Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(364 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t., originally yaylag̲h̲ ), “summer quarters”, applied to the summer residences of the old Turkish ḳag̲h̲ans or the summer pastures of nomadic or transhumant tribes of Inner Asia, its antonym being ki̊s̲h̲laḳ [ q.v.] “winter quarters”. The origin of the word is from yay “summer” (but this originally meant “spring”, cf. Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk, Tkish. tr. Atalay, iii, 160-1, though already in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions it means “summer”, and it comes to mean this in most Turkic languages, with yaylamaḳ “to spend the summer”, cf. Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dicti…


(181 words)

Author(s): Beeston, A.F.L.
, an influential clan in pre-Islamic Ḥaḍramawt, first attested about the middle of the 5th century A.D. by inscriptions (with the spelling Yzʾn ) in the Wādī ʿAmāḳīn, in the Ḥabbān area. A little later they emerge as closely allied with the important Sabaean clan Gdn , and by the early 6th century they were probably the most powerful family in the Himyarite kingdom [see Ḥimyar ; tubbaʿ ], claiming “lordship” (signified by the prefix D̲h̲ū) over virtually the whole of what had been, up to around 300 A.D., the ancient kingdom of Ḥaḍramawt, to…


(8,360 words)

Author(s): Ann K.S. Lambton


(878 words)

Author(s): Ali Gheissari
, Mīrzā Muḥammad (Farruk̲h̲ī) (1889-1939), Persian poet, journalist, and one-time Mad̲j̲lis deputy in the post-Constitutional and early Pahlawī periods. Born of modest origins in Yazd, he spent a few years in the traditional maktab s and briefly attended a school founded in Yazd by English missionaries. The Constitutional movement (1905-9) attracted him to politics, and his “patriotic musammaṭ ” poem of 1909 so enraged Ḍirg̲h̲am al-Dawla Ḳas̲h̲ḳāʾī, the governor of Yazd, that he ordered the sewing together of his lips, an event wh…

Yazīd b. Abī Muslim

(282 words)

Author(s): Crone, Patricia
(Dīnār), Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ, secretary and governor under the Umayyads. He was a mawlā , not by manumission (presumably by conversion), of T̲h̲aḳīf [ q.v.], and foster-brother and secretary, but not mawlā, of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.] (thus al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī and al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ). He ran the dīwān al-rasāʾil for al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ and took charge of the taxes of ʿĪrāḳ when the latter died in 95/714, but was dismissed and jailed on Sulaymān’s accession in 96/715. His cruelty was so notorious that ʿUmar II reputedly left him i…

Yazīd b. Abī Sufyān

(295 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Ḥarb b. Umayya, Arab commander of the conquests period, son of the Meccan leader Abū Sufyān [ q.v.] by his wife Zaynab bt. Nawfal and half-brother of the subsequent caliph Muʿāwiya I [ q.v.], d. 18/639 without progeny (Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif ed. ʿUkās̲h̲a, 344-5). With his father and brother, he became a Muslim at the conquest of Mecca in 8/630, took part in the ensuing battle of Ḥunayn [ q.v.] and was one of “those whose hearts are won over”, receiving from the Prophet a gift of 100 camels and 40 ounces of silver (Ibn Saʿd, ii/1, 110, vii/2, 127; al-Wāḳidī, iii, 944-5; and see al-muʾallafa ḳulūbuh…

Yazīd b. al-Muhallab

(7 words)

[see muhallabids. (i)].

Yazīd b. Zurayʿ

(93 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Abū Muʿāwiya al-Baṣrī, traditionist of Baṣra, b. 101/720 and d. in Baṣra S̲h̲awwāl 182/Nov.-Dec. 798. His father had been governor of al-Ubulla [ q.v.], presumably under the later Umayyads. He is described as the outstanding muḥaddit̲h̲ of Baṣra in his time, a t̲h̲iḳa and ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲a , and was the teacher of the historian and biographer K̲h̲alīfa b. K̲h̲ayyāṭ [see ibn k̲h̲ayyāṭ ]. Ibn Saʿd says that Yazīd was a supporter of the ʿUt̲h̲māniyya [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, vii/2, 44 Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb, xi, 325-8 Ziriklī, Aʿlām 2, ix, 235.


(3,337 words)

Author(s): P.G. Kreyenbroek
, Yazīdiyya , the name of a mainly Kurdish-speaking group whose communal identity is defined by their distinctive religious tradition. Appellations and definitions. The Kurdish appellation generally used by the community itself is Ēzdī , with a variant Ēzīdī . Most Western scholars now hold that the word derives from the name of Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya [ q.v.]; a derivation from Old Iranian yazata , Middle Persian yazad “divine being”, was once widely accepted and is still preferred by many Yazīdīs. Popular etymologies include a derivation of the term from ez , which…


(1,436 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R.
, Abū Muḥammad Yaḥyā b. al-Mubārak b. al-Mug̲h̲īra al-ʿAdawī al-Baṣrī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, with the laḳab or s̲h̲uhra of al-Yazīdī (so named after Yazīd b. Manṣūr al-Ḥimyarī, d. 165/781, maternal uncle of the caliph al-Mahdī), Ḳurʾān teacher, grammarian, lexicographer, poet and man of letters, d. 202/817-18. 1. Al-Yazīdī, the father. Born around 128/745-6 in Baṣra (?) as a client of the Banū ʿAdī b. ʿAbd Manāt, he frequented the local philologists, particularly Abū ʿAmr b. al-ʿAlāʾ, Yūnus b. Ḥabīb and al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad [ q.vv.]. He became the main transmitter of the seven canoni…

Yazīd (I) b. Muʿāwiya

(1,542 words)

Author(s): G.R. Hawting
, the second Umayyad caliph ( r. 60-4/680-3). He was named as his successor by his father [see muʿāwiya i ]. His mother was Maysūn, a sister of the Kalbī leader Ibn Baḥdal [see Ḥassān b. mālik ]. The Banū Kalb [see kalb b. wabara ] were strong in the southern regions of Syria, and Muʿāwiya appointed Yazīd as his successor in preference to an older half-brother, ʿAbd Allāh, born of a Ḳuras̲h̲ī mother. Yazīd’s kunya , Abū K̲h̲ālid, refers to one of his own younger sons [see k̲h̲ālid b. yazīd ]. During his father’s caliphate, Yazīd commanded expeditions ( ṣawāʾif see Ṣāʾifa . 1…


(1,910 words)

Author(s): Gully, A.J.
, the name of a famous Lebanese Maronite family from Kafr S̲h̲īmā eminent in the Arab literary renaissance ( Nahḍa [ q.v.]) of
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