Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Mad̲j̲lis al-S̲h̲ūrā

(4,683 words)

Author(s): Findley, C.V.
, the name given to extraordinary, ad hoc consultative assemblies in the last century-and-a-half or so of the Ottoman empire. While it had long been customary in the Ottoman Empire, and in earlier Islamic states, to hold special consultations about urgent matters [see mas̲h̲wara ], such meetings appear to have become especially frequent among the Ottomans between the Russo-Ottoman War of 1182-88/1768-74 and, roughly, the abolition of the Janissaries in 1241/1826. Referred to by a variety of synonymous terms, such as med̲j̲lis-i s̲h̲ūrā , dār al-s̲h̲ūrā , med̲j̲lis-i mes̲h̲weret (or m…

Mad̲j̲maʿ ʿIlmī

(12,288 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J. | Jazayery, M.A. | J. M. Landau | Ed.
(i) Arab countries. Mad̲j̲maʿ , pl. mad̲j̲āmiʿ , lit. “a place of collecting, a place in which people collect, assemble, congregate” (Lane i/2, 459), became in the second half of the 19th century, as mad̲j̲maʿ ʿilmī , a technical term for Academy of Science, mad̲j̲maʿ al-lug̲h̲a being an Academy of [Arabic] language. There is thus a close relationship between both kinds of mad̲j̲maʿ , since the striving for science takes place in an Arabic language made capable of it. Whereas mad̲j̲lis [ q.v.] had been the current term in earlier Arab civilisation for [the place of] an inform…


(1,696 words)

Author(s): Welch, A.T.
(a.), pl. mad̲j̲ānīn , possessed, mad, madman; the passive participle of d̲j̲anna , “to cover, conceal”, passive, d̲j̲unna , “to be possessed, mad, insane”. Its meaning and usage have been closely related to belief in the Ḏj̲inn [ q.v.]. In pre-Islamic Arabia, soothsayers were believed to have received messages from the d̲j̲inn during ecstatic experiences, after which they delivered oracles in short, enigmatic verses of rhymed prose called sad̲j̲ʿ [see kāhin ], and poets were believed to have been inspired by their individual d̲j̲inn, similar to the Greek idea of Muses [see s̲h̲āʿir ]. …

Mad̲j̲nūn Laylā

(5,623 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A.
, “the Madman of Laylā”, or Mad̲j̲nūn Banī ʿĀmir, the name given to the hero of a romantic love story, the original form of which could date back as far as the second half of the 1st/7th Century. 1. In Arabic literature This imaginary character (acknowledged as such even by some Arab critics; see Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, ii, 6, 11) has been furnished by the ruwāt with an ism and with a complete genealogy; Ḳays b. al-Mulawwaḥ b. Muzāḥim b. Ḳays b. ʿUdas b. Rabīʿa b. D̲j̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rābīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, but according to the evidence, …


(2,261 words)

Author(s): Rubiera de Epalza, M.J.
, mediaeval Arabic name of the city of Madrid (Spain). The Arabic sources seldom ¶ mention this place in the Muslim period. According to al-Ḥimyarī, the ḥiṣn of Mad̲j̲rīṭ was built by the Umayyad amīr of Cordova, Muḥammad I (238-76/852-86). M. A. Makkī believes that its foundation may be dated between 252/866 and 257/871 in the reign of this amīr; the year 252/866 marks the beginning of the reign of Alfonso III of the Asturias, whose military activities had the effect of destabilising the region between Médinacéli and Toledo ( al-t̲h̲ag̲h̲r al-adnā ), which would …


(755 words)

Author(s): Vernet, J.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim maslama b. Aḥmad al-Faraḍī , mathematician and astronomer, born in Madrid in the mid-4th/10th century, died in Cordova in about 398/1007. The facts which are known do not enable us to trace his biography in detail. He was clearly an important person since Ibn Ḥazm mentions him in his Ṭawḳ al-ḥamāma (ch. xiv). He clearly established himself at a very early age in Cordova, and was a pupil of the geometrician ʿAbd al-G̲h̲āfir b. Muḥammad. It must be supposed that he maintained contact with the circle of Hellenists…


(5 words)

[See yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲.]


(4,201 words)

Author(s): Melvinger, A.
, the term used by Arabic historians and geographers writing about the Mag̲h̲rib and Muslim Spain with the sense of Northmen, Vikings, denoting the participants in the great Viking raids on Spain. These raids were manned from Scandinavia, sc. from Norway, Denmark and to a certain extent ¶ also from Sweden, the raiders leaving Denmark, Norway and Ireland, where Norwegian Vikings from the end of the 830s had gained a firm footing and had founded some minor tributary states towards the beginning of the second millennium A.D. In western Latin and Spanish sources they are called, inter alia, Norm…


(9,541 words)

Author(s): Morony, M.
(coll., sing. Mad̲j̲ūsī ), originally an ancient Iranian priestly caste (OP magus̲h̲ , Akk. magus̲h̲u , Syriac mgōs̲h̲ā , Greek μάϒος) but used in Arabic primarily for Zoroastrians. This caste was closely identified with the ruling élite in Sāsānid Iran, where their faith was the official religion of the state and where they were organised in a social and religious hierarchy. The priests, called mōbad , hirbad , dastūr , or rat depending on context and function, had ritual, judicial and educational responsibilities. The priestly hierarchy with the mōbadān mōbad


(7 words)

[See ʿalī b. al-ʿabbās al-mad̲j̲ūsī.]


(301 words)

Author(s): Spies, O.
(a.), passive participle of ḍamina “to be liable”), a legal term meaning the thing for which one is liable or responsible. It occurs in the following connections: maḍmūn bihi “thing pawned”; maḍmūn ʿanhu “debtor”; maḍmūn lahu or ʿalayhi “creditor”. Liability ( ḍamān [ q.v.]) plays an important role in the law of obligations; the rules which ¶ are applied to the parties involved and to the legal institutions are enumerated in the chapters on contracts. Liability and obligation to restore may arise from the non-performance of a contract, if the object has perished, or from taʿaddī


(965 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, a major port and city on the Coromandel coast of southeastern peninsular India, in lat. 13°4′ N. and 80°15′ E., formerly a governorship of the presidency of the same name (the latter comprising the eastern coast of India from Cape Comorin to Lake Chilka in present-day Orissa, as well as a large part of the interior of the Deccan, and the northern Malabar coast); since independence the capital of the Indian Union State of Tamil Nadu. 1. Nomenclature. The origin of the name “Madras” has been much debated. Perhaps the two most plausible explanations are offered by Hobson Jobson


(36,781 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J. | Makdisi, G. | Rahman, Munibur | Hillenbrand, R.
, in modern usage, the name of an institution of learning where the Islamic sciences are taught, i.e. a college for higher studies, as opposed to an elementary school of traditional type ( kuttāb ); in mediaeval usage, essentially a college of law in which the other Islamic sciences, including literary and philosophical ones, were ancillary subjects only. I. The institution in the Arabic, Persian and Turkish lands 1. Children’s schools. The subject of Islamic education in general is treated under tarbiya. Here it should merely be noted that the earliest, informal institution…


(5 words)

[See mad̲j̲rīṭ ].


(1,225 words)

Author(s): Rassers, W.H. | Schumann, O.
, an island north of East Java, separated from Java by a narrow strait in the north of Surabaya; it is 2,113 sq. miles in area, and has 2,385,300 inhabitants, among them 2,378,047 Muslims (1971). It is divided into four kabupatens (regencies): Pamekasan, Sampang, Sumenep (Sungenep) and Bangkalan, all of them being districts in the Indonesian province of East Java. In the course of history, many of the Madurese settled in adjacent areas of East Java, or participated in the government-sponsored transmigration programme to other islands. The Madurese langua…

Madura, Madurāʾī

(299 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in mediaeval Islamic times a town, now the city of Madurai, in South India. It lies on the Vaidai river in lat. 9° 55’ N., long. 78° 07’ E. in the region known to the mediaeval Muslims as Maʿbar and to later European traders as Coromandel. For the historical geography and Islamic history of this coastal province, roughly extending from Cape Comorin northwards to Madras, see maʿbar . In 734/1334 S̲h̲arīf Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Aḥsan [ q.v.], governor for the Dihlī Sultan Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.], renounced his allegiance, and he and some seven of his successors ruled over a short-l…

Madyan S̲h̲uʿayb

(1,129 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northwestern Arabia, lying inland from the eastern shore of the Gulf of ʿAḳaba; it is mentioned in the mediaeval Islamic geographers as lying on the pilgrimage route between the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Syria, which there went inland to avoid the mountainous coast of the Gulf. The name is connected with that of the tribe of Midianites known from the Old Testament (LXX Μαδιαμ, Μαδιαν; in Josephus Μαδιηνἵται, ἡ Μαδιηνὴ χῶρα) but it can hardly be used without further consideration to identify the original home of this tribe, as the town might be…


(363 words)

Author(s): Bulliet, R.
, mufaḍḍal b. saʿd , author of the local history of Iṣfahān in Arabic entitled Risālat Maḥāsin Iṣfahān . The work appears to have been written during the reign of Malik S̲h̲āh (465-85/1072-92). Nothing is known about al-Māfarrūk̲h̲ī’s life, but it is apparent from the wealth of poetry contained in the work and from the frequent use of rhymed prose that he was an adīb . He cites his father, Abu ’l-Faḍl Saʿd, as his s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ and quotes several of his poems. He claims descent (92) from one Māfarrūk̲h̲ b. Bak̲h̲tiyār who in turn was descended from Ad̲h̲urs̲h̲āburān b. Ād̲h̲urmā…


(864 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
, the name of a group of islands off the Tanzanian coast in approximately 8° S and 40° E. They consist of a main island commonly known as Mafia Island, but by its inhabitants as Chole Shamba (Swa. “Plantation Chole”); a very small island known as Chole or Chole Mjini (Swa. “Town Chole”); Juani; Bwejuu; and Jibondo. The only references in Arabic literature are in Aḥmad b. Mad̲j̲īd al-Nad̲j̲dī’s log books, where it is called Manafiyya, and in the anonymous History of Kilwa , where it occurs once as Manfasiya, four times as Manfiyya, and three times as Manfa…


(411 words)

Author(s): Bakhit, M.A.
, lit. “place of separation, junction”, a settlement, now a town, in the northeastern part of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan [see urdunn ]. It lies in lat. 32° 20′ N., long. 36° 12′ E. at an elevation of 600 m/1,960 feet in an arid area whose average rainfall is 150 mm per annum. The region lacks running water, hence local people have always depended on pools and reservoirs for water, and the settlement grew up near the “white pool” ( al-g̲h̲adīr al-abyaḍ ). Archaeological investigations nevertheless show that the area was once well populated, and a large number of what were G…
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