Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

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Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(34,897 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Young, M.J.L. | Hill, D.R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) “water”. The present article covers the religio-magical and the Islamic legal aspects of water, together with irrigation techniques, as follows: 1. Hydromancy A a vehicle for the sacred, water has been employed for various techniques of divination, and in particular, for potamonancy (sc. divination by means of the colour of the waters of a river and their ebbing and flowing; cf. FY. Cumont, Études syriennes , Paris 1917, 250 ff., notably on the purification power of the Euphrates, consulted for divinatory reasons); for pegomancy (sc…


(1,772 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
10. Irrigation in Transoxania. The rivers of Inner Asia, extending from Ḵh̲wārazm in the west through Transoxania to eastern Turkistān (the later Sinkiang) and northwards to the Semirečye, have all been extensively used for irrigation purposes in the lands along those rivers and in oasis centres, providing a possibility for agriculture in favoured spots which were not too open to attack from the steppe nomads or more northerly forest peoples. Hence, as elsewhere in the Old World, the maintenance of irrigation works, surface canals and kārīz s or subterranean ¶ channels (these last t…


(2,619 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
(a.), place of return, a technical term in religious and philosophical vocabulary. The verb ʿadā , ʿawdan signifies “to return to a place”. Al-D̲j̲awharī treats it as a synonym of rad̲j̲aʿa . The action of ʿawd is the movement whereby one. returns to the point of departure: rad̲j̲aʿa ʿalā badʾihi , or ilā ḥāfiratihi , either through a continuous progress, in describing a circle for example, or stopping at a certain point and retracing one’s steps (cf. Sībawayh, cited by LA), whence the idea of a return to the origin, to the source. The verb rad̲j̲aʿa is used in many Ḳurʾānic verses to ind…


(308 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
is a collective name for the northern Arab tribes (see D̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab (vi) = i, 544b). According to the standard genealogy, Maʿadd was a son of ʿAdnān [ q.v.]. His son Nizār [ q.v.] had three sons, Muḍar, Iyād and Rabīʿa, from the first and third of whom most of the northern Arabs claimed descent. Maʿadd and his descendants are said to have lived for a time in the neighbourhood of Mecca and to have intermarried with D̲j̲urhum [ q.v.]. The name Maʿadd is found in pre-Islamic poets, e.g. in verses of Imruʾ al-Ḳays (ed. Ahlwardt, no. 41, l. 5) and al-Nābig̲h̲a (ed. Ahlwa…


(811 words)

Author(s): Grohmann, A. | Smith, G.R.
(or al-Maʿāfir ), the name of a South Arabian tribe, the genealogy of which is given as Yaʿfur b. Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Murra b. Udad b. Humaysaʿ b. ʿAmr b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ib b. ʿArīb b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ; they are included among the Ḥimyar. The name was also given to the territory which the tribe inhabited and this corresponded roughly with the Turkish ḳaḍāʾ of Taʿizziyya and the present Yemen Arab Republic province ( ḳaḍāʾ) of al-Ḥud̲j̲ariyya (pronounced locally al-Ḥugariyya), itself part of the administrative area ( liwāʾ ) of Taʿizz. In early and mediaeval times it is described as a mik̲h̲…


(568 words)

Author(s): Tibi, Aida
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. D̲j̲amīl b. saʿd al-dīn , an Andalusian Mālikī scholar who settled in Jerusalem and died there in 605/1208. Born and educated in Mālaḳa, al-Maʿāfirī left his native town early in his life and, like many of his compatriots at the time, travelled east for the dual purpose of performing the pilgrimage and acquiring knowledge. Though the sources mention that al-Maʿāfirī did some writing, they do not name any of his works. We know of only one extant…


(972 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Maʿalt̲h̲ā (Syriac “gate, entrance”, Payne Smith, Thesaurus syriacus , col. 2881), modern Malthai, the name given to two villages in the former ḳaḍāʾ of Dehōk (Duhūk) in the wilāyet of Mawṣil in Ottoman times, now in the Autonomous Region of Dehōk in Republican ʿIrāḳ. The second of these two villages was formerly distinguished as Maʿalt̲h̲ā al-Naṣārā “M. of the Christians”, but has recently become largely Kurdish and Muslim, like its fellow-village. Maʿalt̲h̲āyā lies on a small affluent of the Tigri…


(1,022 words)

Author(s): Elisséeff, N.
, Muʿān , a town of the south of Jordan, lying in lat. 30° 12′ N. and long. 35° 44′ E. at an altitude of 3,523 ft./1,074 m., and the chef-lieu of the governorate which is to the south of the Karak [ q.v.] one and to the east of the Wādī ʿAraba. The name is said to come from Maʿān, son of Lot. The town is surrounded by gardens which form an oasis of the western fringe of the desert plain; to its east are the slopes of the al-S̲h̲arāt mountain chain of granite and porphyry, which rise to 5,665 ft./1,727 m. In Maʿan itself and the neighbourhood are many springs…

al-Maʿānī wa ’l-Bayān

(5,552 words)

Author(s): Bonebakker, S.A. | Reinert, B.
, two of the three categories into which, since the time of al-Sakkākī (d. 626/1229), the study of rhetoric has often been divided. 1. In Arabic. The Miftāḥ al-ʿulūm by al-Sakkākī [ q.v.], where the two terms appear for the first time, was too confusing in its arrangement, and too obscure and at times self-contradictory to be of practical use to most students of rhetoric. It consisted of a section on grammar, a section on syntax, a section on the ʿilm al-maʿānī and the ʿilm al-bayān , and two supplements to its maʿānī section, one on demonstration ( istidlāl ), and one o…


(20,090 words)

Author(s): Winter, M. | Elayed, A. | Hadj-Salah, A. | Salmi, J. | Sana'i, Mahmud
(a.), education, public instruction. The word is the pl. of maʿrifa “knowledge”. The term was already used in mediaeval times to denote the secular subjects of knowledge or culture in general (e.g. in the title of Ibn Ḳutayba’s Kitāb al-Maʿārif ), in opposition to the religious sciences ( ʿulūm , pl. of ʿilm ). 1. In the Ottoman empire and the central and eastern Arab lands It seems that the official use of the term appears for the first time in the Ottoman Empire in 1838, when a school for educating government officials was established in Istanbul and was named Mekteb-i Maʿārif-i ʿAdliyye

Maʿarrat Maṣrīn or Miṣrīn

(1,438 words)

Author(s): Elisséeff, N.
, a small town in North Syria (lat. 36° 01′ N., long. 36° 40′ E.). It is 40 km. to the north of Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān [ q.v.], 50 km. south-west of Aleppo or Ḥalab [ q.v.] and 12 km. north-west of Sarmīn. It owes its importance to its position between the districts of the Rūd̲j̲, the D̲j̲azr and the D̲j̲abal al-Summāḳ and formerly served as the market for this region which the road from Ḥalab to Armanāz traverses, a route used in the Middle Ages by the Turkomans. Its role has devolved today on Idlib. The land, although poorly watere…

Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān

(5,760 words)

Author(s): Elisséeff, N.
, chef-lieu of a ḳaḍāʾ of North Syria comprising the southern half of the D̲j̲abal Zāwiya, which consists of the ¶ southern part of the Be lus massif with numerous villages. Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān, famous as the birthplace of the blind poet al-Maʿarrī [ q.v.], is situated at about 500 m. altitude, in lat. 35° 38′ N. and long. 36° 40′ E. Falling within northern Phoenicia, two days’ journey to the south of Ḥalab or Aleppo (70 km.), it is situated on the eastern fringe of a massif rich in archaeologic…


(10,129 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
, Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sulaymān , famous Arabic poet and prose author of the late ʿAbbāsid period, was born in 363/973 in Maʿarrat al-Nuʿmān [ q.v.], a town between Aleppo and Ḥimṣ in the northern part of Syria, where he also was to die in 449/1058. The Banū Sulaymān, his forefathers, belonged to the notable families of Maʿarra. As S̲h̲āfiʿī ʿulamāʾ , they held the office of ḳāḍī , which post was for the first time successfully claimed by a grandfather of Abu ’l-Alāʾ’s grandfather. In addition, some of the Banū Sulaymān are menti…

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

(211 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a celebrated Persian collection of biographies of Muslim Indian commanders from the reign of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605) till the time of its author, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ S̲h̲āh-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Awrangābādī (1111-71/1700-58). Born at Lahore, he soon settled in the Deccan in the service of the first Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Ḏj̲āh. and filled offices in Berār [ q.v.] and then as Dīwān or chief minister of the Deccan. His policy in the latter post aimed at checking the growing influences in that state …

Māʾ al-ʿAynayn al-Ḳalḳamī

(3,682 words)

Author(s): Norris, H.T.
is the name consistently given in Mauritania and Morocco to the greatest scholar and religious and political leader of the Western Sahara during the latter half of the 19th century. Uncertainty remains as to the significance of his sobriquet Māʾ al-ʿAynayn, “water of both eyes”, but it is not unlike ḳurrat al-ʿayn , “coolness of the eye”. Māʾ al-ʿAynayn was born on the day of the death of his brother, Abu ’l-Fatḥ, and of his paternal grandmother K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a. His father Muḥammad Fāḍil regarded his birth as a blessed consolat…

Maʿbad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUkaym al-D̲j̲uhanī

(637 words)

Author(s): Ess, J. van
, early representative of Ḳadarī ideas, ¶ executed after the insurrection of Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ [ q.v.], in 83/703. He was probably born about 20/640 or even earlier. He had contacts with Muʿāwiya (41-60/661-80), and ʿAbd al-Malik appreciated him to such an extent that he sent him as an ambassador to Byzantium and entrusted him with the education of his son Saʿīd al-K̲h̲ayr. According to a rather detailed, but perhaps fictitious report he played a certain political role as early as 38/658, during the negotiations…

Maʿbad b. Wahb

(707 words)

Author(s): Farmer, H.G. | Neubauer, E
, Abū ʿAbbād , one of the great singers and composers in Umayyad times, was born in Medina and died at Damascus in 125/743 or 126/744. Being the son of a negro, he was an ʿabd and later on became mawlā of one of the Mak̲h̲zūm families, serving them as overseer of their cattle. Like many other oriental musicians, he is said to have been led to music by a dream, and he took music lessons from Sāʾib K̲h̲āt̲h̲ir and Nas̲h̲īṭ. He soon made a name for himself in Medina and followed invitations to sing at Mecca, where I…

Mā Baʿd al-Ṭabīʿa

(3,859 words)

Author(s): Arnaldez, R.
, or Mā Baʿd al-Ṭabīʿiyyāt , a translation of the Greek τα μετὰ τα φυσικά “the things which come after physical things”, i.e. metaphysics, an expression which can have two meanings, each of which envisages a particular conception of that science ( ʿilm or ṣināʿa ). It can either be a discipline which one embarks upon after physics, utilising the results of the natural sciences, or else it can be one whose goal lies beyond the apprehendable objects which are the concern of physics. ¶ The two meanings are not mutually self-exclusive, but the first tends to put the accent on the r…


(1,525 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, the name given by the Arabs in mediaeval times to the eastern shores of the Indian Deccan, an area corresponding closely, but not exactly, to the Coromandel coast (the latter name from the Tamil Čolamaṇḍalam , “the realm of the Cholas”, indicating the area formerly ruled by the Tamil Chola rād̲j̲ās from their capital at Tānd̲j̲āvūr (Tanjore); hence the alternative Arabo-Persian name, Barr al-Ṣūliyān or Ṣhūliyān (Tibbetts, op. cit. in Bibl ., 466), “the coast of the Cholas”). In Arabic, the term maʿbar signifies a passage or crossing point. In its applic…


(510 words)

Author(s): Ahmad, S. Maqbul
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Zayn al-Dīn b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Zayn al-Dīn b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad , the author of Tuḥfat al-mud̲j̲āhidīn fī baʿḍ aḥwāl al-Purtukāliyyīn , is said to have lived in Ponani, Malabar District (Kerala, India) during the rule of the ʿAdil S̲h̲āh ʿAlī (965-88/1558-80), his patron, to whom he dedicated the book. The date of his birth or death is not known, but he wrote the work ¶ ca. 985/1577. The Tuḥfat al-mud̲j̲āhidīn deals with the geography of Southern India, and gives an account of Islam in Malabar and the Portuguese campaigns in India. It …


(328 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(A. mā bayn “what is between”), in the organisation of the Ottoman palace, the intermediate appartments lying between the inner courts of the Sarāy and the Ḥarem, a place where only the sultan, the eunuchs and the womenfolk could penetrate and where the corps of select pages known as mābeynd̲j̲is , an elite group from amongst the forty k̲h̲āṣṣ odali̊s , waited on the monarch for such intimate services as dressing and shaving him [see k̲h̲āṣṣ oda ]. Till the end of the 11th/17th century, the Mābeynd̲j̲is were headed by the Silaḥdār Ag̲h̲a or Swordbearer, as chief p…

Ma Chung-Ying

(2,661 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
( Matthews’ Chinese-English Dictionary , Revised American Edition 1969, characters nos. 4310, 1505, 7489), also known as ǧa ssuling , or “Little Commander” ( Ǧa is an affectionate diminutive used in colloquial Kansu Chinese—see the Hsin-Hua tzu-tien , Peking 1971, 124; Ssu-ling: see Matthews’ , nos. 5585, 4043), the youngest and best-known of the five Chinese Muslim warlords comprising the “Wu Ma” clique [ q.v.] which controlled much of Northwest China during the latter half of the Republican Period (1911-49). Little is known of Ma Chung-ying’s early years. ¶ He was born at Linhsia…


(6,636 words)

Author(s): Ferrand, G. | Vérin, P.
, with its 627,000 km2 the third largest island in the world, after New Guinea (785,000 km2) and Borneo (733,000 km2). Its area is slightly greater than that of France 550,880 km2), of Belgium (30,000 km2) and of Holland (33,000 km2) combined. The large African island is oriented from north-north-east to southsouth-west, measuring 1,600 km at its greatest length and 580 km at its greatest width, with a coastal perimeter of 5,000 km. It has a population in excess of 8 million inhabitants which is increasing at a fairly rapid rate (3.2 %). Although the Comoros (see ḳumr )…


(1,869 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Morony, M.
, "the cities" (pl. of al-madīna ), the Arabic translation of the Aramaic Māḥōzē or Medīnāt̲h̲ā referring to the Sāsānid metropolis on the Tigris about 20 miles southeast of Bag̲h̲dād where several adjacent cities connected by a floating bridge stretched along both banks of the river. This was the imperial administrative capital, the winter residence of the king, the home of the Jewish Exilarch and the seat of the Nestorian Catholikos. …


(2,533 words)

Author(s): Sezgin, Ursula
, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Sayf , Abū ’L-Ḥasan , early Arabic historian, was born, according to his own information, in 135/752 ( Fihrist , 100). Little is known about his life. He was a client of Samura b. Ḥabīb b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf, i.e. of the Companion ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Samura [ q.v.]; according to Fihrist, 101, al-Madāʾinī dedicated a monograph to him. Al-Madāʾinī, who was in Baṣra in 153/770 (see al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, al-Bayān wa ’l-tabyīn , ii, Cairo 1367/1948, 93), later went to al-Madāʾi̇n and Bag̲h̲dād at an unknown date. It is also unknown whether his nisba originated from a stay in al-Madāʾin or whether such a stay was derived from an already-existing nisba. The same nisba is in any case also carried by ʿUtba b. ʿAbd…


(1,059 words)

Author(s): Jong, F. de
, a branch of the S̲h̲ādhiliyya [ q.v.] Ṣūfī order named after Muḥammad b. Ḥasan b. Ḥamza Ẓāfir al-Madanī (1194-Ḏj̲umādā I 1263/1780 - Apr…


(2,568 words)

Author(s): Boratav, P.N.
(Turkish meddāḥ ), an Arabic word which means "panegyrist"; the term was used by the Ottoman Turks as a synonym of ḳi̊ṣṣa-k̲h̲w ān (Arabic ḳāṣṣ ) and s̲h̲ehnāme-k̲h̲w ān to designate the professional story-tellers of the urban milieux; it was used in the same way by the Persians, but more rarely; as for the Arabs, they used it, in a fairly late period, to designate the "begging singers of the streets" (see Köprülüzāde M. Fuʾād, Meddāḥlar , in

al-Madd wa ’l-Ḏj̲azr

(1,536 words)

Author(s): Martínez Martín, L.
(a.), literally "the ebb and flow", the name given by the Arabs to the phenomenon of the tide, which they explained by following the various theories inherited from the classical world; the latter assert in the main that the tide possesses a universal character resulting from the moon’s having a stronger influence than the sun over the mass of the Ocean’s waters. The classical writers reached this conclusion after having studied the accounts of their great navigators such as Pytheas and Nearchus. A…


(846 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, H.L.
, name of a family of high-officials and revenue officers, originating from ʿIrāḳ, who held important positions in Egypt and Syria between 266/879 and 335/946. The


(497 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., pl. mad̲h̲āhib ), inf. n. of d̲h̲-h-b , meaning “a way, course, mode, or manner, of acting or conduct or the like” (Lane, i, 983b); as a term of religion, philosophy, law, etc. “a doctrine, a tenet, an opinion with regard to a particular case”; and in law specifically, a technical term often translated as “school of law”, in particular one of the four legal systems recognised as orthodox by Sunnī Muslims, viz. the Ḥanafiyya, Mālikiyya, S̲h̲āfiʿiyya and Ḥanbaliyya [ q.vv.], and the S̲h̲īʿī Ḏj̲aʿfarī and Zaydiyya legal schools [see it̲h̲nā ʿas̲h̲ariyya ; zaydiyya ]. For an exposé of mad̲h̲h…


(869 words)

Author(s): Smith, G.R. | Bosworth, C.E.
a large tribal group, now inhabiting in the main the areas of Ḏh̲amār and Radāʿ in the modern Yemen Arab Republic. The traditional genealogy, given by e.g. Ibn Durayd, Is̲h̲tiḳāḳ , ed. ¶ Wüstenfeld, 237 ff., and by Yāḳūt, Beirut 1374-6/1955-7, v, 89, is from Mālik b. Udad b. Zayd b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ub b. ʿArïb b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ub b. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥtān. The numerous component ḳabāʾil of Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ are listed in full by al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf ʿUmar, Ṭurfat al-aṣḥāb fī maʿrifat al-ansāb


(632 words)

Author(s): Troupeau, G.
(a.) "preterite", a technical term of Arabic grammar used to denote the verbal form devoted to the expression of past time; its counterpart is muḍāriʿ [ q.v.], the term denoting the author verbal form "resembling" [the noun] and devoted to the expr…

Madīḥ, Madḥ

(10,231 words)

Author(s): Wickens, G.M. | Clinton, J.W. | Stewart Robinson, J. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
(a.), the normal technical terms in Arabic and other Islamic literatures for the genre of panegyric poetry, the individual poem being usually referred to as umdūḥa (pl. amādīḥ ) or madīḥa (pl. madāʾiḥ ). The author himself is called mādiḥ or, as considered professionally, maddāḥ . The root itself is sometimes used without technical connotations, as also are commonly the various other roots signifying "praise":


(238 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F. | Ocaña Jiménez, M.
(a.) "the mine" is, by antonomasia, the name of a certain number of villages in ¶ Arabia and other parts of the Orient (see Yāḳūt, s.v.), and is also found in the toponomy of the Iberian peninsula. Under the form Almaden, this term refers to the locality in the province of Ciudad Real, 125 km. to the north of Cordova, in the Sierra de Almadén (A. Ḏj̲ibāl al-Maʿdin), which has one of the richest deposits in the world of mercury (A. ziʾbaḳ and variants, whence Spanish azogue and the fullest form of the place name Almadén de Azogue). According to Garciá Bellido ( España y los españoles hace dos mil años segun la Geografía de Strabón , Madrid 1945, 79-81), these deposits were already being exploited in the 4th century B.C., since the Greek philosopher Theophrastes ( ca. 372-287) mentions the cinnabar of Iberia. At the present time, they still produce each year about 1,800 tonnes of mercury. …


(33,280 words)

Author(s): Ashtor, E. | Hassan, A.Y. al- | Hill, D.R. | Murphey, R. | Baer, Eva
(a.), "mine, ore, mineral, metal". In modern Arabic, the word mand̲j̲am denotes "mine", while muʿaddin means "miner" and d̲j̲amād is a mineral. …


(6 words)

, urbanism. [See Supplement].


(13,695 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Winder, R.B.
(usually Medina in English, Médine in French), residence of the Prophet Muḥammad after the ḥid̲j̲ra and one of the sacred cities of Islam. Medina is situated in the Ḥid̲j̲āz province of Saʿūdī Arabia in latitude 24° 28′ N, longitude 39° 36′ E, about 160 km. from the Red Sea and about 350 km. north of Mecca. It has developed from an oasis on relatively level ground between the hill of Uḥud on the north and that of ʿAyr on the south. East and west are lava flows (in Arabic ḥarra [ q.v.] or lāba ). There are several wādī s or watercourses which cross the oasis from south to…


(3,868 words)

Author(s): Raymond, A.
(a.), urbanism, the structure and planning of the Arab town and city. This can be reconstructed as an historical reality from a vast body of literature, including chronicles and archival documents. It embodies enlightened ideas which seem to be commented on, as it were, by the remains of all the great Arab cities that can still be seen. The concept of a Muslim “city” was formulated chiefly by French orientalists (on this subject see R.S. Humphreys, Islamic history: a framework for inquiry, Princeton 1991, 228) between 1920 and 1950; in particular see G. and W. Marçais, J. Sa…

Madīnat al-Nuḥās

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Hamori, A.
, “The city of brass,” a story within the Thousand and one nights [see alf layla wa-layla ]. This story, that found its way, somewhat variably, into the 19th-century editions of the Nights (on the 18th-century manuscripts in which it appears, see the excellent discussion by D. Pinault, Story - telling techniques in the Arabian Nights , Leiden 1992, 150-80), is the most elaborate narrative about a city of copper, brass or bronze (on the proper meanings of nuḥās and ṣufr , and their indiscriminate use in non-scientific discourse, see M. Aga-Oglu, A brief note on Islamic terminology for bronz…

Madīnat Sālim

(434 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
, the Arabic name, which has become Medinaceli , of a small town in north-eastern Spain, on the railway from Madrid to Saragossa, and almost equidistant from these two cities; it lies at an altitude of more than 3,280 feet/1,000 m., on the left bank of the Jalón. It owes its name to a Berber from the Maṣmūda, Sālim, who repaired a Roman fortress which Ṭāriḳ [ q.v.], according to Yāḳūt, iii, 13, had found in a ruinous state. The Arab geographers give brief descriptions of Medinaceli. According to al-Idrīsī, it was a large town built in a hollow with many large buildings, ga…

Madīnat al-Zahrāʾ

(1,683 words)

Author(s): Ocaña Jiménez, M.
, governmental city of the Umayyad caliphs of Cordova. According to the texts which recount the construction of this madīna , it was the monumental work of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III who had it built to satisfy the whim of a d̲j̲āriya of his ḥaram , al-Zahrāʾ. The city was constructed 5 km. as the crow flies to the north-west of Cordova, on the southern flank of the Ḏj̲abal al-ʿArūs ("the Bride’s Mountain") of the mountain chain called today Sierra Morena. The work was begun at the beginning of the year 325/19 November 936, …

al-Madīna al-Zāhira

(391 words)

Author(s): Ocaña Jiménez, M.
, a city founded in 366/978-9 to constitute a court by al-Manṣūr Ibn Abī ʿĀmir [ q.v.] in a place called Ālas̲h̲, Ballas̲h̲ or Manzil Ibn Badr, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir to the east of and a short distance from Cordova. Al-Zāhira’s existence was of short duration, since it was sacked and utterly destroyed in 399/1009, at the time when Muḥammad II al-Mahdī revolted against ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchuelo, whom he had imprisoned and killed, and usurped the caliphate, dethroning His̲h̲ām II. The ploughshare s…


(354 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a dish of meat cooked in sour milk, sometimes with fresh milk added, and with spices thrown in to enhance the flavour. This dish, which Abū Hurayra [ q.v.] is said to have particularly appreciated (see al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 403 = § 3562, where a piece of poetry in praise of maḍīra is cited), must have been quite well sought-after in mediaeval times (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, however, does not cite it in his K. al-Buk̲h̲alā ’; see nevertheless al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Laṭāʾif , 12, tr. C. E. Bosworth, 46). Its principal claim to fame comes from al-Hamad̲h̲ānī’s al-Maḳāma al-maḍīriyya


(706 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, al-Madya , Lemdiya , in French Médéa , a town of Algeria situated about 100 km./60 miles to the south of Algiers (in lat. 36° 15′ 50′′ N., long. 2° 45′ E.), at an altitude of 920 m./3,018 ft. and on the northern border of the mountainous massif which divides the high plateau from the Mittīd̲j̲a. Down to the French occupation, it could only be reached by a bridle-path over the Muzāya pass (979 m./3,270 ft.). The bui…


(424 words)

Author(s): Hofheinz, A.
, a leading “holy family” among the Sudanese Ḏj̲aʿaliyyūn [ q.v.]. Their ancestors emerged in the 16th century as a family of religious specialists ( fugara , sg. fakī ) in the area of al-Dāmar. In 1117/1705-6, Muḥammad al-Mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb (“the Enraptured”), the first of the family to bear this epithet, may have participated in the first revolt of the northern Sudanese provinces against their Fund̲j̲ [ q.v.] overlords. Under his son, Fakī Ḥamad wad al-Mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb (1105-90/1694-1776), the family strengthened its position by …


(5 words)

[see med̲j̲elle ]

Mad̲j̲ar, Mad̲j̲aristān

(15,962 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T. | Káldy-Nagy, Gy.
, name given to the Hungarians or Magyars and to Hungary in the Ottoman period. 1. In pre-Ottoman period (1) The names for the Hungarians and Hungary in the Arabic and Persian authors of the 3rd-8th/9th-14th centuries. The earliest mention of the Hungarians (Magyars) occurs in ¶ the Kitāb al-Aʿlāḳ al-nafīsa of Ibn Rusta (Ibn Rosteh), written between the years 290-300/903-12-13 on the basis of the geographical treatise of al-Ḏj̲ayhānī ( ca. 300 A.H.) who used, in the composition of this work, an anonymous historical account dealing with Central Asia and Eastern Euro…


(1,419 words)

Author(s): Kunitzsch, P.
, the Galaxy or Milky Way. This remarkable celestial phenomenon was well-known to the peoples of the Islamic world. Its popular assimilation to the traces of spilt milk seems to be of Greek origin (cf. τὸ ϒάλα. [Aristotle], ὁ τοῦ ϒάλακτος κύκλος [Euclid, Geminus], ὁ ϒαλακτίας [κύκλος] [Ptolemy], ὁϒαλαξίας [κύκλος] [other authors]; see Liddell and Scott, s.vv.), whereas in the Near East the image of traces of lost straw, or chaff, prevails (cf. Pers. rāh-i kāhkas̲h̲ān , Turk, samanyolu , etc., and already Syriac s̲h̲bhīlā d-t̲h̲ebhnā (A.D. 660), also colloquial Arabic darb al-tabbāna


(2,566 words)

Author(s): Reinert, B. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Stewart Robinson, J.
(A.), a term in rhetoric, means "trope" and, more generally, the use of a word ¶ deviating from its original meaning and use, its opposite being ḥaḳīḳa ("veritative expression"). In Arabic literature. The different modes of expression labelled as mad̲j̲āz by the Arabic theorists were divided into twelve categories by Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210) without, however, following a consistent system of criteria (cf. al-Suyūṭī, Muzhir , ed. Cairo 1282, i, 171). A more refined and detailed version of this classifying system was put forward by al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505) ( Itḳān


(9 words)

al-Dīn [see hibat allāh b. muḥammad ].

Mad̲j̲d al-Dawla

(726 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Ṭālib Rustam b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla ʿAlī , Kahf al-Umma , ruler of the northern Būyid amīrate of Ray and Ḏj̲ibāl (387-420/997-1029). When Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla [ q.v.] died in S̲h̲aʿbān 387/August-September 997, his young son Rustam succeeded him at the age of eight (thus according to the anonymous Mud̲j̲mal al-tawārīk̲h̲ wa ’l-ḳiṣaṣ , ed. Bahār, Tehran 1318/1939, 396, giving Rustam’s birth-date as Rabīʿ II 379/July-August 989, and Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ed. Beirut, ix, 69, but according to al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī, in Eclipse of the ʿAbbasid caliphate, iii, 297, and Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, ix, 132, at…


(449 words)

Author(s): Gramlich, R.
("the attracted one"), in Ṣufī literature the name for the representative of a type of piety which is chiefly of a passive nature ( munfaʿil : al-Rundī), in contradistinction to the more active ( fāʿil ) "striding one" ( sālik ), a characteristic which is expressed in numerous other pairs of opposition, like: mud̲j̲āhada-mus̲h̲āhada , makāsibmawāhib , maḳām-ḥāl , murīd-murād , muḥibb-maḥbūb , muk̲h̲liṣ-muk̲h̲laṣ . While the mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb , on the way to God, may abandon himself to be drawn by divine attraction ( d̲j̲ad̲h̲ba , d̲j̲ad̲h̲b , Persian kas̲h̲is̲h̲ ), the sālik depends on his …


(279 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, surname of the Moroccan holy man whose complete name is Abū Zayd ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAyyād al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī al-Farad̲j̲ī al-Dukkālī. He came originally from Tīṭ, in the district of Azemmūr, but lived in Fās, where one of his disciples was in particular Abū ’l-Maḥāsin Yūsuf al-Fāsī, whose great-grandson, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir [see al-Fāsī, in Suppl.] left behind a work called Ibtihād̲j̲ al-ḳulūb bi-k̲h̲abar al-s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abi ’l-Maḥāsin wa-s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ihi al-Mad̲j̲d̲h̲ūb (extracts ¶ in ms. Rabat 522/6; see Lévi-Provençal, Catalogue , 252). ʿAbd al…


(805 words)

Author(s): Bencheneb, R.
, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAbd Allah b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm , Algerian teacher and scholar, born in 1266/1848 in Tlemcen and died in 1331/1913 in Algiers. Following the example of his father who had lived for a long time in Morocco where he had studied and taught, especially at al-Ḳarawiyyīn [ q.v.], before returning to his native city to practise there the duties of ḳāḍī , al-Mad̲j̲d̲j̲āwī travelled to this country at a very early age. At Tangier and later at Tetouan he undertook classical studies which he completed at Fās as a pupil of distinguished ʿulamāʾ , including…

Mad̲j̲d al-Mulk, Abu ’l-Faḍl Asʿad b. Muḥammad al-Ḳummī al-Balāsānī

(113 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, mustawfī or director of finances under the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Berk-yaruḳ [see barkyārūḳ ] in the early years of his reign and then vizier (490-2/1097-9), but whose death was brought about by the great military commanders in S̲h̲awwāl 492/September 1099 on an accusation of S̲h̲īʿi sympathies, and even of Ismāʿīlī ones, which he was said to have displayed during the struggle against the rival sultan Muḥammad b. Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. ¶ (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cambr. hist. of Iran, index C. L. Klausner, The Seljuk vezirate, a study of civil administration 1055-1194, Cambridge, Mass. 197…

Mād̲j̲id b. Saʿīd

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
, Sultan of Zanzibar, 1856-70, was born ca. 1835, the sixth of his father’s twenty-seven known sons, and of an Ethiopian mother. He married a kinswoman, As̲h̲a, and had one child only, Ḵh̲amfura. When his father, Sayyid Saʿīd, left Zanzibar for Masqat for the last time on 16 April 1854, he had appointed his second son, Ḵh̲ālid, as governor and successor in the event of his death. Ḵh̲ālid died in ¶ November 1854, and shortly afterwards orders came from Masḳaṭ appointing Mād̲j̲id in his stead, thereby passing over three older brothers, T̲h̲uwaynī (later Sulṭān of ʿU…


(5 words)

[see baṭlamiyūs ].


(51,612 words)

Author(s): Ed. | W. Madelung | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J. M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb d̲j̲alasa “to sit down” and, by extension, “to sit”, ¶ “to hold a session”; starting from the original meaning of “a place where one sits down, where one stays”, thence “a seat” (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval , Leiden 1976, index), the semantic field of mad̲j̲lis is of very wide extent (see the dictionaries of Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Among the principal derivative meanings are “a meeting place”, “meeting, assembly” (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), “a reception hall (of a ca…


(2,174 words)

Author(s): Hairi, Abdul-Hadi
, Mullā Muḥammad Bāḳir , known also as ʿAllāma Mad̲j̲lisī and Mad̲j̲lisī-yi T̲h̲ānī (1037-1110/1627-98), an authoritative jurist, a most prolific hadīt̲h̲ collector, an unprecedentedly influential author in the world of the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa. He was also a distinguished expert in bibliography, ¶ a well-read man in Islamic philosophy and mysticism, and an active authority in politics, social and judicial matters during the late Ṣafawīd period. He belonged to a distinguished clerical family; his father, Muḥammad Taḳī, mostly referred to as Mad̲j̲lisī-yi Awwal [ q.v.], his ancestor…

Mad̲j̲lisī-Yi Awwal

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Hairi, Abdul-Hadi
, Muḥammad taḳī (1003-70/1594-1659), a prominent S̲h̲īʿī religious leader and author of the Ṣafawīd period. Originally, he was on his mother’s side from ¶ D̲j̲abal ʿĀmil (southern Lebanon) because, according to his son Muḥammad Bāḳir Mad̲j̲lisī [ q.v.], Darwīs̲h̲ Muḥammad b. Ḥasan al-ʿĀmilī, a great mud̲j̲tahid of D̲j̲abal ʿĀmil, was his maternal grandfather (Muḥammad b. ʿAlī Ardabili, D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ruwāt , ii, Tehran n.d., 551); the latter was also called Naṭanzī from his stay in Naṭanz, north of Iṣfahān, for a certain period of time (Muḥsin al-Amīn al-Ḥusaynī al-ʿĀmilī, Aʿyān al-S̲…

Mad̲j̲lis al-S̲h̲ūrā

(4,683 words)

Author(s): Findley, C.V.
, the name given to extraordinary, ad hoc consultative assemblies in the last century-and-a-half or so of the Ottoman empire. While it had long been customary in the Ottoman Empire, and in earlier Islamic states, to hold special consultations about urgent matters [see mas̲h̲wara ], such meetings appear to have become especially frequent among the Ottomans between the Russo-Ottoman War of 1182-88/1768-74 and, roughly, the abolition of the Janissaries in 1241/1826. Referred to by a variety of synonymous terms, such as med̲j̲lis-i s̲h̲ūrā , dār al-s̲h̲ūrā , med̲j̲lis-i mes̲h̲weret (or m…

Mad̲j̲maʿ ʿIlmī

(12,288 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J. | Jazayery, M.A. | J. M. Landau | Ed.
(i) Arab countries. Mad̲j̲maʿ , pl. mad̲j̲āmiʿ , lit. “a place of collecting, a place in which people collect, assemble, congregate” (Lane i/2, 459), became in the second half of the 19th century, as mad̲j̲maʿ ʿilmī , a technical term for Academy of Science, mad̲j̲maʿ al-lug̲h̲a being an Academy of [Arabic] language. There is thus a close relationship between both kinds of mad̲j̲maʿ , since the striving for science takes place in an Arabic language made capable of it. Whereas mad̲j̲lis [ q.v.] had been the current term in earlier Arab civilisation for [the place of] an inform…


(1,696 words)

Author(s): Welch, A.T.
(a.), pl. mad̲j̲ānīn , possessed, mad, madman; the passive participle of d̲j̲anna , “to cover, conceal”, passive, d̲j̲unna , “to be possessed, mad, insane”. Its meaning and usage have been closely related to belief in the Ḏj̲inn [ q.v.]. In pre-Islamic Arabia, soothsayers were believed to have received messages from the d̲j̲inn during ecstatic experiences, after which they delivered oracles in short, enigmatic verses of rhymed prose called sad̲j̲ʿ [see kāhin ], and poets were believed to have been inspired by their individual d̲j̲inn, similar to the Greek idea of Muses [see s̲h̲āʿir ]. …

Mad̲j̲nūn Laylā

(5,623 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A.
, “the Madman of Laylā”, or Mad̲j̲nūn Banī ʿĀmir, the name given to the hero of a romantic love story, the original form of which could date back as far as the second half of the 1st/7th Century. 1. In Arabic literature This imaginary character (acknowledged as such even by some Arab critics; see Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, ii, 6, 11) has been furnished by the ruwāt with an ism and with a complete genealogy; Ḳays b. al-Mulawwaḥ b. Muzāḥim b. Ḳays b. ʿUdas b. Rabīʿa b. D̲j̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rābīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, but according to the evidence, …


(2,261 words)

Author(s): Rubiera de Epalza, M.J.
, mediaeval Arabic name of the city of Madrid (Spain). The Arabic sources seldom ¶ mention this place in the Muslim period. According to al-Ḥimyarī, the ḥiṣn of Mad̲j̲rīṭ was built by the Umayyad amīr of Cordova, Muḥammad I (238-76/852-86). M. A. Makkī believes that its foundation may be dated between 252/866 and 257/871 in the reign of this amīr; the year 252/866 marks the beginning of the reign of Alfonso III of the Asturias, whose military activities had the effect of destabilising the region between Médinacéli and Toledo ( al-t̲h̲ag̲h̲r al-adnā ), which would …


(755 words)

Author(s): Vernet, J.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim maslama b. Aḥmad al-Faraḍī , mathematician and astronomer, born in Madrid in the mid-4th/10th century, died in Cordova in about 398/1007. The facts which are known do not enable us to trace his biography in detail. He was clearly an important person since Ibn Ḥazm mentions him in his Ṭawḳ al-ḥamāma (ch. xiv). He clearly established himself at a very early age in Cordova, and was a pupil of the geometrician ʿAbd al-G̲h̲āfir b. Muḥammad. It must be supposed that he maintained contact with the circle of Hellenists…


(5 words)

[See yād̲j̲ūd̲j̲ wa-mād̲j̲ūd̲j̲.]


(4,201 words)

Author(s): Melvinger, A.
, the term used by Arabic historians and geographers writing about the Mag̲h̲rib and Muslim Spain with the sense of Northmen, Vikings, denoting the participants in the great Viking raids on Spain. These raids were manned from Scandinavia, sc. from Norway, Denmark and to a certain extent ¶ also from Sweden, the raiders leaving Denmark, Norway and Ireland, where Norwegian Vikings from the end of the 830s had gained a firm footing and had founded some minor tributary states towards the beginning of the second millennium A.D. In western Latin and Spanish sources they are called, inter alia, Norm…


(9,541 words)

Author(s): Morony, M.
(coll., sing. Mad̲j̲ūsī ), originally an ancient Iranian priestly caste (OP magus̲h̲ , Akk. magus̲h̲u , Syriac mgōs̲h̲ā , Greek μάϒος) but used in Arabic primarily for Zoroastrians. This caste was closely identified with the ruling élite in Sāsānid Iran, where their faith was the official religion of the state and where they were organised in a social and religious hierarchy. The priests, called mōbad , hirbad , dastūr , or rat depending on context and function, had ritual, judicial and educational responsibilities. The priestly hierarchy with the mōbadān mōbad


(7 words)

[See ʿalī b. al-ʿabbās al-mad̲j̲ūsī.]


(301 words)

Author(s): Spies, O.
(a.), passive participle of ḍamina “to be liable”), a legal term meaning the thing for which one is liable or responsible. It occurs in the following connections: maḍmūn bihi “thing pawned”; maḍmūn ʿanhu “debtor”; maḍmūn lahu or ʿalayhi “creditor”. Liability ( ḍamān [ q.v.]) plays an important role in the law of obligations; the rules which ¶ are applied to the parties involved and to the legal institutions are enumerated in the chapters on contracts. Liability and obligation to restore may arise from the non-performance of a contract, if the object has perished, or from taʿaddī


(965 words)

Author(s): Forbes, A.D.W.
, a major port and city on the Coromandel coast of southeastern peninsular India, in lat. 13°4′ N. and 80°15′ E., formerly a governorship of the presidency of the same name (the latter comprising the eastern coast of India from Cape Comorin to Lake Chilka in present-day Orissa, as well as a large part of the interior of the Deccan, and the northern Malabar coast); since independence the capital of the Indian Union State of Tamil Nadu. 1. Nomenclature. The origin of the name “Madras” has been much debated. Perhaps the two most plausible explanations are offered by Hobson Jobson


(36,781 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J. | Makdisi, G. | Rahman, Munibur | Hillenbrand, R.
, in modern usage, the name of an institution of learning where the Islamic sciences are taught, i.e. a college for higher studies, as opposed to an elementary school of traditional type ( kuttāb ); in mediaeval usage, essentially a college of law in which the other Islamic sciences, including literary and philosophical ones, were ancillary subjects only. I. The institution in the Arabic, Persian and Turkish lands 1. Children’s schools. The subject of Islamic education in general is treated under tarbiya. Here it should merely be noted that the earliest, informal institution…


(5 words)

[See mad̲j̲rīṭ ].


(1,225 words)

Author(s): Rassers, W.H. | Schumann, O.
, an island north of East Java, separated from Java by a narrow strait in the north of Surabaya; it is 2,113 sq. miles in area, and has 2,385,300 inhabitants, among them 2,378,047 Muslims (1971). It is divided into four kabupatens (regencies): Pamekasan, Sampang, Sumenep (Sungenep) and Bangkalan, all of them being districts in the Indonesian province of East Java. In the course of history, many of the Madurese settled in adjacent areas of East Java, or participated in the government-sponsored transmigration programme to other islands. The Madurese langua…

Madura, Madurāʾī

(299 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in mediaeval Islamic times a town, now the city of Madurai, in South India. It lies on the Vaidai river in lat. 9° 55’ N., long. 78° 07’ E. in the region known to the mediaeval Muslims as Maʿbar and to later European traders as Coromandel. For the historical geography and Islamic history of this coastal province, roughly extending from Cape Comorin northwards to Madras, see maʿbar . In 734/1334 S̲h̲arīf Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Aḥsan [ q.v.], governor for the Dihlī Sultan Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.], renounced his allegiance, and he and some seven of his successors ruled over a short-l…

Madyan S̲h̲uʿayb

(1,129 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northwestern Arabia, lying inland from the eastern shore of the Gulf of ʿAḳaba; it is mentioned in the mediaeval Islamic geographers as lying on the pilgrimage route between the Ḥid̲j̲āz and Syria, which there went inland to avoid the mountainous coast of the Gulf. The name is connected with that of the tribe of Midianites known from the Old Testament (LXX Μαδιαμ, Μαδιαν; in Josephus Μαδιηνἵται, ἡ Μαδιηνὴ χῶρα) but it can hardly be used without further consideration to identify the original home of this tribe, as the town might be…


(363 words)

Author(s): Bulliet, R.
, mufaḍḍal b. saʿd , author of the local history of Iṣfahān in Arabic entitled Risālat Maḥāsin Iṣfahān . The work appears to have been written during the reign of Malik S̲h̲āh (465-85/1072-92). Nothing is known about al-Māfarrūk̲h̲ī’s life, but it is apparent from the wealth of poetry contained in the work and from the frequent use of rhymed prose that he was an adīb . He cites his father, Abu ’l-Faḍl Saʿd, as his s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ and quotes several of his poems. He claims descent (92) from one Māfarrūk̲h̲ b. Bak̲h̲tiyār who in turn was descended from Ad̲h̲urs̲h̲āburān b. Ād̲h̲urmā…


(864 words)

Author(s): Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P.
, the name of a group of islands off the Tanzanian coast in approximately 8° S and 40° E. They consist of a main island commonly known as Mafia Island, but by its inhabitants as Chole Shamba (Swa. “Plantation Chole”); a very small island known as Chole or Chole Mjini (Swa. “Town Chole”); Juani; Bwejuu; and Jibondo. The only references in Arabic literature are in Aḥmad b. Mad̲j̲īd al-Nad̲j̲dī’s log books, where it is called Manafiyya, and in the anonymous History of Kilwa , where it occurs once as Manfasiya, four times as Manfiyya, and three times as Manfa…


(411 words)

Author(s): Bakhit, M.A.
, lit. “place of separation, junction”, a settlement, now a town, in the northeastern part of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan [see urdunn ]. It lies in lat. 32° 20′ N., long. 36° 12′ E. at an elevation of 600 m/1,960 feet in an arid area whose average rainfall is 150 mm per annum. The region lacks running water, hence local people have always depended on pools and reservoirs for water, and the settlement grew up near the “white pool” ( al-g̲h̲adīr al-abyaḍ ). Archaeological investigations nevertheless show that the area was once well populated, and a large number of what were G…


(1,000 words)

Author(s): Sadan, J.
(a.), that which is spread out (on the ground or on a bed), bedding. In mediaeval times, there was no adequate, single term for designating furniture and furnishings; this idea was expressed rather by the term fars̲h̲ (meaning not only “that which is spread out” but also, by extension, the more solid domestic objects which filled the role of “furniture” according to western concepts—whence the adjective mafrūs̲h̲ “furnished, provided with furnishings” [see at̲h̲āt̲h̲ in Suppl.]) or else by collocations of words such as fars̲h̲ and āla (lit. carpets, mattresses and utensils), fars̲h̲ a…


(57 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), a term used to denote certain juridical categories of landed estates in Syria in the time of the Mamlūks. The word has no connection with the Arabic root f.-ṣ.-l ., but is derived, according to al-Nuwayrī, Nihāya , viii, 256, “from the Frankish” vassal . (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cl. Cahen, in JESHO, xviii (1975), 238.


(2,529 words)

Author(s): Talbi, M.
(a., pl. noun), denotes the Arabic-speakers of the Muslim West (Mag̲h̲rib, pl. Mag̲h̲ārib), as opposed to those of the East (Mas̲h̲riḳ, pl. Mas̲h̲āriḳ), known as Mas̲h̲āriḳa , This division of Arabic-speakers into Mas̲h̲āriḳa and Mag̲h̲āriba —which is a continuing process, discernible in the contemporary dialects, variously categorised as Oriental and Mag̲h̲ribī—may be traced from its origins. The frontier between the two major groupings—Muslim Spain included, in spite of its special circumstances and its se…


(3,287 words)

Author(s): Hinds, M.
(also mag̲h̲āzī ’l-nabī , mag̲h̲āzī rasūl allāh ), a term which, from the time of the work on the subject ascribed to al-Wāḳidī (d. 207/823), if not earlier, has signified in particular the expeditions and raids organised by the Prophet Muḥammad in the Medinan period. The first such sortie is reported by al-Waḳidī to have involved a party of thirty men led by Ḥamza b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, which in 1/623 briefly intercepted a Ḳurashī caravan heading for Mecca from Syria on the coastal route (other accounts differ). The last was an expedition i…


(1,236 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, a Berber tribe belonging to the great branch of the Butr and related, if one is to believe the ancient Berber traditions cited by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn. to the tribes of Ḍarīsa, Saṭfūra, Lamāya, Maṭmāṭa, Ṣadīna, Malzūza and Madyūna who lived, in the early Middle Ages, in eastern Barbary. It is also apparently in the same region that the ancient habitat of Mag̲h̲īla is to be sought in the period in question. According to the Berber traditions cited by various early Arab historians, the Mag̲h̲īla, after coming from Palestine into North Africa, reached…


(1,427 words)

Author(s): Hunwick, J.O.
, Maḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm , reformist faḳīh of Tlemcen, chiefly famed for his persecution of the Jewish community of Tuwāt (Touat) in the Algerian Sahara and for the advice he gave to Sudanic rulers. The general outline of his career is fairly well established, but many details remain obscure. He was born in Tlemcen. ca. 1440 of Berber stock and studied under ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-T̲h̲aʿālibī (d. 875/1470) and Yaḥyā b. Yadīr al-Tadallisī (d. 877/1472). At an uncertain date he took up residence in Tamanṭīṭ, then the principal fortified town ( ḳaṣr ) of the Tuwāt oasi…


(3,721 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, A. | Wiedemann, E.
, Mag̲h̲natīs, Mag̲h̲nīṭīs, Arabic rendering of ἡ μαγνῆτις (λίθος), indicating 1. the magnetite and 2. the compass. 1. The Magnetite and Magnetism The magnetite (lodestone, magnetic iron ore, Fe3O4) is a very widely-spread mineral, well-known since antiquity, and found in huge quantities in individual deposits as well as a finely-allotted constituent of almost all kinds of volcanic rock. The Islamic natural scientists, geographers, cosmographers and encyclopaedists transmit much information about its properties. The magnet…


(1,477 words)

Author(s): Minorsky, V. | Faroqhi, Suraiya
, modern Turkish form Manisa, classical Magnesia, a town of western Anatolia, in the ancient province of Lydia, lying to the south of the Gediz river on the northeastern slopes of the Manisa Daği, which separates it from Izmir or Smyrna (lat. 38° 36′ N., long 27° 27′ E.). In Greek and then Roman times, Magnesia ad Sipylum was a flourishing town, noted amongst other things for the victory won in its vicinity by the two Scipios over Antiochus the Great of Syria in 190 B.C., and continued to flourish under the Byzantines (see Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie , xxvii, 472-…


(3,006 words)

Author(s): Jennings, R.C.
, the town of Famagusta in Cyprus [see ḳubrus ]. The Mycenaen town of Alasya was located on or near the delta of the Pediyas, at Enkomi village. Its successor, the port of Salamis, only 1½ miles to the east, became a great metropolis during the Roman empire. Restored by Constantius II on a much smaller scale after the severe earthquakes of 332 and 342, with the new name Constantia, it survived until Arab Muslim raids of the 7th century led to its transferral to Ammochostos (Mag̲h̲ōs̲h̲a) 6 miles to the south (for Alasya, see Hill, i, 36, 42-9, and P. Dikaios, Enkomi: excavations 1948-1958, Mainz 1…


(11,854 words)

Author(s): Lewicki, T.
, a major confederation of Berber tribes belonging to the Butr group and forming the most powerful branch of the family of the Zanāta. The ascendancy, real or imaginary, of this confederation is traced back to Mag̲h̲rāw, who is said to have been, according to the mediaeval Berber genealogists, the ancestor of the Mag̲h̲rāwa as such. Following the Arab and Berber sources utilised in the 8th/14th century by Ibn K̲h̲aldūn in his History of the Berbers , the “cradle” of the Mag̲h̲rāwa and “the ancient seat of their power” was the territory located on t…


(798 words)

Author(s): Yver, G.
, the name given by Arab writers to that part of Africa which Europeans have called Barbary or Africa Minor and then North Africa, and which includes Tripolitania, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The word mag̲h̲rib means the west, the setting sun, in opposition to mas̲h̲riḳ , the east, the rising sun (Levant), but as Ibn K̲h̲aldūn remarks, the general denomination was applied to a particular region. The extent of this area, moreover, varies according to different authors. Some oriental writers (e.g. al-Muḳaddasī) includ…


(29,328 words)

Author(s): Yver, G. | Lévi-Provençal, E. | Colin, G.S.
, al-Mamlaka al-Mag̲h̲ribiyya . a kingdom of North Africa whose name in European languages (Fr. Maroc; Eng. Morocco; Span. Marruecos) is a deformation of the name of the southern metropolis of the kingdom, Marrākus̲h̲ [ q.v.]. 1. Geography . Morocco occupies the western part of Barbary; it corresponds to the Mag̲h̲rib al-Aḳṣā of the Arab geographers [see al-mag̲h̲rib ]. Lying between 5° and 15° W. longitude (Greenwich) on the one hand and between 36° and 28° N. latitude on the other, it covers approximately an area of between 500,000 and 550,000 km2. On the north it is bounded by the …


(304 words)

Author(s): Lawrence, B.
, Aḥmad K̲h̲attū , famous mediaeval Gud̲j̲arātī saint. Born ca. 737/1336 in Dihlī ¶ and educated there, he migrated to Khattū, near Nāgawr, in Rād̲j̲ast̲h̲ān at the instance of his spiritual director, the Mag̲h̲ribī master, Bābā Isḥāḳ. In 776/1375, Bābā Isḥāḳ died, and Aḥmad set out on an extended pilgrimage, visiting Arabia, Iran and ʿIrāḳ before returning to Dihlī, where he survived the wrath of Tīmūr in 800/1398 (ʿAbd al-Ḳādir Badāʾūnī, Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ , Calcutta 1864-9, i, 270-1; Eng. tr. G. Ranking, i, 357-8). He subsequently proc…


(3,033 words)

Author(s): Smoor, P.
banū , a family of Persian origin who performed in the course of two succeeding centuries (the 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries) the influential functions of wazīr , kātib or intendant ( mudabbir ) at several princely courts throughout the Middle East, in Bag̲h̲dād, Aleppo, Cairo, Mawṣil, and Mayyāfāriḳīn. In the collections of ak̲h̲bār concerning the vicissitudes of this family, the respective representatives of four succeeding generations are mentioned in particular. The first three of these are described in the ak̲h̲bār concerning the family and also in this article, as …


(5 words)

[See siḥr ].


(5 words)

[See mag̲h̲nisa ].


(1,130 words)

Author(s): Eagleton, W. | Neumann, R.
, a town and district ( s̲h̲ahrastān ) in the modern Iranian province ( ustān ) of West Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, situated in lat. 36° 45′ N. and long. 45° 43′ E. and lying to the south of Lake Urmia or Riḍāʾiyya. The town comes within the Mukrī region of Iranian Kurdistān, and acquired its present name in the time of Riḍā S̲h̲āh Pahlavī (1925-41). Previously, it was known as Sāwad̲j̲ or Sāwd̲j̲-Bulāḳ; accordingly, for the earlier history of the town, see sāwd̲j̲-bulāḳ . The present article deals with the post-1945 history of the town. With a population of 16,000 in 1945, 20,332 in 1956 and 44,…

Mahābat K̲h̲ān

(534 words)

Author(s): Athar Ali, M.
, military leader in Mug̲h̲al India. Zamāna Beg (later known as Mahābat K̲h̲ān) was the son of G̲h̲ayyūr Beg Kābulī, a Riḍawī Sayyid, who migrated from S̲h̲īrāz to Kābul during the reign of Akbar and settled there. Zamāna Beg entered the service of Akbar’s son Salīm as an aḥadī (cavalry trooper) and rose to the rank of 500. After D̲j̲ahāngīr’s accession (October 1605) he was promoted to the rank of 2,000 and given the title of Mahābat K̲h̲ān, becoming a trusted noble of that Emperor. He led a rather unsuccessful campaign…


(7,174 words)

Author(s): Andrews, P.A.
(a., lit. “place of alighting, settling, abode”), in the context of Islamic India, widely used in the sense of “palace pavilion” or “hall”, and more particularly of private apartments in the palace, the maḥall-sarā —hence also a queen or consort. It seems not to have achieved the same currency in Iran. Here it appears as equivalent to Hindī mandir , mandar or mandal , sometimes replacing these in areas under strong Muslim influence such as Rād̲j̲ast̲h̲ān. Much palace terminology is Persian, though specialised Hindī terms like tibāra for a hall with three adjacent bays or doors, and bāradarī…


(860 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb ḥalla , which means notably “to untie (a knot, luggage, etc.)”, and by extension, “to make a halt”, whence the meaning of “a place where one makes a halt, where one settles (for a longer or shorter time)”. This term constitutes the first element of names of towns or villages in Egypt, where a hundred places were designated by an expression formed from Mahalla followed by an adjective or a proper noun; ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Mubārak cites more than thirty of them in al-K̲h̲iṭaṭ al-d̲j̲adīda (xv, 21 ff.), apart from the city of al-Maḥalla al-Kubrā [ q.v.]. Maḥalla
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