Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Yaḥyā Haḳḳī

(774 words)

Author(s): Allen, R.M.A.
, a major figure in the development of modern Egyptian fiction, and also a diplomat, critic, and journalist (1905-92). He was born into a distinguished Egyptian family in 1905; his uncle was Maḥmūd Ṭāhir Ḥaḳḳī, author of one of the very first experiments in novel writing in Egypt, Ad̲h̲rāʾ Dins̲h̲awāy (1906). Like many of his literary contemporaries (for example, Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal and Tawfīḳ al-Ḥakīm [ q.vv.]) Ḥaḳḳī’s field of study at university was the law, and he graduated in 1925. For a short period he served the legal system in Manfalūt, Upper Egypt, as a muʿāwin

Yaḥyā Kemāl

(422 words)

Author(s): Edith G. Ambros
(with the surname adopted in Republican times of Beyatli ), highly renowned Turkish poet and essayist, b. 2 December 1884, d. 1 November 1958. His given name was Aḥmed Āgāh, and his earliest published poems bear the name Āgāh Kemāl. He was born in Üsküb as the son of Ibrāhīm Nād̲j̲ī Beg, who was mayor of this town, and Naḳiyye K̲h̲āni̊m, the niece of the poet Lesḳofčali̊ G̲h̲ālib Beg (1828 or 29-1867). He was educated successively in Üsküb, Selānīk, Istanbul and Paris (École Libre des Sciences Politiques), and during h…

Yaḥyā al-Makkī

(362 words)

Author(s): Neubauer, E.
, Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān Yaḥyā b. Marzūḳ, an honoured court musician in early ʿAbbāsid times and head of a family of court singers. He was born in Mecca as a mawlā of the Banū Umayya, but went to Bag̲h̲dād at the beginning of the reign of al-Mahdī (158/775), and still performed under al-Maʾmūn (198-218/813-33). It is said that he died at the age of 120. He was considered an excellent composer and an expert in the Ḥid̲j̲āzī style of music. Ibn D̲j̲āmiʿ [ q.v.], and both Ibrāhīm and Isḥāḳ al-Mawṣilī [ q.v.] were among his disciples. He also composed a “book of songs” ( Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī

Yaḥyā al-Naḥwī

(1,592 words)

Author(s): Wisnovsky, R.
, the name in Arabic sources for Johannes Grammaticus ( ca. A.D. 490-575), the Alexandrian philologist, commentator on Aristotle, and Jacobite Christian theologian, also known in Greek as Philoponos, lit. “Lover of toil” or “Diligent”, referring to a group of Alexandrian Monophysitic lay Christians—the philoponoi —active in debating pagan professors of philosophy. In Alexandria, John Philoponus began his career teaching philology and then studied philosophy with Ammonius son of Hermeias, the head of the Neoplatonic sc…

Yaḥyā (or Yuḥannā) b. al-Biṭrīḳ

(573 words)

Author(s): Micheau, Françoise
, Abū Zakariyyāʾ, scholar, who was probably a Mālikī, famed for his translations from Greek into Arabic, fl. in the first part of the 3rd/9th century. Although the Arabic biographers (Ibn al-Nadim, Ibn D̲j̲uld̲j̲ul, Ibn al-Ḳifṭī and Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa) devote to him short notices, his life is almost wholly unknown. His father al-Biṭrīḳ was himself a translator in the time of al-Manṣūr (136-58/754-75 [ q.v.]). The author of the Fihrist states that he was part of the entourage of the vizier al-Ḥasan b. Sahl [ q.v.] and that he was ¶ part of a delegation sent by the caliph to the Byzantine…

Yakan, ʿAdlī

(346 words)

Author(s): Jankowski, J.
, Egyptian politician (b. Cairo 1864, d. Paris 1933). His father, K̲h̲alīl b. Ibrāhīm Yakan, was a grandson of Muḥammad ʿAir’s sister. The child of a wealthy landed family and educated in part in European and Ottoman schools, ʿAdlī was a member of the Turko-Egyptian aristocracy that had emerged in 19th-century Egypt. He was a leading figure in Egyptian politics from World War I to the early 1930s. He served as Minister of Education in the Cabinets of Ḥusayn Rus̲h̲dī during the War. In late 1918-early 1919 he engaged, along with Rus̲h̲dī, in an un…

Yakan, Muḥammad Walī al-Dīn

(443 words)

Author(s): Jankowski, J.
, Ottoman-Egyptian liberal spokesman and neoclassicist poet (1873-1921). The son of Ḥasan Sirrī and the grandson of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a Yakan, a cousin of Muḥammad ʿAlī, Walī al-Dīn Yakan was born in Istanbul on 2 March 1873. He was brought to Egypt by his family as a child. Orphaned at six, Walī al-Dīn was raised by his uncle ʿAlī Ḥaydar, a high official of the Khedivial establishment, and attended the Princes’ School ( Madrasat al-And̲j̲āl ) where children of the dynasty were educated. After graduating, Walī al-Dīn worked briefly in the Public Pros…

Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh

(237 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ottoman historian, d. after 816/1413. Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh is the earliest known compiler of menāḳib [see manāḳib ] or exemplary tales of the Ottoman ¶ dynasty in Ottoman Turkish. However, his compilation has not survived as an independent work, and the only reference to it is that made by ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde [ q.v.]. The latter records that in 816/1413, while accompanying Meḥemmed I’s army on campaign, he fell ill and “remained behind at Geyve, in the house of Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faqīh, the son of Ork̲h̲ān Beg’s imām ... it is on the authority of the son of the imām that I relate the menāqib

Yaʿḳūb

(709 words)

Author(s): Firestone, R.
, the Arabic name for the Old Testament Patriarch Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Abraham. Yaʿḳūb is mentioned by name in the Ḳurʾān 16 times in ten sūras. The nature of his appearance tends to be formulaic in that he often appears in reference to other prophets and personages familiar also from the Bible. In what have traditionally been deemed earlier sūras, he appears in the following formula: “We gave [Ibrāhīm] Isḥāḳ and Yaʿḳūb ...” (VI, 84; XIX, 49; XXI, 72; XXIX, 27). This has been thought by some scholars to …

Yaʿḳūb b. ʿAlī S̲h̲īr

(8 words)

[see germiyān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ].

Yaʿḳūb b. Dāʾūd

(10 words)

[see abū ʿabd allāh yaʿḳūb ].

Yaʿḳūb Beg

(843 words)

Author(s): Mende-Altayli, Rana von
, Muḥammad, ruler of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar 1282-94/1865-77. He was born in 1820, or rather 1826-7, in Pis̲h̲kend near Tās̲h̲kend. His father was Pīr Muḥammad Mīrzā (or Muḥammad Laṭīf), who claimed descent from Tīmūr. Originally from Ḳaratigīh [ q.v.], he became ḳāḍī of Kurama and moved on to Pis̲h̲kend in 1234/1818. Yaʿḳūb Beg’s mother was the sister of the influential S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Niẓām al-Dīn, who tutored Yaʿḳūb Beg in his youth. Traditionally, he should have become a mullā , but instead through his brother-in-law, Nūr Muḥammad K̲h̲ān, governor of Tās̲h̲ke…

Yaʿḳūb Bey

(6 words)

[see germiyān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ].

Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
al-Saffār (“the coppersmith”), Abū Yūsuf, adventurer in Sīstān and founder of the dynasty there of Ṣaffārids [ q.v.], functioned as amīr in Sīstān from 247/861 and then as ruler of an extensive military empire in the eastern Islamic lands until his death in 265/879, in practice independent of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs. The origins of Yaʿḳūb’s family in Sīstān were clearly humble, despite attempts of later historians to elevate his father al-Layt̲h̲ to the status of head of the guild of coppersmiths in the province. He was one of four brothers who were members of local bands of ʿayyārs [ q.v.], in …

Yaʿḳūb Čelebi

(6 words)

[see germiyān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ].

al-Yaʿḳūbī

(1,564 words)

Author(s): Zaman, Muhammad Qasim
, early Arab historian and geographer, fl. in the second half of the 3rd/9th century. Life . Abu ’l-Abbās Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿḳūb b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Wahb b. Wāḍiḥ was born in Bag̲h̲dād in the 3rd/9th century. Trained as a member of the secretarial class, he went to Armenia as a young man and later served under the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.] in K̲h̲urāsān. After the fall of the Ṭāhirids there in 259/872-3, he settled in Egypt, and died there in the early 4th/10th century, but apparently not before 292/905. Works . Three of al-Yaʿḳūbī’s works have come down to us. The first in importance is the Taʾrīk̲h̲

Yaʿḳūbiyyūn

(4,036 words)

Author(s): Teule, H.G.B.
, Yaʿāḳiba , Yaʿḳūbiyya , pls. of Yaʿḳūbī, the Arabic term for the Jacobite Christians. “Jacobites” is the designation for members of the Syrian Orthodox Church, whose dogmatical position (Christ’s divinity and humanity coming together into one nature), known as monophysitism, was thought ¶ to be at variance with the moderate dyophysite christology formulated by the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon (451; one divine and one human nature united into one person and hypostasis). Consequendy, the “Monophysites” were considered as hereti…

Yaʿḳūb Ḳadrī

(468 words)

Author(s): Erol, Sibel
, Ḳara-ʿOt̲h̲mānog̲h̲lu , in modern Turkish orthography, Yakub Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, Turkish author, journalist, politician and diplomat (1889-1974). In 1909, he was a charter member of the literary movement Fed̲j̲ī-i Ātī (“The Dawn of the Future”) [ q.v.], which embraced the motto “Art for art’s sake”. After becoming conscious of the deleterious effects for Turkey of the Balkan War of 1912, his philosophy of art changed; he now argued that art was first and foremost the expression of a society, of a nation, and of a historical per…

Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr

(9 words)

[see abū yūsuf yaʿḲūb al-manṣūr ].
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