Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(817 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
, the 28th letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 10. It stands for the semivowel y and for the long vowel ī , which the grammarians analyse as short i ( kasra ) plus yāʾ . For the shortening of final before hamzat al-waṣl , see wāw . ϒāʾ is also used, like alif and wāw, as a “support” for medial or final hamza [ q.v.], reflecting presumably the ancient Ḥid̲j̲āzī dialect loss of hamza in certain positions with concomitant glides. In word-final position, alif maḳṣūra (that is to say: long ā not followed by hamza) is written sometimes with alif and sometimes with yāʾ. In the latter c…


(709 words)

Author(s): Sato, T.
, the modern Arabic term for a person of Japanese descent. 1. Islam in Modern Japan. The Japanese began to receive information about the Islamic world through Chinese sources beginning in the 8th century. However, it was not until the early 18th century that a substantial introduction to the Middle East and Islam was written in Japanese by a Confucian intellectual and politician, Arai Hakuseki (1657-1725), mainly based on questions asked of the Italian Jesuit missionary Giovanni Battista Sidotti. From the …


(525 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t.) (perhaps also Yavg̲h̲u, the Old Turkish so-called “runic” alphabet not differentiating b and v), an ancient Turkish title, found in the Ork̲h̲on [ q.v.] inscriptions to denote an office or rank in the administrative hierarchy below the Kag̲h̲an. The latter normally conferred it on his close relatives, with the duty of administering part of his dominions. It was thus analogous to the title S̲h̲ad̲h̲, whom the Yabg̲h̲u preceded in the early Türk empire [see turks. I. History. 1. The pre-Islamic period]. It seems to have lost some importance after this time (8th century), …


(771 words)

Author(s): Soucek, S.
, the mediaeval Arabic name for Ibiza (Catalan, Eivissa), an island in the western Mediterranean, part of al-Ḏj̲azāʾir al-s̲h̲arḳiyya “the Eastern islands” [of al-Andalus], sc. the Balearics [see mayūrḳa ; minūrḳa and their Bibls.], and also the name of its chief town and port. Ibiza is the smallest of the trio (area 572 km2), and lies 85 km to the southwest of Mallorca halfway to the Spanish ¶ coast (at Cabo de la Nao, with Denia nearby). It is flanked by the still smaller island of Formentera 4 km to its south, and the name Pityusic Islands, applied to these …


(323 words)

Author(s): G.R. Smith
, a sandy region of Eastern Arabia belonging to Banū Saʿd. It is situated within the area of al-Baḥrayn [ q.v.], three stages from al-Falad̲j̲ and two stages from al-Aḥsāʾ [ q.v.] and Ḥad̲j̲r (Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, v, 427). The editors of al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Iṣfahānī, Bilād al-ʿarab , Riyāḍ 1968, 276 n. 3, sc. Ḥamad al-D̲j̲āsir and Ṣāliḥ al-ʿAlī, state that Yabrīn is still known as an area in the west of al-Aḥsāʾ and the name is corrupted (or more probably, hypercorrected, since d̲j̲ > y in the speech of that area) in modern works to D̲j̲abrīn. It does not, however, appe…


(492 words)

Author(s): Johnstone, Penelope C.
(a.), Mandragora, the Mandrake, Mandragora officinarum, Solanaceae ; also called Atropa mandragora L. and M. officinarum Mill (Moldenke); Hebr., dūdāʾīm or yabrūah̲ . A perennial herbaceous plant common in the Mediterranean region, its dark green leaves, about one foot long, spread out at ground level; the flowers are purplish or whiteish-green, and the fruit are small globular berries, orange to red in colour. Its root is often forked, and is the part known as yabrūḥ , while the plant itself is generally called luffāḥ . Ibn al-Bayṭār explains mandrāg̲h̲ūra s of Dioscorides as yabrūḥ, a…


(872 words)

Author(s): Picard, Ch.
, the Arabic name of the modern town of Evora in southern Portugal. The Liberalitas Julia of the Roman period had become Elbora or Erbora in the time of the Visigoths, a name revived unchanged, in the form of Yābura, by Arab authors. The history of the Arab town poses numerous enigmas. Very little is known of its history from the time of the Arab conquest to the beginning of the 10th century. Ibn al-Faraḍī makes it the seat of a ḳāḍī , and the city was located in the district of Beja, capital of a d̲j̲und and seat of a governor since the conquest. Al-Rāzī alludes to i…


(1,091 words)

Author(s): Leconte, F.
(1096-1166/1685-1753), the cognomen of Muḥammad b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Muḥammad (Maḥamm) Saʿīd b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. ʿUmar b. ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā b. Yiddād̲j̲ Igd̲h̲aburg̲h̲a b. Yad̲h̲rinan Tags̲h̲umt (Aḥsanuhum Bas̲h̲arat an), Mauritanian scholar. His nisba shows his ethnic affiliation to one of the Zawāyā tribes forming the pentarchical alliance of the Tas̲h̲ums̲h̲a: the group of the Īdāw-dāy (eponymous founder Yiddād̲j̲ = D̲j̲addu ʿAlī). He was born and died at Tandagsammi, in the heart of the Gibla (south-eastern Mauritania) in the region of Iguidi; his tomb is s…

Yada Tas̲h̲

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t.), lit. rain stone, in Arabic texts appearing as ḥad̲j̲ar al-maṭar , this being a magical stone by means of which rain, snow, fog, etc., could be conjured up by its holder(s). In particular, knowledge and use of such stones has been widespread until very recent times in Inner Asia. Belief in the existence of stones and other means of controlling the weather has been widespread throughout both the Old and New Worlds (see Sir J.G. Frazer, The golden bough, a study in magic and religion, abridged ed., London 1922, 75-8). Belief in a stone seems to have been general amongst the e…


(3,675 words)

Author(s): Darley-Doran, R.E.
(p.), lit. “a souvenir, a keepsake” and, by extension, in numismatics any special issue of coins struck for a variety of non-currency purposes. In Islamic history the striking of coins was a special responsibility and prerogative of the ruler [see sikka ] together with having his name mentioned in the Friday bidding prayer [see k̲h̲uṭba ]. In general, coinage serves two major purposes. Primarily it is a medium of exchange between a government and its people, i.e. to facilitate taxation payments or to support internal and international commerce. Gover…

Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲

(3,523 words)

Author(s): E. van Donzel and Claudia Ott
, sc. Gog and Magog, the names of apocalyptic peoples known from biblical (Ezekiel xxxviii, xxxix, Apocalypse, xx. 7-10) and Ḳurʾānic eschatology. Ḳurʾān, XVIII, 93-8, refers to D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳarnayn erecting a barrier/rampart ( sadd/radm) against them, which, at the end of time, God Himself will raze. Ḳurʾān, XXI, 96, is an apocalyptic metaphor: “Till, when Gog and Magog are unloosed, and they slide down ( yansilūna ) out of every slope” (tr. A.J. Arberry). Names . The reading ϒād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ (without hamza ) was preferred by most of the Ḥid̲j̲āzī and ʿIrāḳī ḳurrāʾ , while ʿĀṣim [ q.…


(1,628 words)

Author(s): F. Buhl, F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Yāfa , conventionally Jaffa, older Joppa, a port on the Palestinian seaboard, in pre-modern times the port of entry for Jerusalem, since 1950 part of the municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo in the State of Israel (lat. 32° 05′ N., long. 34° 46′ E.). Situated on a 30 m/100 feet-high promontory on the otherwise straight coastline of central Palestine, Jaffa is a very ancient town. Thutmosis III’s forces seized the Canaanite town of ϒ-pw in the 15th century B.C. and it became a provincial capital during the Egyptian New Kingdom; since the 1950s, archaeological excavations h…


(402 words)

Author(s): G.R. Smith
, an ancient and important collection of tribes of the Yemen who established themselves in the lofty mountain ranges in Sarw Ḥimyar to the north and north-east of Aden [see ʿadan ], about 120 km/75 miles distant. Yāfiʿ is divided into the Upper and Lower Sultanates (see map of Serjeant, in ϒāfiʿ , 84), with al-Maḥd̲j̲aba the capital of the former and al-Ḳāra, the old capital of the sultans of the Banū Ḳāsid, that of the latter. The former has five tribes: Kaladī, Saʿdī, Yazīdī, Yaharī and Nāk̲h̲ibī. The latter also has five: Muflaḥī, Mawsaṭī, Ẓabī, Buʿsī and Ḥaḍramī. They were certainly pre-I…


(733 words)

Author(s): Geoffroy, E.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. Asʿad , Abu ’l-Saʿāda ʿAfīf al-Dīn (b. in Yemen ca. 698/1298, d. at Mecca 768/1367), scholar and Ṣūfī. His father, impressed by his son’s intellectual and spiritual precociousness, sent him to study at Aden. After his first Pilgrimage in 712/1313, he returned to Yemen, taking up life as an ascetic and anchorite and becoming a disciple of the Ṣūfī master ʿAlī al-Ṭawās̲h̲ī, to whom he remained close until the latter’s death. In 718/1319 he moved to Mecca and completed his education in the Is…


(426 words)

Author(s): Heller, B. | Rippin, A.
, the Japheth of the Bible. He is not mentioned by name in the Ḳurʾān (although he is alluded to in VII, 64, X, 73, XI, 40, XXIII, 27 and XXVI, 119), but the exegetes are familiar with all the sons of Noah [see nūḥ ]: Ḥām, Sām [ q.vv.] and Yāfit̲h̲ (the pronunciation Yāfit is mentioned as possible in al-Ṭabarī, i, 222). The Biblical story (Gen. ix. 20-7) of Ḥām’s sin and punishment and the blessing given to Sām and Yāfit̲h̲ is known in Muslim legend, but it is silent about Noah’s planting the vine and becoming intoxicated. Al-Kisāʾī totally tr…


(5 words)

[see yuʿfirids ].


(683 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
(p.), lit. “the land of the rebels”, ( yāg̲h̲ī “rebel”, istān “region”) referred to different sanctuaries used by Mud̲j̲āhidūn [see mud̲j̲āhid ] against the British authorities in the 19th and early 20th centuries, in the various independent tribal areas, mainly inhabited by the Pak̲h̲tūns, in the hinterland of what became the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of British India such as the Mohmand Agency, Bunēr, Dīr, Swāt, Kohistān, Hazāra and Čamarkand (extending into the Kunār province of Afg̲h̲ānistān and Bad̲j̲…


(569 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in Arabic orthography Yag̲h̲mā, a Turkish tribe of Central Asia mentioned in accounts of the early Turks and their component tribal groups. P. Pelliot thought that the Chinese ϒang-mo presupposed a nasalised form * ϒangma ( Notes sur le “Turkestan” de M.W . Barthold, in T’oung-Pao , xxvii [1930], 17). There are sections on the Yag̲h̲ma in Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 95-6 § 13, cf. comm. 277-81, and Gardīzi, Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār , ed. Ḥabībī, Tehran 1347/1968, 260. Abū Dulaf does not mention them by name in his First Risāla , but Marquart thought that his Bug̲h̲rād̲j̲ tri…

Yag̲h̲mā D̲j̲andaḳī

(693 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ or pen-name of the Persian poet Mīrzā Abu ’l-Ḥasan Raḥīm ( ca. 1196-1276/ ca. 1782-1859), often called by his fellow-poets Ḳaḥba-zan “whore” from the expression repeated monotonously in his obscene verse. He was born at K̲h̲ūr in the D̲j̲andaḳ oasis in the central desert of the Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr, roughly half-way between Yazd and Simnān. He began his life as a camel-herd but by the age of seven his natural gifts had been noticed by the owner of the oasis, Ismāʿīl K̲h̲ān ʿArab-i ʿĀmirī, whose secretary ( muns̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī ) he ultimately became. Hi…


(611 words)

Author(s): Ali Gheissari
, Ḥabīb (b. K̲h̲ūr, 17 December 1898, d. Tehran, 14 May 1984), Persian poet and literary editor. A descendant of the early Ḳād̲j̲ār poet Yag̲h̲mā D̲j̲andaḳī [ q.v.], Ḥabīb Yag̲h̲māʾī was born in the small town of K̲h̲ūr near D̲j̲andaḳ and Bīyābānak in the central desert of Persia. He first studied with his father, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Asad Allāh Muntak̲h̲ab al-Sādāt K̲h̲ūrī, and subsequently left K̲h̲ūr in 1916-17 for the nearby towns of Dāmg̲h̲ān and S̲h̲āhrūd in order to pursue his education. In Dāmg̲h̲ān he studied at the Nāẓimi…


(507 words)

Author(s): Veronne, Chantal de La
b. Zayyān b. T̲h̲ābit , Abū Yaḥyā, s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād, a branch of the Zanāta [ q.v.] Berbers, who lived in the region of Tlemcen [see tilimsān ] under the suzerainty of the Almohad sultans of Morocco, and who was the founder of the independent dynasty of the Zayyānids or ʿAbd al-Wādids [ q.v.] of Tlemcen, d. 681/1283. Born in 603/1206-7 or 605/1208-9, he succeeded his brother Abū ʿUzza Zaydān as head of the ʿAbd al-Wādids in 633/1236, but not till 637/1239-40 was he formally invested by the Almohad sultan ʿAbd al-Wāḥid al-Ras̲h̲īd. T…


(941 words)

Author(s): Robin, Ch.
, a god of pre-Islamic Arabia, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān in a speech of Noah: “They have said: Forsake not your gods. Forsake not Wadd, nor Suwāʿ, nor Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲, Yaʿūḳ and Nasr (LXXI, 22-3). Traditionists and commentators (see the references given by Hawting, The idea of idolatry, 113 and n. 6) have exercised their ingenuity in the search for the traces of Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ in Arabia. Ibn al-Kalbī (d. 204/819 or 206/821) in his Book of the Idols ( Kitāb al-Asnām , §§ 7c, 9d, 45e, 52a) relates in laconic style: “[the tribe of] Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ and the people of Ḏ…


(3,037 words)

Author(s): Stillman, N.A.
, the common collective (sing. ϒahūdī ) in Arabic for “Jews”. A less common plural Hūd is also used (e.g. Ḳurʾān, II, 111, 135, 140). The word is borrowed from Aram. ϒahūd , and ultimately from late bibl. Heb. yehūdīm , “Judaeans”, the latter itself derived from members of the tribe of Judah). The Ḳurʾān also uses a stative verb hāda , “to be Jewish” or “to practice Judaism”. 1. In the D̲j̲āhiliyya. Jews had lived in various parts of the Arabian Peninsula since Antiquity, and the numbers of those living in northwestern Arabia must have been swelled by refugees from J…


(525 words)

Author(s): Andrews, W.G. | Kalpakli, Mehmet
, S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ al-Islām , Ottoman legal scholar and poet, d. 1053/1644. ¶ The son of S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ al-Islām Bayrāmzāde Zekeriyyā Efendi, Yaḥyā was born in Istanbul in 969/1561 (some sources give the birth date 959). As the scion of an important ʿulemāʾ family, he underwent a rigorous private education under the tutelage of his father and several other noted scholars, including ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲ebbārzāde Dervīs̲h̲ Meḥmed Efendi and Maʿlūlzāde Seyyid Meḥmed Efendi. In 988/1580, at 19 years of age, he was granted a mulāzimet and went on to teach in the most important madrasa s …

Yaḥyā al-Anṭākī

(6 words)

[see al-anṭāḳī ].

Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd Allāh

(1,850 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, Medinan ʿAlid leader of a revolt in Daylam and Zaydī imām . His mother was Ḳurayba bt. Rukayḥ b. Abī ʿUbayda b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Zamʿa b. al-Aswad, niece of the mother of his paternal brothers Muḥammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya [ q.v.] and Ibrāhīm, leaders of the Ḥasanid revolt against the caliph al-Manṣūr in 145/762. As a much younger brother, born perhaps around 128/745-6, he did not participate in that revolt. He was partly brought up and taught by the Imāmī S̲h̲īʿī imām D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ [ q.v.], presumably after the imprisonment of his father in 140/758, a…

Yaḥyā b. Ādam

(1,715 words)

Author(s): Schmucker, W.
b. Sulaymān, Abū Zakariyyāʾ al-Kūfï, Ḳurʾān, ḥadīt̲h̲ and fiḳh scholar, d. 203/818. He had the nisbas al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī and al-Umawī because, through his father Ādam who was probably of Persian origin, he was a client ( mawlā ) of a certain K̲h̲ālid b. K̲h̲ālid b. ʿUmāra b. al-Walīd b. ʿUḳba b. Abī Mu’ayt al-Umawī, also al-Mak̲h̲zūmī (e.g. in al-Nawawī, but according to Schacht in EI 1, this is a mistake), and the laḳab is al-Aḥwal (Sezgin, i, 520; S̲h̲ākir, 8). His biography as transmitted is very sparse. Born after 130/747-8, probably ca. 140/757-8, he grew up and for the most part live…

Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Endress, G.
, Christian Arab philosopher and theologian, translator and commentator of the works of Aristotle. Coming from the Christian town of Takrīt on the Tigris (but given a Persian genealogy in some of the manuscripts), he spent his active life in Bag̲h̲dād, where he earned his living as a copyist and bookseller ( warrāk ) ; this activity is recorded by his contemporary Ibn al-Nadīm (d. 380/990 [ q.v.]), who drew extensively on Yaḥyā’s library for information on the Greek philosophers and their Arabic transmitters ( Fihrist , 264, cf. 246, 250-3). There he died on…

Yaḥyā b. Akt̲h̲am

(231 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Marwazi al-Tamīmī, faḳīh who had been a pupil of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. judge and counsellor of ʿAbbāsid caliphs, d. 242/857. A native of Marw, he became Grand Judge ( ḳāḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt ) of Bag̲h̲dād after having been being appointed judge in Baṣra by al-Ḥasan b. Sahl [ q.v.] in 202/817-18. He soon became a member of al-Maʾmūn’s court circle as an adviser and boon-companion, thus exemplifying a trend under this caliph to take legal scholars rather than administrators as political counsellors. He accompanied al-Maʾmūn to Syria and Egypt …

Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī

(11 words)

[see munad̲j̲d̲j̲im , banu ’l -. 4].

Yaḥyā Bey

(9 words)

(Beg) [see tas̲h̲li̊d̲j̲al i̊ yaḥyā ].

Yaḥyā b. Ḥamza al-ʿAlawī

(412 words)

Author(s): Gelder, G.J.H. van
, rhetorician, Zaydī scholar and imām (669-745/1270-1344; a death date of 749/1348 is also mentioned). Yaḥyā b. Ḥamza b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḥusaynī al-ʿAlawī al-Ṭālibī, a versatile and prolific Yemeni scholar, was descended from ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and the imām ʿAlī al-Riḍā [ q.vv.]. He was born in Ṣanʿāʾ and played a role in politics, for after the death of al-Mahdī Muḥammad b. al-Muṭahhar in 729/1329 he ruled over part of Yemen as Zaydī imām under the name al-Muʾayyad bi ’llāh until his death. It is said that the number of quires ( karārīs ) written by him equalled t…

Yaḥyā b. Maʿīn

(220 words)

Author(s): Leemhuis, F.
b. ʿAwn al-Murrī al-G̲h̲aṭafanī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Abū Zakariyyāʾ , traditionist, b. 158/775 near al-Anbār, d. 233/847 on pilgrimage in Medina. A client ( mawla ) of al-D̲j̲unayd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Murrī, he inherited considerable wealth from his father and is reported to have spent it all on the acquisition of ḥadīt̲h̲ . Among his teachers were Sufyān b. ʿUyayna and Ibn al-Mubārak [ q.vv.]. Authorities like Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, al-Buk̲h̲ārī and Ibn Saʿd are reported to have been among his pupils. Together with Ibn Saʿd and five others, he was ordered in 218/833…

Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, al-Manṣūr al-Mutawakkil, of the Ḥamīd al-Dīn family, from the Ḳāsirm branch, Zaydī Imām and first ruler of the Mutawakkilī Kingdom of Yemen, b. ca . 1869, d. 1948. ¶ On the death in June 1904 of his father Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā Hamfd al-Dīn, who had in 1891 rebelled against the Ottomans, Yaḥyā obtained the bayʿa of most of the tribes and sayyid clans of Yemen and assumed the laḳab of al-Mutawakkil ʿalā ’llāh. Rejecting, like his predecessors, the authority of the Porte, he rose against the Turks and in April 1905 captured the capital Ṣanʿāʾ an…

Yaḥyā b. Saʿdūn

(7 words)

[see al-Ḳurṭubī ].

Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā al-Layt̲h̲ī

(796 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
(d. 234/848), Cordovan faḳīh , descendant of a Berber (Maṣmūda) soldier who entered the Peninsula at the time of the conquest. His family, known as the Banū Abī ʿĪsā, was always closely connected to the Umayyad family whom they served with the pen and the sword. Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā was the first member of the family to devote himself to religious knowledge ( ʿilm ). He took part in movements of opposition against the Umayyad amīr al-Ḥakam I, being mentioned among the participants in the famous Revolt of the Arrabal (al-Rabaḍ). He …

Yaḥyā b. Zakariyyāʾ

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, the New Testament John the Baptist, mentioned by name five times in the Ḳurʾān. The spelling of the name is evidenced from pre-Islamic times and is probably derived from Christian Arabic usage (see J. Horovitz, Koranische Untersuchungen , Berlin 1926, 151-2; A. Jeffery, Foreign vocabulary of the Quran , Baroda 1938, 290-1); Muslim exegetes frequently trace the name from a root sense of “to quicken” or “to make alive” in reference to John’s mother’s barrenness and his people’s absence of faith. In Ḳurʾān, III, 39, John i…

Yaḥyā b. Zayd

(724 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn , ʿAlid fugitive and rebel killed late in 125/summerautumn 743. His mother was Rayṭa, daughter of Abū Hās̲h̲im [ q.v.] b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya. As the eldest son of Zayd b. ʿAlī, he participated in Zayd’s revolt in Kūfa in Muḥarram 122/end of 739. After his father’s death, he escaped, relentlessly sought by Yūsuf b. ʿUmar al-T̲h̲akafī, governor of ʿĪrāḳ [ q.v.] Yaḥyā went first to Nīnawā near Karbalāʾ. He was then given protection by the Umayyad ʿAbd al-Malik b. Bis̲h̲ī b. Marwān, who concealed him in a village owned by him that later became Ḳaṣr Ibn Hubayra [ q.v.]. Afte…

Yaḥyā Haḳḳī

(774 words)

Author(s): Allen, R.M.A.
, a major figure in the development of modern Egyptian fiction, and also a diplomat, critic, and journalist (1905-92). He was born into a distinguished Egyptian family in 1905; his uncle was Maḥmūd Ṭāhir Ḥaḳḳī, author of one of the very first experiments in novel writing in Egypt, Ad̲h̲rāʾ Dins̲h̲awāy (1906). Like many of his literary contemporaries (for example, Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal and Tawfīḳ al-Ḥakīm [ q.vv.]) Ḥaḳḳī’s field of study at university was the law, and he graduated in 1925. For a short period he served the legal system in Manfalūt, Upper Egypt, as a muʿāwin

Yaḥyā Kemāl

(422 words)

Author(s): Edith G. Ambros
(with the surname adopted in Republican times of Beyatli ), highly renowned Turkish poet and essayist, b. 2 December 1884, d. 1 November 1958. His given name was Aḥmed Āgāh, and his earliest published poems bear the name Āgāh Kemāl. He was born in Üsküb as the son of Ibrāhīm Nād̲j̲ī Beg, who was mayor of this town, and Naḳiyye K̲h̲āni̊m, the niece of the poet Lesḳofčali̊ G̲h̲ālib Beg (1828 or 29-1867). He was educated successively in Üsküb, Selānīk, Istanbul and Paris (École Libre des Sciences Politiques), and during h…

Yaḥyā al-Makkī

(362 words)

Author(s): Neubauer, E.
, Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān Yaḥyā b. Marzūḳ, an honoured court musician in early ʿAbbāsid times and head of a family of court singers. He was born in Mecca as a mawlā of the Banū Umayya, but went to Bag̲h̲dād at the beginning of the reign of al-Mahdī (158/775), and still performed under al-Maʾmūn (198-218/813-33). It is said that he died at the age of 120. He was considered an excellent composer and an expert in the Ḥid̲j̲āzī style of music. Ibn D̲j̲āmiʿ [ q.v.], and both Ibrāhīm and Isḥāḳ al-Mawṣilī [ q.v.] were among his disciples. He also composed a “book of songs” ( Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī

Yaḥyā al-Naḥwī

(1,592 words)

Author(s): Wisnovsky, R.
, the name in Arabic sources for Johannes Grammaticus ( ca. A.D. 490-575), the Alexandrian philologist, commentator on Aristotle, and Jacobite Christian theologian, also known in Greek as Philoponos, lit. “Lover of toil” or “Diligent”, referring to a group of Alexandrian Monophysitic lay Christians—the philoponoi —active in debating pagan professors of philosophy. In Alexandria, John Philoponus began his career teaching philology and then studied philosophy with Ammonius son of Hermeias, the head of the Neoplatonic sc…

Yaḥyā (or Yuḥannā) b. al-Biṭrīḳ

(573 words)

Author(s): Micheau, Françoise
, Abū Zakariyyāʾ, scholar, who was probably a Mālikī, famed for his translations from Greek into Arabic, fl. in the first part of the 3rd/9th century. Although the Arabic biographers (Ibn al-Nadim, Ibn D̲j̲uld̲j̲ul, Ibn al-Ḳifṭī and Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa) devote to him short notices, his life is almost wholly unknown. His father al-Biṭrīḳ was himself a translator in the time of al-Manṣūr (136-58/754-75 [ q.v.]). The author of the Fihrist states that he was part of the entourage of the vizier al-Ḥasan b. Sahl [ q.v.] and that he was ¶ part of a delegation sent by the caliph to the Byzantine…

Yakan, ʿAdlī

(346 words)

Author(s): Jankowski, J.
, Egyptian politician (b. Cairo 1864, d. Paris 1933). His father, K̲h̲alīl b. Ibrāhīm Yakan, was a grandson of Muḥammad ʿAir’s sister. The child of a wealthy landed family and educated in part in European and Ottoman schools, ʿAdlī was a member of the Turko-Egyptian aristocracy that had emerged in 19th-century Egypt. He was a leading figure in Egyptian politics from World War I to the early 1930s. He served as Minister of Education in the Cabinets of Ḥusayn Rus̲h̲dī during the War. In late 1918-early 1919 he engaged, along with Rus̲h̲dī, in an un…

Yakan, Muḥammad Walī al-Dīn

(443 words)

Author(s): Jankowski, J.
, Ottoman-Egyptian liberal spokesman and neoclassicist poet (1873-1921). The son of Ḥasan Sirrī and the grandson of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a Yakan, a cousin of Muḥammad ʿAlī, Walī al-Dīn Yakan was born in Istanbul on 2 March 1873. He was brought to Egypt by his family as a child. Orphaned at six, Walī al-Dīn was raised by his uncle ʿAlī Ḥaydar, a high official of the Khedivial establishment, and attended the Princes’ School ( Madrasat al-And̲j̲āl ) where children of the dynasty were educated. After graduating, Walī al-Dīn worked briefly in the Public Pros…

Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh

(237 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ottoman historian, d. after 816/1413. Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh is the earliest known compiler of menāḳib [see manāḳib ] or exemplary tales of the Ottoman ¶ dynasty in Ottoman Turkish. However, his compilation has not survived as an independent work, and the only reference to it is that made by ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde [ q.v.]. The latter records that in 816/1413, while accompanying Meḥemmed I’s army on campaign, he fell ill and “remained behind at Geyve, in the house of Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faqīh, the son of Ork̲h̲ān Beg’s imām ... it is on the authority of the son of the imām that I relate the menāqib


(709 words)

Author(s): Firestone, R.
, the Arabic name for the Old Testament Patriarch Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Abraham. Yaʿḳūb is mentioned by name in the Ḳurʾān 16 times in ten sūras. The nature of his appearance tends to be formulaic in that he often appears in reference to other prophets and personages familiar also from the Bible. In what have traditionally been deemed earlier sūras, he appears in the following formula: “We gave [Ibrāhīm] Isḥāḳ and Yaʿḳūb ...” (VI, 84; XIX, 49; XXI, 72; XXIX, 27). This has been thought by some scholars to …

Yaʿḳūb b. ʿAlī S̲h̲īr

(8 words)

[see germiyān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ].
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