Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

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(5 words)

[see ḳabra ]


(809 words)

Author(s): Friedmann, Y.
, a Persian history of the Arab incursions into Sind in the 1st/7th and 8th centuries, with an introductory chapter concerning the history ¶ of the province on the eve of the Arab conquest (ed. Dāʾūdpota, New Delhi 1939, 14-72) and an epilogue describing the tragic end of the Arab commander ¶ Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim and of the two daughters of Dāhir, the defeated king of Sind ( ibid., 243-7). According to the author, ʿAlī b. Ḥāmid b. Abī Bakr Kūfī (about whom see Storey, i, 650), the Čač-Nāma is a translation of an Arabic book which Kūfī found some time after 613/1216-17 in the possession of the ḳāḍī


(3,895 words)

Author(s): Levtzion, N.
, Chad , a region of Inner Africa. The Republic of Chad (area: 1, 284,000 km2; population: about 4,000,000 in 1975) is one of the four states which emerged from the former French Equatorial Africa. The country stretches over 1,600 km. from south of latitude 8° N. to the north of latitude 23° N. Consequently, climate and vegetation vary from savannah woodland with an annual rainfall of more than 1,000 mm. in the south to the arid desert of the Sahara in the north. Chad is torn between two conflicting orientations, between North and Equatorial Africa. Islam has created a measure of cultural …


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[see ḳādis ]


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[see ḳaysariyya , kayseri , s̲h̲ars̲h̲al ]


(1,044 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arabic rendering: Ṣag̲h̲āniyān). In the early Middle Ages this was the name given to the district of the Čag̲h̲ān-Rūd [ q.v.] valley. This river is the northernmost tributary of the river Āmū-Daryā [ q.v.]. The district lies to the north of the town of Tirmid̲h̲ [ q.v.], the area of which, however, (including Čamangān) did not form part of Čag̲h̲āniyān either politically or administratively (Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih, 39). Wē/ais̲h̲agirt (= Fayḍābād) was regarded as the boundary with the district of Ḵh̲uttalān ([ q.v.]; between the rivers Pand̲j̲ and Wak̲h̲s̲h̲). Incidentally, t…


(211 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( Čag̲h̲ān-Rōd̲h̲ ), the seventh and last tributary on the right of the river Āmū-Daryā [ q.v.]. It comes from the Buttam mountains, to the north of Čag̲h̲āniyān [ q.v.], flows past that town and several smaller places, and finally into the Āmū-Daryā above Tirmid̲h̲. The river is called by this name only in the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam , (71, no. 11, p. 363), and in S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī, Ẓ afar-nāma (ed. Iláhdád), 1885, i, 196 (= translation by F. Pétis de la Croix, i, 183). Muḳaddasī, 22, calls it "river of Čag̲h̲āniyān", and distinguishes it fr…

Čag̲h̲atay K̲h̲ān

(875 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
, founder of the Čag̲h̲atay Ḵh̲anate [ q.v.], the second son of Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān and his chief wife Börte Fud̲j̲in. Already in his father’s lifetime he was regarded as the greatest authority on the Yasa (the tribal laws of the Mongols as codified by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān). Like his brothers he took part in his father’s campaigns against China (1211-1216) and against the kingdom of the Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh (1219-1224). Urgānd̲j̲, the latter’s capital, was besieged by the three princes Ḏj̲oči, Čag̲h̲atay and Ögedey and taken in Ṣafar 618/27th March-24th April 1221. In the sam…

Čag̲h̲atay K̲h̲ānate

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Boyle, J.A.
The Central Asian Ḵh̲ānate to which Čag̲h̲atay gave his name was really not founded till some decades after the Mongol prince’s death. Čag̲h̲atay was succeeded by his grandson Ḳara-Hülegü, the son of Mö’etüken who fell at Bāmiyān. Ḳara-Hülegü had been designated as Čag̲h̲atay’s heir both by Čingiz-Ḵh̲ān himself and by Ögedey; he was however deposed by the Great Ḵh̲ān Güyük (1241-1248) in favour of Yesü-Möngke, the fifth son of Čag̲h̲atay, with whom Güyük was on terms of personal friendship. In 1…


(1,519 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Dāwūd b. Mīk̲h̲āʾīl b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ was the brother of Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l-Beg [ q.v.], and the co-founder with him of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid dynasty. The careers of both brothers were, for the most part, inextricably bound together. It is difficult to ascertain which was the elder brother. They seem to have been born about 380-385/990-995, and there is no evidence whether their family was already, or only later became, Muslim. Little is known about their life before the year 416/1025. They were orphaned at an early age, and…

Čahār Aymaḳ

(252 words)

Author(s): Frye, R.N.
, four semi-nomadic tribes in western Afg̲h̲ānistān [see aymaḳ ]. There is little information and much confusion about these tribes, consequently various sources have different names, locations and even languages ascribed to them. At the present they speak Persian and are Sunnīs, unlike the S̲h̲īʿī Hazāras with whom the Čahār Aymaḳ are closely linked. Some sources erroneously identify the two. The origin of the name Čahār Aymaḳ is unknown but is at least as early as the 18th century…

Čahār Maḳāla

(8 words)

[see niẓāmī ʿarūḍī samarḳandī ]


(7 words)

[see ḥābīl wa ḳābīl ] ¶


(5 words)

[see al-ḳāhira ].


(142 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, chief falconer, a high official of the Ottoman court. In the Ḳānūnnāme of Meḥemmed II ( TOEM Supp. 1330 A.H., 12) he is mentioned among the ag̲h̲a s of the stirrup, immediately before the čas̲h̲nagīr-bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.]. During the 16th century the numbers and sub-divisions of the ag̲h̲as of the hunt ( s̲h̲ikār ag̲h̲alari̊ ) increased greatly, and the Čaki̊rd̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ is joined by separate officers in charge of the peregrines, lanners, and sparrow-hawks ( S̲h̲ahind̲j̲i-bas̲h̲i̊ , Dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ , and Atmad̲j̲ad̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ ). Until the ti…


(401 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mustafa Fevzi , also called Kavak̲lı, marshal in the Turkish army. Born in Istanbul in 1876, he was the son of an artillery colonel. He entered the war academy (Harbiye, [ q.v.]) where he became a lieutenant in 1895, joined the staff course, and was gazetted as a staff captain in 1898. After spending some time on the general staff, he was posted to Rumelia where he became successively a Colonel, divisional commander, and Army Corps Chief of Staff. He served on the staff of the army of the Vardar during the Balkan War, and du…


(585 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M.
, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Sayf al-Din , Sultan of Egypt, was in his youth enrolled among the Mamlūks of Sulṭān Barḳūḳ. He gradually rose, till under Sulṭān Barsbāy he became Chief ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.]. Chief Master of the Horse, and finally Atābeg (Commander-in-Chief). On his deathbed in 842/1438, Barsbāy appointed him regent to his infant son al-Malik al-ʿAzīz Yūsuf. The various divisions of the Mamlūks, originating in the bodyguards of the Sulṭāns Barḳūḳ, Nāṣir Farad̲j̲, Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ and Barsbāy, were at enmity with one another…


(762 words)

Author(s): Hasan, Mohibbul
, a tribal group which emigrated to Kas̲h̲mīr from Dardistān under their leader Lankar Čak during the reign of Rād̲j̲ā Sūhadeva (1301-20). S̲h̲ams al-Dīn (739-42/1339-42), the founder of the Sultanate in Kas̲h̲mīr, made Lankar Čak his commander-in-chief, patronising the Čaks in order to counteract the power of the feudal chiefs. During the early part of Sulṭān Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn’s reign, Pāndū, the leader of the Čaks, organised a strike as a protest against corvée labour, and set fire to the Sulṭān’s palace and some government buildings. As a puni…
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