-ı Cihân-nümâ
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