Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Yaʿḳūb Pas̲h̲a

(615 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, physician and official for the Ottoman sultan Meḥemmed the Conqueror. Ottoman, Jewish and Venetian sources provide information about him, called Jacopo or Giacomo in Italian sources, yet due to the possibility that other personalities named Yaʿḳūb or even anonymous ones may have been intended by some of the surviving texts, much of his life remains obscure. He was born around 829-34/1425-30 and came from the Italian town of Gaeta. Of a Jewish family, he remained a Jew through most of his career, but beca…


(1,864 words)

Author(s): Ghada al-Hijjawi al-Qaddumi
(a.), corundum, one of the outstanding gems according to early and later Islamic writers, the others being zumurrud (emerald) and luʾluʾ (pearl) (al-Bīrūnī, Ḏj̲amāhir , 81; Nawādir , 73 [from a manuscript dated 390/1000]). Yāḳūt (ruby) is considered by al-Bīrūnī to be the first-rated, most valuable and most expensive of all gems ( ibid., 32). Etymology . Al-D̲j̲awharī opines that the word yāḳūt is an arabicised Persian word ( Ṣiḥāḥ , ed. A.ʿA. ʿAṭṭār, Cairo n.d. [ ca. 1372/1956], i, 271). Ḥamza al-Iṣfahānī, as quoted by al-Bīrūnī, derives yāḳūt from the Persian ¶ yākand

Yāḳūt al-Mustaʿṣimī

(691 words)

Author(s): Canby, Sheila R.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Durr b. ʿAbd Allāh, famed Arabic calligrapher ¶ ( ca. 618-98/ca. 1221-98), who derived his nisba from his master, the last ʿAbbāsid caliph in Bag̲h̲dād, al-Mustaʿṣim [ q.v.], who brought him up and had him educated. Although Ḳāḍī Aḥmad states that he was a native of Abyssinia, another tradition identifies him as a Greek from Amasia, later an important centre of calligraphers. A eunuch, Yāḳūt had a school at Bag̲h̲dād and his six most outstanding students were permitted to sign his name to their calligraphies, …

Yāḳūt al-Rūmī

(2,550 words)

Author(s): Gilliot, Cl.
, or, according to the genealogy that he adopted in order to conceal his slave’s name, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Yaʿḳūb b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī, celebrated traveller and scholar. He was born in 574 or 575/1179, and died on Sunday, 20 Ramaḍān 626/12 August 1229 at Aleppo. 1. His life. His life can be divided into two parts: (a) from 574 or 575 to 606; and (b) from 606 to his death. Life in the service of ʿAskar al-Ḥamawī . Yāḳūt was born in Byzantine territory of non-Arab parents, reduced to slavery while still a very young child, and taken to Bag̲…


(6 words)

[see maḥmūd yalawač ].


(645 words)

Author(s): Ed, | Goodwin, G.
, Yalu (t.), in modern Turkish, yali , literally, “bank, shore”, but coming to mean in Ottoman Turkish “residence, villa on the shore”, cf. Redhouse, A Turkish-English dictionary, 2192: “a water-side residence”. 1. Etymology. The Turkish word stems from the Greek: Homeric Grk. αἰγιαλός, Modern Grk. γιαλός. It must have appeared in Ottoman Turkish early, since it is found in ʿĀs̲h̲i̊k-pas̲h̲a-zāde and Nes̲h̲rī (end of the 9th/15th century). It entered into place-names, e.g. Yahkavak, Yaliköy, Küçükyali, etc.), and spread into the Balkans in one direction (Serbo-Croat ìgolo


(586 words)

Author(s): Bazin, M.
, modern Turkish Yalova , a town and district of Turkey situated on the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara (the town in lat. 40° 40’ N., long. 29° 17’ E.). The district occupies the northern edge of the Armutlu peninsula which runs between the Gulf of Izmit to the north and the Gulf of Gemlik to the south, and ends in the Boz Burun cape, in the southeast of the Sea of Marmara. In Antiquity, it was the region of Pitiya, incorporated after 280 B.C. within the kingdom of Bithynia, and like the latter, conquered by Rome in 74 B.…


(1,205 words)

Author(s): D. Gazagnadou
, the Persian and Arabic transcription of the Mongol term ǰam ( d̲j̲am ), originally denoting “road, route, direction”. In the 13th century, at the time of the creation of the Mongol empire, the term yām also signifies in general the postal service of the Mongol K̲h̲āns and sometimes a postal relay. Information regarding this state institution of the Mongols is available from Chinese, Persian, Arabic, Armenian and Western sources (see bibl. in Gazagnadou). The postal relay of the Mongol authorities seems to have been borrowed from the Chinese postal system ( yi), dating from the time o…


(527 words)

Author(s): G.R. Smith
, an Ismāʿīlī tribe now inhabiting the area of Nad̲j̲rān in southern Saudi Arabia, although at the time of the Ayyūbid conquest of the Yemen in 569/1173 [see ayyūbids ; tūrāns̲h̲āh b. ayyūb ] they also held Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.] and territory to the north and northeast of the city in the D̲j̲awf area, which was overlooked by D̲j̲abal Yām and where they may have originated (see Ibrāhīm Aḥmad al-Maḳḥafī, Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān wa ’l-ḳabāʾil al-yamaniyya , 706). Al-Hamdānī, 115, describes Balad Yām in some detail, giving their main waṭan as Nad̲j̲rān and other territories …


(684 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, at the present time a town in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia about 70 km/45 miles south-east of the capital al-Riyāḍ [ q.v.] and situated in the region of al-K̲h̲ard̲j̲ within the al-Riyāḍ emirate, close to Maḥaṭṭat al-K̲h̲ard̲j̲ on the al-Riyāḍ to al-Ẓahrān (Dhahran) railway (Hussein Hamza Bindagji, Atlas of Saudi Arabia , Oxford 1980, 49; Zaki M.A. Farsi, National guide and atlas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1989, 71). The town is now relatively small and has a population of less than 50,000 (Bindagji, 3). The origin of the name may be yamāma , singular of the collective yamām


(12,475 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Brice, W.C. | Smith, G.R. | Burrowes, R.D. | F. Mermier | Et al.
, Yemen, the southwestern part of the Arabian peninsula, now coming substantially within the unified Republic of Yemen (which also includes as its eastern region the former People’s Democratic Republic of South Yemen, the pre-1967 Aden Protectorate, essentially the historic Ḥaḍramawt [ q.v. in Vol. III and also in Suppl.; see also suḳuṭra ]). ¶ 1. Definition and general introduction. The name is variously explained in the Arabic sources; some say it was given because al-Yaman lies to the right of the Kaʿba or to the right of the sun (al-Bakrī, ii, 856), …


(261 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), pls. aymān , aymun , literally, “the right hand”, but often used in Arabic with the transferred sense of “oath”. In human life and activity, the right hand often symbolises power and the ability to initiate actions. The Arabic word yamīn has such connotations as fortune and prosperity, whilst the wider term yad “hand in general” covers a vast semantic range: power, help’, strength, sufficiency, ability to act, etc. The right hand can have a cultic significance, as with the bronze hand, probably from the vicinity of Ṣanʿāʾ and now in the British Museum, with a South Arabian ex voto inscri…

Yamūt b. al-Muzarraʿ

(714 words)

Author(s): Wagner, E.
al-ʿAbdī , Abū Bakr, multifaceted scholar of the second half of the 3rd/9th century, d. ca. 303-4/915-16. He belonged to the tribe of ʿAbd al-Ḳays [ q.v.], and was al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ’s nephew on his mother’s side; the latter was the source of several anecdotes transmitted by Yamūt. Because of the ominous meaning of his name, “he dies”, Yamūt tried to replace it with Muḥammad, which was, however, not generally accepted. Nonetheless, al-K̲h̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī decided to enter him into his Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād under both names. The bad omen of his name also caus…


(783 words)

Author(s): Donzel, E. van
, conventionally Yanbo or Yambo, the name of a port on the Red Sea coast of the Ḥid̲j̲āz, now a flourishing town of Suʿūdī Arabia (lat. 24° 05’ N., long. 38° 03’ E.), also formerly called Yanbuʿ al-baḥr (“Y. of the sea”) or S̲h̲arm Y . (“the inlet of Y.”), and also of an inland town, known as Yanbuʿ al-nak̲h̲l (“Y. of the date-palms”). The name is said to derive from Ar. yanbūʿ “well”, because of the many wells at the foot of the escarpments of the nearby Raḍwā [ q.v.] (Yāḳūt, Buldān , i, 1038). Ibn d̲j̲ubayr indeed writes Yanbūʿ . Yanbuʿ seems to be identical with Ptolemy’s Iambia Kōmē . In pre-Islamic t…


(5 words)

[see yanya ].


(366 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
, al-Amīr Abu ’l-Fatḥ Nāṣir (or Amīr, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, Nud̲j̲ūm , v, Cairo 1913-17, 240) al-D̲j̲uyūs̲h̲ Sayf al-Islām S̲h̲araf al-Islām, al-Rūmī al-Armanī al-Ḥāfiẓī (d. 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 526/1132), the fourth of six Muslim Armenian viziers of the Fāṭimids (over the period 1074-1163). A former mamlūk of al-Afḍal, in 516/1122-3, Yānis was appointed chief of the ṣibyān and head of the treasury by al-Āmir’s vizier Maʾmūn al-Baṭāʾiḥī (al-Maḳrīzī, K̲h̲iṭaṭ , ed. al-Malīgī, iv, 268). Rising to the posts of chamberlain and commander-in-chie…


(1,136 words)

Author(s): Meropi Anastassiadou
, the Ottoman form for Yanina , a town of the Epirus region of northwestern Greece, situated on the west bank of lake Pamvotis at an altitude of 520 m/1,700 feet and dominated by the Pindus mountains. The date of its foundation is unknown, and though certain historians maintain that it is mentioned in a document concerning the Council of Naupactus (673), it is only mentioned for certain in a decree of the Emperor Basil II in 1020. It must have already existed for some centuries and is said to have originated from a monastery of St.…


(316 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Grenville, G.S.P.
, a Bantu people and language (Chi-Yao), whose earliest recorded habitat lay east of the Ruvuma River in present Mozambique. At latest from the end of the 16th century, they were engaged in petty trade with Kilwa [ q.v.] and the east coast of Africa, peddling tobacco, iron hoes and animal skins in exchange for cloth (for the well-to-do only), brassware, swords, salt and beads. Slowly an export trade in ivory developed, together with captives who had been enslaved to carry it to the coast. This trade greatly advanced in the 18th century and reached its apogee in the 19th. By mid-…


(830 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an important group of the tribe of Tamīm [ q.v.] with the genealogy Yarbūʿ b. Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm (see Caskel-Strenziok, in Bibl.). The same name is borne by other ethnic groups not only Tamīmī (e.g. Yarbūʿ b. Mālik b. Ḥanẓala, cf. Mufaḍḍaliyyāt , ed. Lyall, 122, 1. 18 and parallel passages) and also Yarbūʿ b. Tamīm in Caskel-Strenziok), but also of other tribes, of the south (Kalb, Saʿd Hud̲h̲ayn, D̲j̲uhayna) and of the north (G̲h̲aṭafān, T̲h̲aḳīf, G̲h̲anī, Sulaym, Ḥanīfa, ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; we also find among the Ḳurays̲h̲ a Yarbūʿ b. ʿAnkat̲h̲a b. ʿĀmir b. Mak̲h̲zūm). Yar…


(523 words)

Author(s): Viré, F.
(a.), the jerboa, jumping mouse or jumping hare ( Jaculus ) of the class of rodents and family of dipodids ( Dipus ). The name jerboa is itself derived from yarbūʿ , which may come from Aramaic, as also the name gerbil. Dipus is the “two-legged rat”. It holds itself up on long backlegs like the kangaroo, whilst the front legs are very short and are used to grasp prey and scrape out ¶ its burrows. In Pliny, the jerboa is often confused with the “white rat” ( Mus albus ). The Dipodid family comprises a dozen species, typified by the “Arrow-bolt jerboa” ( Dipus sagitta). The Arabic authorities on zool…
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