Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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Madīnat al-Zahrāʾ

(1,683 words)

Author(s): Ocaña Jiménez, M.
, governmental city of the Umayyad caliphs of Cordova. According to the texts which recount the construction of this madīna , it was the monumental work of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III who had it built to satisfy the whim of a d̲j̲āriya of his ḥaram , al-Zahrāʾ. The city was constructed 5 km. as the crow flies to the north-west of Cordova, on the southern flank of the Ḏj̲abal al-ʿArūs ("the Bride’s Mountain") of the mountain chain called today Sierra Morena. The work was begun at the beginning of the year 325/19 November 936, …

al-Madīna al-Zāhira

(391 words)

Author(s): Ocaña Jiménez, M.
, a city founded in 366/978-9 to constitute a court by al-Manṣūr Ibn Abī ʿĀmir [ q.v.] in a place called Ālas̲h̲, Ballas̲h̲ or Manzil Ibn Badr, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir to the east of and a short distance from Cordova. Al-Zāhira’s existence was of short duration, since it was sacked and utterly destroyed in 399/1009, at the time when Muḥammad II al-Mahdī revolted against ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchuelo, whom he had imprisoned and killed, and usurped the caliphate, dethroning His̲h̲ām II. The ploughshare s…

Maḍīra

(354 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a dish of meat cooked in sour milk, sometimes with fresh milk added, and with spices thrown in to enhance the flavour. This dish, which Abū Hurayra [ q.v.] is said to have particularly appreciated (see al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 403 = § 3562, where a piece of poetry in praise of maḍīra is cited), must have been quite well sought-after in mediaeval times (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, however, does not cite it in his K. al-Buk̲h̲alā ’; see nevertheless al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Laṭāʾif , 12, tr. C. E. Bosworth, 46). Its principal claim to fame comes from al-Hamad̲h̲ānī’s al-Maḳāma al-maḍīriyya

al-Madiyya

(706 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, al-Madya , Lemdiya , in French Médéa , a town of Algeria situated about 100 km./60 miles to the south of Algiers (in lat. 36° 15′ 50′′ N., long. 2° 45′ E.), at an altitude of 920 m./3,018 ft. and on the northern border of the mountainous massif which divides the high plateau from the Mittīd̲j̲a. Down to the French occupation, it could only be reached by a bridle-path over the Muzāya pass (979 m./3,270 ft.). The bui…

al-Mad̲jād̲h̲īb

(424 words)

Author(s): Hofheinz, A.
, a leading “holy family” among the Sudanese Ḏj̲aʿaliyyūn [ q.v.]. Their ancestors emerged in the 16th century as a family of religious specialists ( fugara , sg. fakī ) in the area of al-Dāmar. In 1117/1705-6, Muḥammad al-Mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb (“the Enraptured”), the first of the family to bear this epithet, may have participated in the first revolt of the northern Sudanese provinces against their Fund̲j̲ [ q.v.] overlords. Under his son, Fakī Ḥamad wad al-Mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb (1105-90/1694-1776), the family strengthened its position by …

Mad̲j̲alla

(5 words)

[see med̲j̲elle ]

Mad̲j̲ar, Mad̲j̲aristān

(15,962 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T. | Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
, name given to the Hungarians or Magyars and to Hungary in the Ottoman period. 1. In pre-Ottoman period (1) The names for the Hungarians and Hungary in the Arabic and Persian authors of the 3rd-8th/9th-14th centuries. The earliest mention of the Hungarians (Magyars) occurs in ¶ the Kitāb al-Aʿlāḳ al-nafīsa of Ibn Rusta (Ibn Rosteh), written between the years 290-300/903-12-13 on the basis of the geographical treatise of al-Ḏj̲ayhānī ( ca. 300 A.H.) who used, in the composition of this work, an anonymous historical account dealing with Central Asia and Eastern Euro…

al-Mad̲j̲arra

(1,419 words)

Author(s): Kunitzsch, P.
, the Galaxy or Milky Way. This remarkable celestial phenomenon was well-known to the peoples of the Islamic world. Its popular assimilation to the traces of spilt milk seems to be of Greek origin (cf. τὸ ϒάλα. [Aristotle], ὁ τοῦ ϒάλακτος κύκλος [Euclid, Geminus], ὁ ϒαλακτίας [κύκλος] [Ptolemy], ὁϒαλαξίας [κύκλος] [other authors]; see Liddell and Scott, s.vv.), whereas in the Near East the image of traces of lost straw, or chaff, prevails (cf. Pers. rāh-i kāhkas̲h̲ān , Turk, samanyolu , etc., and already Syriac s̲h̲bhīlā d-t̲h̲ebhnā (A.D. 660), also colloquial Arabic darb al-tabbāna

Mad̲j̲āz

(2,566 words)

Author(s): Reinert, B. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Stewart Robinson, J.
(A.), a term in rhetoric, means "trope" and, more generally, the use of a word ¶ deviating from its original meaning and use, its opposite being ḥaḳīḳa ("veritative expression"). In Arabic literature. The different modes of expression labelled as mad̲j̲āz by the Arabic theorists were divided into twelve categories by Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210) without, however, following a consistent system of criteria (cf. al-Suyūṭī, Muzhir , ed. Cairo 1282, i, 171). A more refined and detailed version of this classifying system was put forward by al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505) ( Itḳān

Mad̲j̲d

(9 words)

al-Dīn [see hibat allāh b. muḥammad ].

Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla

(726 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Ṭālib Rustam b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla ʿAlī , Kahf al-Umma , ruler of the northern Būyid amīrate of Ray and Ḏj̲ibāl (387-420/997-1029). When Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla [ q.v.] died in S̲h̲aʿbān 387/August-September 997, his young son Rustam succeeded him at the age of eight (thus according to the anonymous Mud̲j̲mal al-tawārīk̲h̲ wa ’l-ḳiṣaṣ , ed. Bahār, Tehran 1318/1939, 396, giving Rustam’s birth-date as Rabīʿ II 379/July-August 989, and Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ed. Beirut, ix, 69, but according to al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī, in Eclipse of the ʿAbbasid caliphate, iii, 297, and Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ix, 132, at…

Mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb

(449 words)

Author(s): Gramlich, R.
("the attracted one"), in Ṣufī literature the name for the representative of a type of piety which is chiefly of a passive nature ( munfaʿil : al-Rundī), in contradistinction to the more active ( fāʿil ) "striding one" ( sālik ), a characteristic which is expressed in numerous other pairs of opposition, like: mud̲j̲āhada-mus̲h̲āhada , makāsibmawāhib , maḳām-ḥāl , murīd-murād , muḥibb-maḥbūb , muk̲h̲liṣ-muk̲h̲laṣ . While the mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb , on the way to God, may abandon himself to be drawn by divine attraction ( d̲j̲ad̲h̲ba , d̲j̲ad̲h̲b , Persian kas̲h̲is̲h̲ ), the sālik depends on his …

al-Mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb

(279 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, surname of the Moroccan holy man whose complete name is Abū Zayd ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAyyād al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī al-Farad̲j̲ī al-Dukkālī. He came originally from Tīṭ, in the district of Azemmūr, but lived in Fās, where one of his disciples was in particular Abū ’l-Maḥāsin Yūsuf al-Fāsī, whose great-grandson, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir [see al-Fāsī, in Suppl.] left behind a work called Ibtihād̲j̲ al-ḳulūb bi-k̲h̲abar al-s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abi ’l-Maḥāsin wa-s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ihi al-Mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb (extracts ¶ in ms. Rabat 522/6; see Lévi-Provençal, Catalogue , 252). ʿAbd al…

al-Mad̲j̲d̲j̲āwī

(805 words)

Author(s): Bencheneb, R.
, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAbd Allah b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm , Algerian teacher and scholar, born in 1266/1848 in Tlemcen and died in 1331/1913 in Algiers. Following the example of his father who had lived for a long time in Morocco where he had studied and taught, especially at al-Ḳarawiyyīn [ q.v.], before returning to his native city to practise there the duties of ḳāḍī , al-Mad̲j̲d̲j̲āwī travelled to this country at a very early age. At Tangier and later at Tetouan he undertook classical studies which he completed at Fās as a pupil of distinguished ʿulamāʾ , including…

Mad̲j̲d al-Mulk, Abu ’l-Faḍl Asʿad b. Muḥammad al-Ḳummī al-Balāsānī

(113 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, mustawfī or director of finances under the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Berk-yaruḳ [see barkyārūḳ ] in the early years of his reign and then vizier (490-2/1097-9), but whose death was brought about by the great military commanders in S̲h̲awwāl 492/September 1099 on an accusation of S̲h̲īʿi sympathies, and even of Ismāʿīlī ones, which he was said to have displayed during the struggle against the rival sultan Muḥammad b. Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. ¶ (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cambr. hist. of Iran, index C. L. Klausner, The Seljuk vezirate, a study of civil administration 1055-1194, Cambridge, Mass. 197…

Mād̲j̲id b. Saʿīd

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
, Sultan of Zanzibar, 1856-70, was born ca. 1835, the sixth of his father’s twenty-seven known sons, and of an Ethiopian mother. He married a kinswoman, As̲h̲a, and had one child only, Ḵh̲amfura. When his father, Sayyid Saʿīd, left Zanzibar for Masqat for the last time on 16 April 1854, he had appointed his second son, Ḵh̲ālid, as governor and successor in the event of his death. Ḵh̲ālid died in ¶ November 1854, and shortly afterwards orders came from Masḳaṭ appointing Mād̲j̲id in his stead, thereby passing over three older brothers, T̲h̲uwaynī (later Sulṭān of ʿU…

al-Mad̲j̲isṭī

(5 words)

[see baṭlamiyūs ].

Mad̲j̲lis

(51,612 words)

Author(s): Ed. | W. Madelung | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J. M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb d̲j̲alasa “to sit down” and, by extension, “to sit”, ¶ “to hold a session”; starting from the original meaning of “a place where one sits down, where one stays”, thence “a seat” (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval , Leiden 1976, index), the semantic field of mad̲j̲lis is of very wide extent (see the dictionaries of Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Among the principal derivative meanings are “a meeting place”, “meeting, assembly” (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), “a reception hall (of a ca…

Mad̲j̲lisī

(2,174 words)

Author(s): Hairi, Abdul-Hadi
, Mullā Muḥammad Bāḳir , known also as ʿAllāma Mad̲j̲lisī and Mad̲j̲lisī-yi T̲h̲ānī (1037-1110/1627-98), an authoritative jurist, a most prolific hadīt̲h̲ collector, an unprecedentedly influential author in the world of the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa. He was also a distinguished expert in bibliography, ¶ a well-read man in Islamic philosophy and mysticism, and an active authority in politics, social and judicial matters during the late Ṣafawīd period. He belonged to a distinguished clerical family; his father, Muḥammad Taḳī, mostly referred to as Mad̲j̲lisī-yi Awwal [ q.v.], his ancestor…

Mad̲j̲lisī-Yi Awwal

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Hairi, Abdul-Hadi
, Muḥammad taḳī (1003-70/1594-1659), a prominent S̲h̲īʿī religious leader and author of the Ṣafawīd period. Originally, he was on his mother’s side from ¶ D̲j̲abal ʿĀmil (southern Lebanon) because, according to his son Muḥammad Bāḳir Mad̲j̲lisī [ q.v.], Darwīs̲h̲ Muḥammad b. Ḥasan al-ʿĀmilī, a great mud̲j̲tahid of D̲j̲abal ʿĀmil, was his maternal grandfather (Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Ardabili, D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ruwāt , ii, Tehran n.d., 551); the latter was also called Naṭanzī from his stay in Naṭanz, north of Iṣfahān, for a certain period of time (Muḥsin al-Amīn al-Ḥusaynī al-ʿĀmilī, Aʿyān al-S̲…
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