Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(862 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, one of the major rivers of Siberia, which flows from sources in the Altai Mountains to the Gulf of Ob and the Kara Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Its course is 3,680 km/2,287 miles long and 5,410 km/3,362 miles long if its main left-bank affluent, the Irtysh [see irtis̲h̲ in Suppl.] is included. Its whole basin covers a huge area of western Siberia. In early historic times, the lands along the lower and middle Ob were thinly peopled with such groups as the Samoyeds and the Ugrian Voguls and Ostiaks (in fact, the indigenous population of these regions today, only…


(6 words)

[see ʿulūd̲j̲ ʿalī ].


(5 words)

[see ok̲h̲ri ].


(5 words)

[see uks̲h̲unūba ].


(536 words)

Author(s): Kreiser, K.
(t.), “fireplace, hearth, chimney”, a word which survives with a rather wide range of meanings in all Turkish languages and dialects. Originally otčoḳ < otčaḳ with the elements ōt “fire” and -čaḳ (perhaps to be connected with a rare suffix denoting a place, cf. S. Tezcan, Eski Uygurca Hsüan Tsang biyografyasi X. bölüm , Ankara 1975, n. 1074; idem, Das uigurische Insadi-Sutra , Berlin 1974, n. 275). The connotation “iron ring (for a prisoner or criminal)” appears only in Sanglāk̲h̲ and in S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ Süleymān Buk̲h̲ārī (G. Doerfer, Türkische und Mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen


(5 words)

[see od̲j̲aḳ ].


(36 words)

, first the German name of Pest [see pes̲h̲te ] (this meaning “cave or lime-kiln”), later and until recent times that of Buda [see budīn ], both today parts of the capital of Hungary.


(721 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, a vast arid expanse in the south-eastern part of Ethiopia approximately delimited by the Wadi Shebille to the south-west, the frontier of the former Somaliland to the north-east, the line Ferfer-Werder (the administrative capital) - Doomo to the south-east and the line Degeh Bur - Degeh Medo to the north-west. It is ranged over by Somali nomads belonging to the Dārōd group, the Ogādēn (from whom the region gets its name), and formed part of the province of Harargé (Harar) until 1991, when a ne…


(746 words)

Author(s): Morgan, D.O.
or ögödey , the second Great K̲h̲ān of the Mongol Empire. Born probably in 1186, he was the third son of Činggis K̲h̲an (Čingiz K̲h̲ān [ q.v.]) by his principal wife Börte. He was the first of the Mongol rulers to adopt the title Ḳaʾan: D̲j̲uwaynī ¶ always refers to him thus, almost as though it was regarded as a personal name. Činggis had during his lifetime indicated that Ögedey should succeed him, in preference to his other surviving sons Čag̲h̲atay and Toluy. It is often suggested that Ögedey was a generally acceptable conciliatory figu…


(304 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Bosworth, C.E.
(t.), a word common to all Turkic languages (cf. W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte , St. Petersburg 1888-1911, i/2, cols. 1015-16), found as early as Ork̲h̲on Turkic and meaning “offspring, child”, with a strong implication of “male child”, as opposed to ḳi̊z “girl” [ q.v.] (Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 83-4), original plural og̲h̲lan , still thus in Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , facs. ed. Atalay, iv, Dizini , 425-6; C. Brockelmann, Mitteltürkischer Wortschatz


(5 words)

[see g̲h̲uzz ].


(1,047 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, a term which designates the epic tradition of the Og̲h̲uz [see g̲h̲uzz ], Turkish tribes mentioned for the first time in the Ork̲h̲on [ q.v.] inscriptions. After the fall of the empire of the Kök or Celestial Turks (7th-8th centuries), the Og̲h̲uz tribes migrated westwards. From the 8th and 9th centuries onwards, they are found installed in the basin of the middle and upper Syr Darya, between Lakes Aral and Balkas̲h̲ in the modern Kazak̲h̲stan Republic, where they formed tribal confederations. The Sald̲j̲ūḳs, who invade…