Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(817 words)

Author(s): Blois, F.C. de
, the 28th letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 10. It stands for the semivowel y and for the long vowel ī , which the grammarians analyse as short i ( kasra ) plus yāʾ . For the shortening of final before hamzat al-waṣl , see wāw . ϒāʾ is also used, like alif and wāw, as a “support” for medial or final hamza [ q.v.], reflecting presumably the ancient Ḥid̲j̲āzī dialect loss of hamza in certain positions with concomitant glides. In word-final position, alif maḳṣūra (that is to say: long ā not followed by hamza) is written sometimes with alif and sometimes with yāʾ. In the latter c…


(709 words)

Author(s): Sato, T.
, the modern Arabic term for a person of Japanese descent. 1. Islam in Modern Japan. The Japanese began to receive information about the Islamic world through Chinese sources beginning in the 8th century. However, it was not until the early 18th century that a substantial introduction to the Middle East and Islam was written in Japanese by a Confucian intellectual and politician, Arai Hakuseki (1657-1725), mainly based on questions asked of the Italian Jesuit missionary Giovanni Battista Sidotti. From the …


(525 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t.) (perhaps also Yavg̲h̲u, the Old Turkish so-called “runic” alphabet not differentiating b and v), an ancient Turkish title, found in the Ork̲h̲on [ q.v.] inscriptions to denote an office or rank in the administrative hierarchy below the Kag̲h̲an. The latter normally conferred it on his close relatives, with the duty of administering part of his dominions. It was thus analogous to the title S̲h̲ad̲h̲, whom the Yabg̲h̲u preceded in the early Türk empire [see turks. I. History. 1. The pre-Islamic period]. It seems to have lost some importance after this time (8th century), …


(771 words)

Author(s): Soucek, S.
, the mediaeval Arabic name for Ibiza (Catalan, Eivissa), an island in the western Mediterranean, part of al-Ḏj̲azāʾir al-s̲h̲arḳiyya “the Eastern islands” [of al-Andalus], sc. the Balearics [see mayūrḳa ; minūrḳa and their Bibls.], and also the name of its chief town and port. Ibiza is the smallest of the trio (area 572 km2), and lies 85 km to the southwest of Mallorca halfway to the Spanish ¶ coast (at Cabo de la Nao, with Denia nearby). It is flanked by the still smaller island of Formentera 4 km to its south, and the name Pityusic Islands, applied to these …


(323 words)

Author(s): G.R. Smith
, a sandy region of Eastern Arabia belonging to Banū Saʿd. It is situated within the area of al-Baḥrayn [ q.v.], three stages from al-Falad̲j̲ and two stages from al-Aḥsāʾ [ q.v.] and Ḥad̲j̲r (Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, v, 427). The editors of al-Ḥasan b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Iṣfahānī, Bilād al-ʿarab , Riyāḍ 1968, 276 n. 3, sc. Ḥamad al-D̲j̲āsir and Ṣāliḥ al-ʿAlī, state that Yabrīn is still known as an area in the west of al-Aḥsāʾ and the name is corrupted (or more probably, hypercorrected, since d̲j̲ > y in the speech of that area) in modern works to D̲j̲abrīn. It does not, however, appe…


(492 words)

Author(s): Johnstone, Penelope C.
(a.), Mandragora, the Mandrake, Mandragora officinarum, Solanaceae ; also called Atropa mandragora L. and M. officinarum Mill (Moldenke); Hebr., dūdāʾīm or yabrūah̲ . A perennial herbaceous plant common in the Mediterranean region, its dark green leaves, about one foot long, spread out at ground level; the flowers are purplish or whiteish-green, and the fruit are small globular berries, orange to red in colour. Its root is often forked, and is the part known as yabrūḥ , while the plant itself is generally called luffāḥ . Ibn al-Bayṭār explains mandrāg̲h̲ūra s of Dioscorides as yabrūḥ, a…


(872 words)

Author(s): Picard, Ch.
, the Arabic name of the modern town of Evora in southern Portugal. The Liberalitas Julia of the Roman period had become Elbora or Erbora in the time of the Visigoths, a name revived unchanged, in the form of Yābura, by Arab authors. The history of the Arab town poses numerous enigmas. Very little is known of its history from the time of the Arab conquest to the beginning of the 10th century. Ibn al-Faraḍī makes it the seat of a ḳāḍī , and the city was located in the district of Beja, capital of a d̲j̲und and seat of a governor since the conquest. Al-Rāzī alludes to i…


(1,091 words)

Author(s): Leconte, F.
(1096-1166/1685-1753), the cognomen of Muḥammad b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Muḥammad (Maḥamm) Saʿīd b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. ʿUmar b. ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā b. Yiddād̲j̲ Igd̲h̲aburg̲h̲a b. Yad̲h̲rinan Tags̲h̲umt (Aḥsanuhum Bas̲h̲arat an), Mauritanian scholar. His nisba shows his ethnic affiliation to one of the Zawāyā tribes forming the pentarchical alliance of the Tas̲h̲ums̲h̲a: the group of the Īdāw-dāy (eponymous founder Yiddād̲j̲ = D̲j̲addu ʿAlī). He was born and died at Tandagsammi, in the heart of the Gibla (south-eastern Mauritania) in the region of Iguidi; his tomb is s…

Yada Tas̲h̲

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t.), lit. rain stone, in Arabic texts appearing as ḥad̲j̲ar al-maṭar , this being a magical stone by means of which rain, snow, fog, etc., could be conjured up by its holder(s). In particular, knowledge and use of such stones has been widespread until very recent times in Inner Asia. Belief in the existence of stones and other means of controlling the weather has been widespread throughout both the Old and New Worlds (see Sir J.G. Frazer, The golden bough, a study in magic and religion, abridged ed., London 1922, 75-8). Belief in a stone seems to have been general amongst the e…


(3,675 words)

Author(s): Darley-Doran, R.E.
(p.), lit. “a souvenir, a keepsake” and, by extension, in numismatics any special issue of coins struck for a variety of non-currency purposes. In Islamic history the striking of coins was a special responsibility and prerogative of the ruler [see sikka ] together with having his name mentioned in the Friday bidding prayer [see k̲h̲uṭba ]. In general, coinage serves two major purposes. Primarily it is a medium of exchange between a government and its people, i.e. to facilitate taxation payments or to support internal and international commerce. Gover…

Yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲

(3,523 words)

Author(s): E. van Donzel and Claudia Ott
, sc. Gog and Magog, the names of apocalyptic peoples known from biblical (Ezekiel xxxviii, xxxix, Apocalypse, xx. 7-10) and Ḳurʾānic eschatology. Ḳurʾān, XVIII, 93-8, refers to D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳarnayn erecting a barrier/rampart ( sadd/radm) against them, which, at the end of time, God Himself will raze. Ḳurʾān, XXI, 96, is an apocalyptic metaphor: “Till, when Gog and Magog are unloosed, and they slide down ( yansilūna ) out of every slope” (tr. A.J. Arberry). Names . The reading ϒād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-Mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ (without hamza ) was preferred by most of the Ḥid̲j̲āzī and ʿIrāḳī ḳurrāʾ , while ʿĀṣim [ q.…


(1,628 words)

Author(s): F. Buhl, F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Yāfa , conventionally Jaffa, older Joppa, a port on the Palestinian seaboard, in pre-modern times the port of entry for Jerusalem, since 1950 part of the municipality of Tel Aviv-Yafo in the State of Israel (lat. 32° 05′ N., long. 34° 46′ E.). Situated on a 30 m/100 feet-high promontory on the otherwise straight coastline of central Palestine, Jaffa is a very ancient town. Thutmosis III’s forces seized the Canaanite town of ϒ-pw in the 15th century B.C. and it became a provincial capital during the Egyptian New Kingdom; since the 1950s, archaeological excavations h…


(402 words)

Author(s): G.R. Smith
, an ancient and important collection of tribes of the Yemen who established themselves in the lofty mountain ranges in Sarw Ḥimyar to the north and north-east of Aden [see ʿadan ], about 120 km/75 miles distant. Yāfiʿ is divided into the Upper and Lower Sultanates (see map of Serjeant, in ϒāfiʿ , 84), with al-Maḥd̲j̲aba the capital of the former and al-Ḳāra, the old capital of the sultans of the Banū Ḳāsid, that of the latter. The former has five tribes: Kaladī, Saʿdī, Yazīdī, Yaharī and Nāk̲h̲ibī. The latter also has five: Muflaḥī, Mawsaṭī, Ẓabī, Buʿsī and Ḥaḍramī. They were certainly pre-I…


(733 words)

Author(s): Geoffroy, E.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. Asʿad , Abu ’l-Saʿāda ʿAfīf al-Dīn (b. in Yemen ca. 698/1298, d. at Mecca 768/1367), scholar and Ṣūfī. His father, impressed by his son’s intellectual and spiritual precociousness, sent him to study at Aden. After his first Pilgrimage in 712/1313, he returned to Yemen, taking up life as an ascetic and anchorite and becoming a disciple of the Ṣūfī master ʿAlī al-Ṭawās̲h̲ī, to whom he remained close until the latter’s death. In 718/1319 he moved to Mecca and completed his education in the Is…


(426 words)

Author(s): Heller, B. | Rippin, A.
, the Japheth of the Bible. He is not mentioned by name in the Ḳurʾān (although he is alluded to in VII, 64, X, 73, XI, 40, XXIII, 27 and XXVI, 119), but the exegetes are familiar with all the sons of Noah [see nūḥ ]: Ḥām, Sām [ q.vv.] and Yāfit̲h̲ (the pronunciation Yāfit is mentioned as possible in al-Ṭabarī, i, 222). The Biblical story (Gen. ix. 20-7) of Ḥām’s sin and punishment and the blessing given to Sām and Yāfit̲h̲ is known in Muslim legend, but it is silent about Noah’s planting the vine and becoming intoxicated. Al-Kisāʾī totally tr…


(5 words)

[see yuʿfirids ].


(683 words)

Author(s): Siddiq, Mohammad Yusuf
(p.), lit. “the land of the rebels”, ( yāg̲h̲ī “rebel”, istān “region”) referred to different sanctuaries used by Mud̲j̲āhidūn [see mud̲j̲āhid ] against the British authorities in the 19th and early 20th centuries, in the various independent tribal areas, mainly inhabited by the Pak̲h̲tūns, in the hinterland of what became the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of British India such as the Mohmand Agency, Bunēr, Dīr, Swāt, Kohistān, Hazāra and Čamarkand (extending into the Kunār province of Afg̲h̲ānistān and Bad̲j̲…


(569 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in Arabic orthography Yag̲h̲mā, a Turkish tribe of Central Asia mentioned in accounts of the early Turks and their component tribal groups. P. Pelliot thought that the Chinese ϒang-mo presupposed a nasalised form * ϒangma ( Notes sur le “Turkestan” de M.W . Barthold, in T’oung-Pao , xxvii [1930], 17). There are sections on the Yag̲h̲ma in Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 95-6 § 13, cf. comm. 277-81, and Gardīzi, Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār , ed. Ḥabībī, Tehran 1347/1968, 260. Abū Dulaf does not mention them by name in his First Risāla , but Marquart thought that his Bug̲h̲rād̲j̲ tri…

Yag̲h̲mā D̲j̲andaḳī

(693 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ or pen-name of the Persian poet Mīrzā Abu ’l-Ḥasan Raḥīm ( ca. 1196-1276/ ca. 1782-1859), often called by his fellow-poets Ḳaḥba-zan “whore” from the expression repeated monotonously in his obscene verse. He was born at K̲h̲ūr in the D̲j̲andaḳ oasis in the central desert of the Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr, roughly half-way between Yazd and Simnān. He began his life as a camel-herd but by the age of seven his natural gifts had been noticed by the owner of the oasis, Ismāʿīl K̲h̲ān ʿArab-i ʿĀmirī, whose secretary ( muns̲h̲ī-bās̲h̲ī ) he ultimately became. Hi…


(611 words)

Author(s): Ali Gheissari
, Ḥabīb (b. K̲h̲ūr, 17 December 1898, d. Tehran, 14 May 1984), Persian poet and literary editor. A descendant of the early Ḳād̲j̲ār poet Yag̲h̲mā D̲j̲andaḳī [ q.v.], Ḥabīb Yag̲h̲māʾī was born in the small town of K̲h̲ūr near D̲j̲andaḳ and Bīyābānak in the central desert of Persia. He first studied with his father, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Asad Allāh Muntak̲h̲ab al-Sādāt K̲h̲ūrī, and subsequently left K̲h̲ūr in 1916-17 for the nearby towns of Dāmg̲h̲ān and S̲h̲āhrūd in order to pursue his education. In Dāmg̲h̲ān he studied at the Nāẓimi…


(507 words)

Author(s): Veronne, Chantal de La
b. Zayyān b. T̲h̲ābit , Abū Yaḥyā, s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād, a branch of the Zanāta [ q.v.] Berbers, who lived in the region of Tlemcen [see tilimsān ] under the suzerainty of the Almohad sultans of Morocco, and who was the founder of the independent dynasty of the Zayyānids or ʿAbd al-Wādids [ q.v.] of Tlemcen, d. 681/1283. Born in 603/1206-7 or 605/1208-9, he succeeded his brother Abū ʿUzza Zaydān as head of the ʿAbd al-Wādids in 633/1236, but not till 637/1239-40 was he formally invested by the Almohad sultan ʿAbd al-Wāḥid al-Ras̲h̲īd. T…


(941 words)

Author(s): Robin, Ch.
, a god of pre-Islamic Arabia, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān in a speech of Noah: “They have said: Forsake not your gods. Forsake not Wadd, nor Suwāʿ, nor Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲, Yaʿūḳ and Nasr (LXXI, 22-3). Traditionists and commentators (see the references given by Hawting, The idea of idolatry, 113 and n. 6) have exercised their ingenuity in the search for the traces of Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ in Arabia. Ibn al-Kalbī (d. 204/819 or 206/821) in his Book of the Idols ( Kitāb al-Asnām , §§ 7c, 9d, 45e, 52a) relates in laconic style: “[the tribe of] Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ and the people of Ḏ…


(3,037 words)

Author(s): Stillman, N.A.
, the common collective (sing. ϒahūdī ) in Arabic for “Jews”. A less common plural Hūd is also used (e.g. Ḳurʾān, II, 111, 135, 140). The word is borrowed from Aram. ϒahūd , and ultimately from late bibl. Heb. yehūdīm , “Judaeans”, the latter itself derived from members of the tribe of Judah). The Ḳurʾān also uses a stative verb hāda , “to be Jewish” or “to practice Judaism”. 1. In the D̲j̲āhiliyya. Jews had lived in various parts of the Arabian Peninsula since Antiquity, and the numbers of those living in northwestern Arabia must have been swelled by refugees from J…


(525 words)

Author(s): Andrews, W.G. | Kalpakli, Mehmet
, S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ al-Islām , Ottoman legal scholar and poet, d. 1053/1644. ¶ The son of S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ al-Islām Bayrāmzāde Zekeriyyā Efendi, Yaḥyā was born in Istanbul in 969/1561 (some sources give the birth date 959). As the scion of an important ʿulemāʾ family, he underwent a rigorous private education under the tutelage of his father and several other noted scholars, including ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲ebbārzāde Dervīs̲h̲ Meḥmed Efendi and Maʿlūlzāde Seyyid Meḥmed Efendi. In 988/1580, at 19 years of age, he was granted a mulāzimet and went on to teach in the most important madrasa s …

Yaḥyā al-Anṭākī

(6 words)

[see al-anṭāḳī ].

Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd Allāh

(1,850 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, Medinan ʿAlid leader of a revolt in Daylam and Zaydī imām . His mother was Ḳurayba bt. Rukayḥ b. Abī ʿUbayda b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Zamʿa b. al-Aswad, niece of the mother of his paternal brothers Muḥammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya [ q.v.] and Ibrāhīm, leaders of the Ḥasanid revolt against the caliph al-Manṣūr in 145/762. As a much younger brother, born perhaps around 128/745-6, he did not participate in that revolt. He was partly brought up and taught by the Imāmī S̲h̲īʿī imām D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ [ q.v.], presumably after the imprisonment of his father in 140/758, a…

Yaḥyā b. Ādam

(1,715 words)

Author(s): Schmucker, W.
b. Sulaymān, Abū Zakariyyāʾ al-Kūfï, Ḳurʾān, ḥadīt̲h̲ and fiḳh scholar, d. 203/818. He had the nisbas al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī and al-Umawī because, through his father Ādam who was probably of Persian origin, he was a client ( mawlā ) of a certain K̲h̲ālid b. K̲h̲ālid b. ʿUmāra b. al-Walīd b. ʿUḳba b. Abī Mu’ayt al-Umawī, also al-Mak̲h̲zūmī (e.g. in al-Nawawī, but according to Schacht in EI 1, this is a mistake), and the laḳab is al-Aḥwal (Sezgin, i, 520; S̲h̲ākir, 8). His biography as transmitted is very sparse. Born after 130/747-8, probably ca. 140/757-8, he grew up and for the most part live…

Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Endress, G.
, Christian Arab philosopher and theologian, translator and commentator of the works of Aristotle. Coming from the Christian town of Takrīt on the Tigris (but given a Persian genealogy in some of the manuscripts), he spent his active life in Bag̲h̲dād, where he earned his living as a copyist and bookseller ( warrāk ) ; this activity is recorded by his contemporary Ibn al-Nadīm (d. 380/990 [ q.v.]), who drew extensively on Yaḥyā’s library for information on the Greek philosophers and their Arabic transmitters ( Fihrist , 264, cf. 246, 250-3). There he died on…

Yaḥyā b. Akt̲h̲am

(231 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Marwazi al-Tamīmī, faḳīh who had been a pupil of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī. judge and counsellor of ʿAbbāsid caliphs, d. 242/857. A native of Marw, he became Grand Judge ( ḳāḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt ) of Bag̲h̲dād after having been being appointed judge in Baṣra by al-Ḥasan b. Sahl [ q.v.] in 202/817-18. He soon became a member of al-Maʾmūn’s court circle as an adviser and boon-companion, thus exemplifying a trend under this caliph to take legal scholars rather than administrators as political counsellors. He accompanied al-Maʾmūn to Syria and Egypt …

Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī

(11 words)

[see munad̲j̲d̲j̲im , banu ’l -. 4].

Yaḥyā Bey

(9 words)

(Beg) [see tas̲h̲li̊d̲j̲al i̊ yaḥyā ].

Yaḥyā b. Ḥamza al-ʿAlawī

(412 words)

Author(s): Gelder, G.J.H. van
, rhetorician, Zaydī scholar and imām (669-745/1270-1344; a death date of 749/1348 is also mentioned). Yaḥyā b. Ḥamza b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḥusaynī al-ʿAlawī al-Ṭālibī, a versatile and prolific Yemeni scholar, was descended from ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and the imām ʿAlī al-Riḍā [ q.vv.]. He was born in Ṣanʿāʾ and played a role in politics, for after the death of al-Mahdī Muḥammad b. al-Muṭahhar in 729/1329 he ruled over part of Yemen as Zaydī imām under the name al-Muʾayyad bi ’llāh until his death. It is said that the number of quires ( karārīs ) written by him equalled t…

Yaḥyā b. Maʿīn

(220 words)

Author(s): Leemhuis, F.
b. ʿAwn al-Murrī al-G̲h̲aṭafanī al-Bag̲h̲dādī, Abū Zakariyyāʾ , traditionist, b. 158/775 near al-Anbār, d. 233/847 on pilgrimage in Medina. A client ( mawla ) of al-D̲j̲unayd b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Murrī, he inherited considerable wealth from his father and is reported to have spent it all on the acquisition of ḥadīt̲h̲ . Among his teachers were Sufyān b. ʿUyayna and Ibn al-Mubārak [ q.vv.]. Authorities like Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, al-Buk̲h̲ārī and Ibn Saʿd are reported to have been among his pupils. Together with Ibn Saʿd and five others, he was ordered in 218/833…

Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, al-Manṣūr al-Mutawakkil, of the Ḥamīd al-Dīn family, from the Ḳāsirm branch, Zaydī Imām and first ruler of the Mutawakkilī Kingdom of Yemen, b. ca . 1869, d. 1948. ¶ On the death in June 1904 of his father Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā Hamfd al-Dīn, who had in 1891 rebelled against the Ottomans, Yaḥyā obtained the bayʿa of most of the tribes and sayyid clans of Yemen and assumed the laḳab of al-Mutawakkil ʿalā ’llāh. Rejecting, like his predecessors, the authority of the Porte, he rose against the Turks and in April 1905 captured the capital Ṣanʿāʾ an…

Yaḥyā b. Saʿdūn

(7 words)

[see al-Ḳurṭubī ].

Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā al-Layt̲h̲ī

(796 words)

Author(s): Fierro, Maribel
(d. 234/848), Cordovan faḳīh , descendant of a Berber (Maṣmūda) soldier who entered the Peninsula at the time of the conquest. His family, known as the Banū Abī ʿĪsā, was always closely connected to the Umayyad family whom they served with the pen and the sword. Yaḥyā b. Yaḥyā was the first member of the family to devote himself to religious knowledge ( ʿilm ). He took part in movements of opposition against the Umayyad amīr al-Ḥakam I, being mentioned among the participants in the famous Revolt of the Arrabal (al-Rabaḍ). He …

Yaḥyā b. Zakariyyāʾ

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Rippin, A.
, the New Testament John the Baptist, mentioned by name five times in the Ḳurʾān. The spelling of the name is evidenced from pre-Islamic times and is probably derived from Christian Arabic usage (see J. Horovitz, Koranische Untersuchungen , Berlin 1926, 151-2; A. Jeffery, Foreign vocabulary of the Quran , Baroda 1938, 290-1); Muslim exegetes frequently trace the name from a root sense of “to quicken” or “to make alive” in reference to John’s mother’s barrenness and his people’s absence of faith. In Ḳurʾān, III, 39, John i…

Yaḥyā b. Zayd

(724 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn , ʿAlid fugitive and rebel killed late in 125/summerautumn 743. His mother was Rayṭa, daughter of Abū Hās̲h̲im [ q.v.] b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya. As the eldest son of Zayd b. ʿAlī, he participated in Zayd’s revolt in Kūfa in Muḥarram 122/end of 739. After his father’s death, he escaped, relentlessly sought by Yūsuf b. ʿUmar al-T̲h̲akafī, governor of ʿĪrāḳ [ q.v.] Yaḥyā went first to Nīnawā near Karbalāʾ. He was then given protection by the Umayyad ʿAbd al-Malik b. Bis̲h̲ī b. Marwān, who concealed him in a village owned by him that later became Ḳaṣr Ibn Hubayra [ q.v.]. Afte…

Yaḥyā Haḳḳī

(774 words)

Author(s): Allen, R.M.A.
, a major figure in the development of modern Egyptian fiction, and also a diplomat, critic, and journalist (1905-92). He was born into a distinguished Egyptian family in 1905; his uncle was Maḥmūd Ṭāhir Ḥaḳḳī, author of one of the very first experiments in novel writing in Egypt, Ad̲h̲rāʾ Dins̲h̲awāy (1906). Like many of his literary contemporaries (for example, Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal and Tawfīḳ al-Ḥakīm [ q.vv.]) Ḥaḳḳī’s field of study at university was the law, and he graduated in 1925. For a short period he served the legal system in Manfalūt, Upper Egypt, as a muʿāwin

Yaḥyā Kemāl

(422 words)

Author(s): Edith G. Ambros
(with the surname adopted in Republican times of Beyatli ), highly renowned Turkish poet and essayist, b. 2 December 1884, d. 1 November 1958. His given name was Aḥmed Āgāh, and his earliest published poems bear the name Āgāh Kemāl. He was born in Üsküb as the son of Ibrāhīm Nād̲j̲ī Beg, who was mayor of this town, and Naḳiyye K̲h̲āni̊m, the niece of the poet Lesḳofčali̊ G̲h̲ālib Beg (1828 or 29-1867). He was educated successively in Üsküb, Selānīk, Istanbul and Paris (École Libre des Sciences Politiques), and during h…

Yaḥyā al-Makkī

(362 words)

Author(s): Neubauer, E.
, Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān Yaḥyā b. Marzūḳ, an honoured court musician in early ʿAbbāsid times and head of a family of court singers. He was born in Mecca as a mawlā of the Banū Umayya, but went to Bag̲h̲dād at the beginning of the reign of al-Mahdī (158/775), and still performed under al-Maʾmūn (198-218/813-33). It is said that he died at the age of 120. He was considered an excellent composer and an expert in the Ḥid̲j̲āzī style of music. Ibn D̲j̲āmiʿ [ q.v.], and both Ibrāhīm and Isḥāḳ al-Mawṣilī [ q.v.] were among his disciples. He also composed a “book of songs” ( Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī

Yaḥyā al-Naḥwī

(1,592 words)

Author(s): Wisnovsky, R.
, the name in Arabic sources for Johannes Grammaticus ( ca. A.D. 490-575), the Alexandrian philologist, commentator on Aristotle, and Jacobite Christian theologian, also known in Greek as Philoponos, lit. “Lover of toil” or “Diligent”, referring to a group of Alexandrian Monophysitic lay Christians—the philoponoi —active in debating pagan professors of philosophy. In Alexandria, John Philoponus began his career teaching philology and then studied philosophy with Ammonius son of Hermeias, the head of the Neoplatonic sc…

Yaḥyā (or Yuḥannā) b. al-Biṭrīḳ

(573 words)

Author(s): Micheau, Françoise
, Abū Zakariyyāʾ, scholar, who was probably a Mālikī, famed for his translations from Greek into Arabic, fl. in the first part of the 3rd/9th century. Although the Arabic biographers (Ibn al-Nadim, Ibn D̲j̲uld̲j̲ul, Ibn al-Ḳifṭī and Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa) devote to him short notices, his life is almost wholly unknown. His father al-Biṭrīḳ was himself a translator in the time of al-Manṣūr (136-58/754-75 [ q.v.]). The author of the Fihrist states that he was part of the entourage of the vizier al-Ḥasan b. Sahl [ q.v.] and that he was ¶ part of a delegation sent by the caliph to the Byzantine…

Yakan, ʿAdlī

(346 words)

Author(s): Jankowski, J.
, Egyptian politician (b. Cairo 1864, d. Paris 1933). His father, K̲h̲alīl b. Ibrāhīm Yakan, was a grandson of Muḥammad ʿAir’s sister. The child of a wealthy landed family and educated in part in European and Ottoman schools, ʿAdlī was a member of the Turko-Egyptian aristocracy that had emerged in 19th-century Egypt. He was a leading figure in Egyptian politics from World War I to the early 1930s. He served as Minister of Education in the Cabinets of Ḥusayn Rus̲h̲dī during the War. In late 1918-early 1919 he engaged, along with Rus̲h̲dī, in an un…

Yakan, Muḥammad Walī al-Dīn

(443 words)

Author(s): Jankowski, J.
, Ottoman-Egyptian liberal spokesman and neoclassicist poet (1873-1921). The son of Ḥasan Sirrī and the grandson of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a Yakan, a cousin of Muḥammad ʿAlī, Walī al-Dīn Yakan was born in Istanbul on 2 March 1873. He was brought to Egypt by his family as a child. Orphaned at six, Walī al-Dīn was raised by his uncle ʿAlī Ḥaydar, a high official of the Khedivial establishment, and attended the Princes’ School ( Madrasat al-And̲j̲āl ) where children of the dynasty were educated. After graduating, Walī al-Dīn worked briefly in the Public Pros…

Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh

(237 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ottoman historian, d. after 816/1413. Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh is the earliest known compiler of menāḳib [see manāḳib ] or exemplary tales of the Ottoman ¶ dynasty in Ottoman Turkish. However, his compilation has not survived as an independent work, and the only reference to it is that made by ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde [ q.v.]. The latter records that in 816/1413, while accompanying Meḥemmed I’s army on campaign, he fell ill and “remained behind at Geyve, in the house of Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faqīh, the son of Ork̲h̲ān Beg’s imām ... it is on the authority of the son of the imām that I relate the menāqib


(709 words)

Author(s): Firestone, R.
, the Arabic name for the Old Testament Patriarch Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Abraham. Yaʿḳūb is mentioned by name in the Ḳurʾān 16 times in ten sūras. The nature of his appearance tends to be formulaic in that he often appears in reference to other prophets and personages familiar also from the Bible. In what have traditionally been deemed earlier sūras, he appears in the following formula: “We gave [Ibrāhīm] Isḥāḳ and Yaʿḳūb ...” (VI, 84; XIX, 49; XXI, 72; XXIX, 27). This has been thought by some scholars to …

Yaʿḳūb b. ʿAlī S̲h̲īr

(8 words)

[see germiyān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ].

Yaʿḳūb b. Dāʾūd

(10 words)

[see abū ʿabd allāh yaʿḳūb ].

Yaʿḳūb Beg

(843 words)

Author(s): Mende-Altayli, Rana von
, Muḥammad, ruler of Kās̲h̲g̲h̲ar 1282-94/1865-77. He was born in 1820, or rather 1826-7, in Pis̲h̲kend near Tās̲h̲kend. His father was Pīr Muḥammad Mīrzā (or Muḥammad Laṭīf), who claimed descent from Tīmūr. Originally from Ḳaratigīh [ q.v.], he became ḳāḍī of Kurama and moved on to Pis̲h̲kend in 1234/1818. Yaʿḳūb Beg’s mother was the sister of the influential S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Niẓām al-Dīn, who tutored Yaʿḳūb Beg in his youth. Traditionally, he should have become a mullā , but instead through his brother-in-law, Nūr Muḥammad K̲h̲ān, governor of Tās̲h̲ke…

Yaʿḳūb Bey

(6 words)

[see germiyān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ].

Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
al-Saffār (“the coppersmith”), Abū Yūsuf, adventurer in Sīstān and founder of the dynasty there of Ṣaffārids [ q.v.], functioned as amīr in Sīstān from 247/861 and then as ruler of an extensive military empire in the eastern Islamic lands until his death in 265/879, in practice independent of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs. The origins of Yaʿḳūb’s family in Sīstān were clearly humble, despite attempts of later historians to elevate his father al-Layt̲h̲ to the status of head of the guild of coppersmiths in the province. He was one of four brothers who were members of local bands of ʿayyārs [ q.v.], in …

Yaʿḳūb Čelebi

(6 words)

[see germiyān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ].


(1,564 words)

Author(s): Zaman, Muhammad Qasim
, early Arab historian and geographer, fl. in the second half of the 3rd/9th century. Life . Abu ’l-Abbās Aḥmad b. Abī Yaʿḳūb b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Wahb b. Wāḍiḥ was born in Bag̲h̲dād in the 3rd/9th century. Trained as a member of the secretarial class, he went to Armenia as a young man and later served under the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.] in K̲h̲urāsān. After the fall of the Ṭāhirids there in 259/872-3, he settled in Egypt, and died there in the early 4th/10th century, but apparently not before 292/905. Works . Three of al-Yaʿḳūbī’s works have come down to us. The first in importance is the Taʾrīk̲h̲


(4,036 words)

Author(s): Teule, H.G.B.
, Yaʿāḳiba , Yaʿḳūbiyya , pls. of Yaʿḳūbī, the Arabic term for the Jacobite Christians. “Jacobites” is the designation for members of the Syrian Orthodox Church, whose dogmatical position (Christ’s divinity and humanity coming together into one nature), known as monophysitism, was thought ¶ to be at variance with the moderate dyophysite christology formulated by the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon (451; one divine and one human nature united into one person and hypostasis). Consequendy, the “Monophysites” were considered as hereti…

Yaʿḳūb Ḳadrī

(468 words)

Author(s): Erol, Sibel
, Ḳara-ʿOt̲h̲mānog̲h̲lu , in modern Turkish orthography, Yakub Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, Turkish author, journalist, politician and diplomat (1889-1974). In 1909, he was a charter member of the literary movement Fed̲j̲ī-i Ātī (“The Dawn of the Future”) [ q.v.], which embraced the motto “Art for art’s sake”. After becoming conscious of the deleterious effects for Turkey of the Balkan War of 1912, his philosophy of art changed; he now argued that art was first and foremost the expression of a society, of a nation, and of a historical per…

Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr

(9 words)

[see abū yūsuf yaʿḲūb al-manṣūr ].

Yaʿḳūb Pas̲h̲a

(615 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, physician and official for the Ottoman sultan Meḥemmed the Conqueror. Ottoman, Jewish and Venetian sources provide information about him, called Jacopo or Giacomo in Italian sources, yet due to the possibility that other personalities named Yaʿḳūb or even anonymous ones may have been intended by some of the surviving texts, much of his life remains obscure. He was born around 829-34/1425-30 and came from the Italian town of Gaeta. Of a Jewish family, he remained a Jew through most of his career, but beca…


(1,864 words)

Author(s): Ghada al-Hijjawi al-Qaddumi
(a.), corundum, one of the outstanding gems according to early and later Islamic writers, the others being zumurrud (emerald) and luʾluʾ (pearl) (al-Bīrūnī, Ḏj̲amāhir , 81; Nawādir , 73 [from a manuscript dated 390/1000]). Yāḳūt (ruby) is considered by al-Bīrūnī to be the first-rated, most valuable and most expensive of all gems ( ibid., 32). Etymology . Al-D̲j̲awharī opines that the word yāḳūt is an arabicised Persian word ( Ṣiḥāḥ , ed. A.ʿA. ʿAṭṭār, Cairo n.d. [ ca. 1372/1956], i, 271). Ḥamza al-Iṣfahānī, as quoted by al-Bīrūnī, derives yāḳūt from the Persian ¶ yākand

Yāḳūt al-Mustaʿṣimī

(691 words)

Author(s): Canby, Sheila R.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Durr b. ʿAbd Allāh, famed Arabic calligrapher ¶ ( ca. 618-98/ca. 1221-98), who derived his nisba from his master, the last ʿAbbāsid caliph in Bag̲h̲dād, al-Mustaʿṣim [ q.v.], who brought him up and had him educated. Although Ḳāḍī Aḥmad states that he was a native of Abyssinia, another tradition identifies him as a Greek from Amasia, later an important centre of calligraphers. A eunuch, Yāḳūt had a school at Bag̲h̲dād and his six most outstanding students were permitted to sign his name to their calligraphies, …

Yāḳūt al-Rūmī

(2,550 words)

Author(s): Gilliot, Cl.
, or, according to the genealogy that he adopted in order to conceal his slave’s name, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Yaʿḳūb b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī, celebrated traveller and scholar. He was born in 574 or 575/1179, and died on Sunday, 20 Ramaḍān 626/12 August 1229 at Aleppo. 1. His life. His life can be divided into two parts: (a) from 574 or 575 to 606; and (b) from 606 to his death. Life in the service of ʿAskar al-Ḥamawī . Yāḳūt was born in Byzantine territory of non-Arab parents, reduced to slavery while still a very young child, and taken to Bag̲…


(6 words)

[see maḥmūd yalawač ].


(645 words)

Author(s): Ed, | Goodwin, G.
, Yalu (t.), in modern Turkish, yali , literally, “bank, shore”, but coming to mean in Ottoman Turkish “residence, villa on the shore”, cf. Redhouse, A Turkish-English dictionary, 2192: “a water-side residence”. 1. Etymology. The Turkish word stems from the Greek: Homeric Grk. αἰγιαλός, Modern Grk. γιαλός. It must have appeared in Ottoman Turkish early, since it is found in ʿĀs̲h̲i̊k-pas̲h̲a-zāde and Nes̲h̲rī (end of the 9th/15th century). It entered into place-names, e.g. Yahkavak, Yaliköy, Küçükyali, etc.), and spread into the Balkans in one direction (Serbo-Croat ìgolo


(586 words)

Author(s): Bazin, M.
, modern Turkish Yalova , a town and district of Turkey situated on the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara (the town in lat. 40° 40’ N., long. 29° 17’ E.). The district occupies the northern edge of the Armutlu peninsula which runs between the Gulf of Izmit to the north and the Gulf of Gemlik to the south, and ends in the Boz Burun cape, in the southeast of the Sea of Marmara. In Antiquity, it was the region of Pitiya, incorporated after 280 B.C. within the kingdom of Bithynia, and like the latter, conquered by Rome in 74 B.…


(1,205 words)

Author(s): D. Gazagnadou
, the Persian and Arabic transcription of the Mongol term ǰam ( d̲j̲am ), originally denoting “road, route, direction”. In the 13th century, at the time of the creation of the Mongol empire, the term yām also signifies in general the postal service of the Mongol K̲h̲āns and sometimes a postal relay. Information regarding this state institution of the Mongols is available from Chinese, Persian, Arabic, Armenian and Western sources (see bibl. in Gazagnadou). The postal relay of the Mongol authorities seems to have been borrowed from the Chinese postal system ( yi), dating from the time o…


(527 words)

Author(s): G.R. Smith
, an Ismāʿīlī tribe now inhabiting the area of Nad̲j̲rān in southern Saudi Arabia, although at the time of the Ayyūbid conquest of the Yemen in 569/1173 [see ayyūbids ; tūrāns̲h̲āh b. ayyūb ] they also held Ṣanʿāʾ [ q.v.] and territory to the north and northeast of the city in the D̲j̲awf area, which was overlooked by D̲j̲abal Yām and where they may have originated (see Ibrāhīm Aḥmad al-Maḳḥafī, Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān wa ’l-ḳabāʾil al-yamaniyya , 706). Al-Hamdānī, 115, describes Balad Yām in some detail, giving their main waṭan as Nad̲j̲rān and other territories …


(684 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R.
, at the present time a town in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia about 70 km/45 miles south-east of the capital al-Riyāḍ [ q.v.] and situated in the region of al-K̲h̲ard̲j̲ within the al-Riyāḍ emirate, close to Maḥaṭṭat al-K̲h̲ard̲j̲ on the al-Riyāḍ to al-Ẓahrān (Dhahran) railway (Hussein Hamza Bindagji, Atlas of Saudi Arabia , Oxford 1980, 49; Zaki M.A. Farsi, National guide and atlas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1989, 71). The town is now relatively small and has a population of less than 50,000 (Bindagji, 3). The origin of the name may be yamāma , singular of the collective yamām


(12,475 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Brice, W.C. | Smith, G.R. | Burrowes, R.D. | F. Mermier | Et al.
, Yemen, the southwestern part of the Arabian peninsula, now coming substantially within the unified Republic of Yemen (which also includes as its eastern region the former People’s Democratic Republic of South Yemen, the pre-1967 Aden Protectorate, essentially the historic Ḥaḍramawt [ q.v. in Vol. III and also in Suppl.; see also suḳuṭra ]). ¶ 1. Definition and general introduction. The name is variously explained in the Arabic sources; some say it was given because al-Yaman lies to the right of the Kaʿba or to the right of the sun (al-Bakrī, ii, 856), …


(261 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), pls. aymān , aymun , literally, “the right hand”, but often used in Arabic with the transferred sense of “oath”. In human life and activity, the right hand often symbolises power and the ability to initiate actions. The Arabic word yamīn has such connotations as fortune and prosperity, whilst the wider term yad “hand in general” covers a vast semantic range: power, help’, strength, sufficiency, ability to act, etc. The right hand can have a cultic significance, as with the bronze hand, probably from the vicinity of Ṣanʿāʾ and now in the British Museum, with a South Arabian ex voto inscri…

Yamūt b. al-Muzarraʿ

(714 words)

Author(s): Wagner, E.
al-ʿAbdī , Abū Bakr, multifaceted scholar of the second half of the 3rd/9th century, d. ca. 303-4/915-16. He belonged to the tribe of ʿAbd al-Ḳays [ q.v.], and was al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ’s nephew on his mother’s side; the latter was the source of several anecdotes transmitted by Yamūt. Because of the ominous meaning of his name, “he dies”, Yamūt tried to replace it with Muḥammad, which was, however, not generally accepted. Nonetheless, al-K̲h̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī decided to enter him into his Taʾrīk̲h̲ Bag̲h̲dād under both names. The bad omen of his name also caus…


(783 words)

Author(s): Donzel, E. van
, conventionally Yanbo or Yambo, the name of a port on the Red Sea coast of the Ḥid̲j̲āz, now a flourishing town of Suʿūdī Arabia (lat. 24° 05’ N., long. 38° 03’ E.), also formerly called Yanbuʿ al-baḥr (“Y. of the sea”) or S̲h̲arm Y . (“the inlet of Y.”), and also of an inland town, known as Yanbuʿ al-nak̲h̲l (“Y. of the date-palms”). The name is said to derive from Ar. yanbūʿ “well”, because of the many wells at the foot of the escarpments of the nearby Raḍwā [ q.v.] (Yāḳūt, Buldān , i, 1038). Ibn d̲j̲ubayr indeed writes Yanbūʿ . Yanbuʿ seems to be identical with Ptolemy’s Iambia Kōmē . In pre-Islamic t…


(5 words)

[see yanya ].


(366 words)

Author(s): Dadoyan, Seta B.
, al-Amīr Abu ’l-Fatḥ Nāṣir (or Amīr, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, Nud̲j̲ūm , v, Cairo 1913-17, 240) al-D̲j̲uyūs̲h̲ Sayf al-Islām S̲h̲araf al-Islām, al-Rūmī al-Armanī al-Ḥāfiẓī (d. 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 526/1132), the fourth of six Muslim Armenian viziers of the Fāṭimids (over the period 1074-1163). A former mamlūk of al-Afḍal, in 516/1122-3, Yānis was appointed chief of the ṣibyān and head of the treasury by al-Āmir’s vizier Maʾmūn al-Baṭāʾiḥī (al-Maḳrīzī, K̲h̲iṭaṭ , ed. al-Malīgī, iv, 268). Rising to the posts of chamberlain and commander-in-chie…


(1,136 words)

Author(s): Meropi Anastassiadou
, the Ottoman form for Yanina , a town of the Epirus region of northwestern Greece, situated on the west bank of lake Pamvotis at an altitude of 520 m/1,700 feet and dominated by the Pindus mountains. The date of its foundation is unknown, and though certain historians maintain that it is mentioned in a document concerning the Council of Naupactus (673), it is only mentioned for certain in a decree of the Emperor Basil II in 1020. It must have already existed for some centuries and is said to have originated from a monastery of St.…


(316 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Grenville, G.S.P.
, a Bantu people and language (Chi-Yao), whose earliest recorded habitat lay east of the Ruvuma River in present Mozambique. At latest from the end of the 16th century, they were engaged in petty trade with Kilwa [ q.v.] and the east coast of Africa, peddling tobacco, iron hoes and animal skins in exchange for cloth (for the well-to-do only), brassware, swords, salt and beads. Slowly an export trade in ivory developed, together with captives who had been enslaved to carry it to the coast. This trade greatly advanced in the 18th century and reached its apogee in the 19th. By mid-…


(830 words)

Author(s): Vida, G. Levi Della
, an important group of the tribe of Tamīm [ q.v.] with the genealogy Yarbūʿ b. Ḥanẓala b. Mālik b. Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm (see Caskel-Strenziok, in Bibl.). The same name is borne by other ethnic groups not only Tamīmī (e.g. Yarbūʿ b. Mālik b. Ḥanẓala, cf. Mufaḍḍaliyyāt , ed. Lyall, 122, 1. 18 and parallel passages) and also Yarbūʿ b. Tamīm in Caskel-Strenziok), but also of other tribes, of the south (Kalb, Saʿd Hud̲h̲ayn, D̲j̲uhayna) and of the north (G̲h̲aṭafān, T̲h̲aḳīf, G̲h̲anī, Sulaym, Ḥanīfa, ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; we also find among the Ḳurays̲h̲ a Yarbūʿ b. ʿAnkat̲h̲a b. ʿĀmir b. Mak̲h̲zūm). Yar…


(523 words)

Author(s): Viré, F.
(a.), the jerboa, jumping mouse or jumping hare ( Jaculus ) of the class of rodents and family of dipodids ( Dipus ). The name jerboa is itself derived from yarbūʿ , which may come from Aramaic, as also the name gerbil. Dipus is the “two-legged rat”. It holds itself up on long backlegs like the kangaroo, whilst the front legs are very short and are used to grasp prey and scrape out ¶ its burrows. In Pliny, the jerboa is often confused with the “white rat” ( Mus albus ). The Dipodid family comprises a dozen species, typified by the “Arrow-bolt jerboa” ( Dipus sagitta). The Arabic authorities on zool…


(2,812 words)

Author(s): Lambton, Ann K.S.
(t.), trial, interrogation, the Mongolian tribunal or court of justice (Doerfer, iv, 58 ff. n. 1784), hence yarg̲h̲uči , a judge. Čing̲h̲iz K̲h̲ān’s adopted brother (or according to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, adopted son, D̲j̲āmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ , i/1, ed. A. Romaskevič, L. K̲h̲etagurov and A.A. Alizade, Moscow 1965, 178; ibid., ed. B. Karīmī, Tehran 1970, i, 414) S̲h̲igi-Ḳutuku was made yarg̲h̲uči at the ḳuriltay held in 1206 (D.O. Morgan, The Mongols , Oxford 1986, 97). He was to judge certain criminal cases on an ad hoc basis and to supervise the distribution of subject peoples and to…


(2,444 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of the Tarim basin, Eastern Turkestan, now coming within the Sinkiang/Xinjiang Autonomous Region of the People’s republic of China and having in Chinese the (revived) name of So-chʾe/Shache (lat. 38° 27’ N., long. 77° 16’ E., altitude 1,190 m/3,900 feet). Yārkand lies on the river of the same name, which rises in the northern part of the Karakoram mountains near the imperfectly delineated border between Kas̲h̲mīr and China and then flows eastwards to join the Tarim river; with its perennial flow, it is the main source stream of …


(2,024 words)

Author(s): Heywood, C.J.
, Yarli̊ḳ , a term of Inner Asian Turkish origin, employed in the chanceries of the Mongol empire and in those of certain of its successor states both before and after their Islamisation, in its original (i.e. pre-Mongol and pre-Islamic) meaning of “[Imperial] decree, edict, command”. In general, in Islamic chancery practice, yarli̊g̲h̲ s are contextually equivalent to the more specific documentary forms of firmān , ḥukm or barāt [ q.vv.; and see diplomatic. iii]; cf. Clauson, Dictionary , 966: “a command from a superior to an inferior, sometimes wit…


(1,708 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | W.E. Kaegi
, the main left bank affluent of the Jordan river [see al-urdunn. 1], famed in history as the site of a historic battle between the Arabs and Byzantines. 1. Geography. The Yarmūk flows into the Jordan some 9 km/5 miles to the south of Lake Tiberias, with headwaters on the southwestern slopes of the Ḥawrān [ q.v.] in southern Syria. It follows a deeply-incised valley which nevertheless provides the main access through the eastern wall of the Jordan rift valley, the G̲h̲awr or G̲h̲ōr, to the north-south routes along the western fringes of the Syrian De…


(639 words)

Author(s): G.R. Smith
(a., pl. Yaʿāriba, sing. Yaʿrubī), a dynasty of ʿUmān [ q.v.] who ruled the country, mostly from al-Rustāḳ but also from D̲j̲abrīn [ q.vv.] and al-Ḥazm, ca. 1024-1164/1615-1749. There are a number of different versions of the date on which the first imām of the dynasty, Nāṣir b. Murs̲h̲id, was given the oath of allegiance: al-Sālimī (ii, 4) suggests it was 1024/1615, whereas Nāṣir’s biographer, ʿAbd Allāh b. K̲h̲alfān b. Ḳayṣar (13), and the author of Kas̲h̲f al-g̲h̲umma , Sirḥān b. Saʿīd b. Sirḥān (Ross, Annals , 46), give 1034/1624. The origins of the dyna…


(473 words)

Author(s): E. van Donzel
, Banū , a conglomeration of tribes which in the 18th century ranged in the interior of al-Ẓafra [ q.v.; see also al-d̲j̲iwāʾ ; dubayy], the region in the United Arab Emirates [see al-imārāt al-ʿarabiyya al-muttaḥida , in Suppl.] extending southward from the Gulf. The island of Ṣīr Banī Yās [ q.v.] is mentioned by the Venetian traveller Gasparo Balbi in 1580, who thus implies that the Banū Yās were already in the area at that time (Slot, The Arabs , 39-40, 143). They are also mentioned in the early 17th century (Slot, op. et loc. cit.) and by Niebuhr in the 18th century ( Beschreibung


(1,357 words)

Author(s): Morgan, D.O. | C.E. Bosworth
(thus the usual orthography in Arabic script, Mongolian ǰasaq , ǰasaγ , see Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen , iv, 71-82 no. 1789 s.v. yāsāq ) may be translated variously, according to context, as “law” or, virtually synonymous with yarli̊g̲h̲ [ q.v.], as “decree” or “order”. Hence the sources for the Mongol period speak of what is generally called “the Great Yāsā of Čingiz K̲h̲ān”, in the sense of a comprehensive legal code laid down by the founder of the Mongol empire; but in many if not most instances of …


(5 words)

[see Ḳanūnnāme ].


(227 words)

Author(s): Viré, F.
, Yāsimīn, Yāsamūn (a.), a masc. noun denoting the jasmine shrub, of the Oleaceae tribe, family of jasmines (Jasminaceae). It was cultivated for its yellow or white or purple flowers and for the oil obtained from it by distillation. In the poets, the abbreviated forms yāsam , yāsim , are found. Several sub-species of jasmine are found in the Arabic-speaking lands, sc. (a) Jasminum floribundum , called habb al-zalīm “male ostrich seeds”; (b) J. fructicans, called yāsamīn al-barr “country jasmine”; (c) J. grandiflorum; (d) J. grasissimum , called ḳayyān “flourishing, blooming”, and suway…


(6 words)

[see aḥmad yasawī ].


(2,887 words)

Author(s): Zarcone, Th.
, a Ṣūfī brotherhood present in Transoxania, in K̲h̲wārazm, in the Kazak̲h̲ steppe and in the Tatar world in Eastern Turkestan, in Turkey, in China and even in India. Its eponymous founder was Aḥmad Yasawī (d. 562/1166-7 [ q.v.]). It had as its centre the town of Yasi̊ (or Ḥaḍrat), modern Turkistān [ q.v.] in present-day Ḳazak̲h̲stān [ q.v. in Suppl.], where the mausoleum of the founder described as “the Kaʿba of Turkistān” (cf. Bernardini) is situated. Concerning the spiritual filiation of the Yasawiyya, the Naḳs̲h̲bandī sources (e.g. Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Ḥusayn Wāʿiẓ ¶ Kās̲h̲ifī, Ras̲h…


(4 words)

[see Suppl.].


(1,473 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
, the Ottoman Turkish form of the name of the Romanian town of Iaşi, conventionally Jassy. It lies on the plain of northeastern Moldavia near the confluence of the Bahlui river with the Prut (lat. 47° 10′ N., long. 27° 35′ E.). ¶ In Ottoman times, it was the capital of the principality of Bog̲h̲dān [ q.v.] or Moldavia. Dimitri Cantemir, from 1121-2/1710 to 1122-3/1711 resident in this town as prince of Moldavia, stated that the seat of government had been transferred to Yas̲h̲ by Stephen the Great (838 or 9-909 or 10/1435-1504; in reality this was do…


(2,104 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Sheila S. Blair and J.M. Bloom
(p.), the Persian term for the mineral generally termed jade. This is made up of one or the other hard, fine-grained translucent stones jadeite or nephrite, the first a silicate of sodium and aluminum and the second a silicate of calcium and magnesium. Both may be white or colourless, but are often found in a variety of other colours, such as green, brown, yellow, etc., because of the presence of traces of other elements such as iron, chromium and manganese. 1. In Islamic history. Nephrite was known to Eastern Turkic peoples as ¶ kas̲h̲ (see Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirt…


(446 words)

Author(s): Böttcher, Annabelle
, a Ṣūfī order of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya [ q.v.], founded by ʿAlī Nūr al-Dīn b. Muḥammad b. Nūr al-Dīn Aḥmad al-Mag̲h̲ribī al-Yas̲h̲ruṭī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Tars̲h̲iḥī ( ca. 1218-1309/ ca. 1804-91) from Banzart [ q.v.] in Tunisia. After having been initiated into the ṭarīḳa [ q.v.] of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya-Madaniyya [ q.v.] in Miṣrāta [ q.v.] by Muḥammad b. Ḥamza Ẓāfir al-Madanī (d. 1263/1847), ʿAlī Nūr al-Dīn travelled extensively. In 1266/1850 he settled in ʿAkkā on the Palestinian coast where he married the wealthy widow K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a Tūsīz. In 1297/1862-3 he opened his first zāwiya [ q.v.…


(5 words)

[see al-madīna ].


(2,043 words)

Author(s): Chaumont, E. | R. Shaham
(a.) denotes a child, below the age of puberty, who has lost his father. 1. In the Ḳurʾān and classical Islamic law. According to the lexicographers, this term, which occurs in the Ḳurʾān, denotes in the human realm a fatherless child, whilst in the animal world, it denotes a young one that has lost its mother (in both cases, it is a question of the loss of the one regarded as its nourisher). A child who has lost its mother is called munḳaṭiʿ , and a child who has lost both father and mother, i.e. an orphan, is called laṭīm . But at the age of puberty, the fatherless child is no longer called yatīm


(877 words)

Author(s): Robin, Ch.
, a god of pre-Islamic Arabia, mentioned in the Ḳurʾān in a speech of Noah: “They have said: Forsake not your gods. Forsake not Wadd, nor Suwāʿ, nor Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲, Yaʿūḳ and Nasr!” (LXXI, 22-3). Traditionists and commentators have exercised their ingenuity in the effort to track down the god Yaʿūḳ, with little success. In his “Book of the Idols” ( Kitab al-Aṣnām , §§ 7d, 9d, 45e, and 52b), Ibn al-Kalbī (d. 204/819 or 206/821), relates that: “Ḵh̲aywān adopted Yaʿūḳ; he was in one of their villages called Ḵh̲aywān, in the region of Ṣanʿāʾ…


(216 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. ayyām ), “day” (a Common Semitic word, e.g. Akkad. ūmum , Hebr. yōm , Aram. yawmā , ESA ywm ), denoting the whole 24-hour cycle making up a day, whereas nahār means “the daylight period”, i.e. from sunrise to sunset. See further on this, al-layl wa ’l-nahār . Yawm occurs as an isolated term in various specialised uses, in particular, in pre- and early Islamic times in the meaning of “day of battle”; for this, see ayyām al-ʿarab . The pl. ayyām can also occur, especially in early Arabic poetry, in a similar sense to its apparent antonym layālī


(376 words)

Author(s): Faroqhi, Suraiya
(t.), lit. “pedestrian”, denoted, in Ottoman military usage of the 8th-10th/14th-16th centuries, infantryman. Originally forming part of the k̲h̲āṣṣa army serving directly under the ruler, in the 10th/16th century the yaya were considered part of the provincial forces. According to Meḥmed Nes̲h̲rī [ q.v.], under Sultan Ork̲h̲ān peasant taxpayers were offered the opportunity of joining the army as yaya, and large numbers of people applied. Under Murād II, the yaya were supposedly given the nickname enik (puppy) as a form of derision (Nes̲h̲rī, Kitâb-ı Cihân-nümâ
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