Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(1,910 words)

Author(s): Gully, A.J.
, the name of a famous Lebanese Maronite family from Kafr S̲h̲īmā eminent in the Arab literary renaissance ( Nahḍa [ q.v.]) of the 19th and early 20th centuries. 1. al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Nāṣīf b. ʿAbd Allāh (1800-71), the son of a physician and founder of the family’s fame, who although he received no formal education, became a teacher, revered philologist and poet. During the first half of his life he held secretarial positions such as that to the Greek Catholic Patriarch (1816-18). He worked closely with American missionaries who…


(7 words)

, Aḥmed [see bīd̲j̲ān ].


(791 words)

Author(s): Ambros, Edith G.
, or Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊-zāde , Meḥmed, a venerated religious figure and poet of the first half of the 9th/15th century. He was the son of Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ (i.e. scribe) Ṣāliḥ b. Süleymān [ q.v. in Suppl.], who wrote a Turkish met̲h̲newī on astrology called the S̲h̲emsiyye . The date of his birth is unknown and its place is uncertain, but may have been Ḳāḍī Köy in the Thracian district of Malḳara [ q.v.]. After he had gone to Persia and Transoxania to complete his studies, he setded in Gallipoli (Gelibolu). He met Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bayrām [ q.v.], probably whilst the latter was passing through Gelibolu, a…


(1,135 words)

Author(s): Th. Bianquis
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan (or al-Ḥusayn) b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, vizier to the Fāṭimids in Egypt 440-50/1050-8 (al-Maḳrīzī, Ittiʿāẓ , ii, 203-40; list of his laḳab s in L.S. al-Imad, The Fatimid vizierate, 969-1172, Berlin 1990, 166; A.F. al-Sayyid, al-Dawla al-fāṭimiyya , tafsīr d̲j̲adīd , Cairo 1996, index at 461). He was born at Yāzur in Palestine, where his father was ḳāḍī , in a Ḥanafī Sunnī family who were the owners of a landed estate. After a Pilgrimage, a piece of the Prophet’s Mosque at Medina fell on his shoulder, the presage of a splendid future (Ibn Ẓāfir, Ak̲h̲bār al-duwal al-mu…

Yedi Adalar

(1,787 words)

Author(s): Savvides, A.
, the Turkish name of the Greek Seven (Ionian) Islands (Gk. Heptanesos/-a ), an insular group off the western coast of north-western Peloponnese (Morea) and mainland Greece, stretching northwards in the following order: Zakynthos, Kephallenia (Cephalonia), Ithake (Ithaca), Leukas, Paxoi (Antipaxos and Paxos) and Kerkyra (Corfu). Sometimes the island of Kythera or Cerigo [see čoka adasi̊ ], off the southeastern tip of the Morea, is also included, albeit erratically, in the Seven Islands group (mainly by scholars of the area’s Lat…

Yeǧana, ʿAlī Münīf

(899 words)

Author(s): Feroz Aḥmad
(1874-1950), Ottoman administrator, deputy, and minister during the constitutional period (1908-18), deputy during the republic, was born in Adana. He graduated from the Mekteb-i Mülkiyye , the civil service school in Istanbul where he learned Arabic and Persian, in 1896. There he joined the secret opposition to ʿAbd ül-Hamīd II [ q.v.] and promised to support the constitutional movement wherever he was posted. ʿAlī Münīf was sent to Gallipoli (1896) and to towns in the Balkans. While he was ḳāʾim-maḳām of Köprülü, he permitted the secret Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) ( Ittiḥād …

Yegen Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(10 words)

[see meḥmed pas̲h̲a , yegen ].

Yegen ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a

(10 words)

[see ʿot̲h̲mān pas̲h̲a , yegen ].

Yegen, Walī al-Dīn

(11 words)

[see yakan , muḥammad walī al-dīn ].

Yemenli Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(631 words)

Author(s): Murphey, R.
(d. 1016/1607), Ottoman Turkish governor in the Yemen. In the absence of tribal consensus and an agreed successor to the Zaydī imāmate following the death of al-Muṭahhar [ q.v.] in 980/1572, the Ottomans were offered an unprecedented opportunity to extend their zone of influence beyond the Tihāma [ q.v.] into the Yemeni interior. Earlier Ottoman advances and the securing of Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.] in 954/1547 had still left large areas of the north including strongholds such as Kawkabān and T̲h̲ulā [ q.vv.] situated perilously close to the governor’s seat itself incompletely pacified…

Yemis̲h̲d̲j̲i Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(205 words)

Author(s): Virginia H. Aksan
(d. 1012/1603), one of twelve Grand Viziers under Meḥemmed III (1003-12/1595-1603 [ q.v]) during the Long War (1593-1606) with the Holy Roman Empire. Albanian in origin, he was raised in the palace system, began service in the Janissaries in 1580, was appointed as Yeñi Čeri Ag̲h̲asi̊ on the Hungarian battlefields in S̲h̲awwāl 1002/June 1594, and became Grand Vizier on 21 Muḥarram 1010/12 July 1601 on the death of his predecessor Dāmād Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. His period as Grand Vizier was punctuated with battlefield service, especially at the restoration of Istolnī B…

Yeñi Bāzār

(770 words)

Author(s): Popovic, A.
, in Turkish “new market”, in Serbo-Croat Novi Pazar, denotes both a region, the former “Sand̲j̲aḳ of Yeñi Bāzār/Sandžak of Novi Pazar”, and a town, now in Yugoslavia, on the Raška river (lat. 43° 09’, long. 20° 29’ E.). 1. The region. This and Zeta constitute the original heartland of mediaeval Serbia, corresponding largely to the ancient Rascia, and was in mediaeval times very important, as the remains of imposing churches, monasteries and baths there show. The Sand̲j̲aḳ (in the Ottoman wilāyet of Kosovo till 1912) was an upland region situated betwee…

Yeñi Čeri

(9,638 words)

Author(s): Murphey, R.
(t.), lit. “new troop”, a body of professional infantrymen of the Ottoman empire in its heyday. 1. Origins. The “new troop”, so-called not so much because of the novelty of the idea as because at the time of its introduction by the vizier K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn Pas̲h̲a [see d̲j̲andarli̊ ] in the 760s/1360s it opposed then-prevailing military traditions cherished by the frontier warriors. The predecessors of Murād I [ q.v.], rather than maintaining a standing army funded by the central fisc, had relied almost exclusively on the military services provided, on a voluntary …

Yeñi Ḳalʿe

(114 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, in Turkish, “the New Fortress”, a fortress in the southeastern Crimea. It was founded by the Ottoman sultan Muṣṭafā II [ q.v.] in 1114/1702 to protect the nearby port of Kerč [ q.v.] and provide a counterweight to Azov, which had been conquered by Peter the Great in 1696 (and held by Russia for 17 years) [see azaḳ ]. When Catherine the Great’s armies marched into the Crimea in 1771, Yeñi Ḳalʿe and Kerč fell into Russian hands without resistance and in the Treaty of Küčük Ḳaynard̲j̲a [ q.v.] of 1774, the Porte ceded its rights to them, thus giving Russia control of the northern Black Sea shores. (Ed.)…

Yeñi ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊lar

(861 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, the Young Ottomans, a political grouping which strove for the establishment of a constitutional régime in the Ottoman empire. The group was formed in 1865 by a group of six young civil servants who had been trained in the new government offices created under the Tanẓīmāt , ¶ and specifically in the Translation Bureau of the Porte. Some of the leading members of the group, such as Nami̊ḳ Kemāl [ q.v.], also pioneered modern journalism in the empire. The Young Ottomans opposed the leading statesmen of their day, Meḥmed Amīn ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a and Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a [ q.vv.], accusing them of establish…

Yeñi S̲h̲ehir

(507 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, modern Turkish Yenişehir, a town of northwestern Anatolia, in what was the classical Bithynia. It lies in lat. 40° 17’ N. and long. 29° 38’ E. at an altitude of 245 m/800 feet in a long depression running from Inegöl in a northeasterly direction, where this narrows; this plain is drained by the Gök Su, whose waters are used here for irrigation purposes and which flows past Yeñi S̲h̲ehir into the Sakarya river [ q.v.]. Yeñi S̲h̲ehir played an important role in early Ottoman history. It was the first town of significance to be taken at some point in the early 8th/14th century by ʿOt̲h̲mān I [ q.v.], w…

Yeñi S̲h̲ehir

(680 words)

Author(s): Savvides, A.
, the Ottoman name (Yeñi-S̲h̲ehir i-Fenārī, since 1423) of Larissa (i.e. “citadel”), the chief central Greek city of Thessaly [see tesalya ], lying near the river Peneios and on the highway connecting Athens with Thessalonica [see selānik ]. It is now the seat of Larissa prefecture ( nomos ) (1981 pop. 102,426). Founded in Antiquity, it was fortified by Justinian (6th century), became one of the administrative and military seats of the Byzantine theme of Hellas (9th-10th centuries) and was attacked and temporarily captur…


(759 words)

Author(s): Abdul-Karim Rafeq
, colloquial Turkish-Arabic term derived from the Turkish yerlü “local”. It was used by the Damascene sources for the local Janissary corps (Turkish Yerlü Čeri ) to distinguish it from the Ḳapi̊ Ḳullari̊ Janissary corps (slaves of the Gate or Imperial Janissaries) referred to by the same sources as Ḳābiḳūl . A fermān dated 4 D̲j̲umādā I 985/20 July 1577 commanded the governor of Damascus to give the places that fell vacant in the Janissary corps to men from Rūm (Anatolia and Rumelia) and not to rich and wealthy natives ( yerlü) and non-Turkish subjects ( tāt ) (U. Heyd, Ottoman documents on Pales…

Yes̲h̲il I̊rmak

(297 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, modern Tkish. Yeşil Irmak (“the Green River”), a river of northern Anatolia, the classical Iris in the province of Pontus (see PW, ix/2, col. 2045). The upper course of the river, called the Tozanli Su, rises in the Köse Dağ to the northeast of Sivas and flows westwards by Tokat [ q.v.] and Turhal. Here there is a fertile plain, the Kazova or “Goose Plain”, which is now irrigated by waters from the Almus dam on the river’s course above it, completed in 1966, and a canal running off and parallel to the river, enabling cereals, sugar-beet and vin…


(587 words)

Author(s): Yerasimos, S.
, a town of what is now the urban agglomeration of Istanbul, on the shores of the Sea of Marmara 15 km/9 miles from the city centre; before 1924 it was known as Agios Stephanios in Greek and Ayastefanos in Turkish. The place is not mentioned in Byzantine sources, but appears in Villehardouin when he describes the arrival of the Crusader fleet in 1203 and mentions “an abbey at St. Stephen three leagues from Constantinople” (ed. Paris 1961, 127). After the Ottoman conquest, Meḥemmed II deported large numbers of persons during his Serbian campaign of 1454 and installed them there (Ducas, xlii, 11; A…
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