Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second Edition) Online sets out the present state of our knowledge of the Islamic World. It is a unique and invaluable reference tool, an essential key to understanding the world of Islam, and the authoritative source not only for the religion, but also for the believers and the countries in which they live. 

Subscriptions: see Brill.com


(5 words)

[see hid̲j̲āʾ ].

(388 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(cf. bū ), genealogical term used in S. Arabia, especially among the sayyids and


(5 words)

[see mawāzīn ].

Bā ʿAbbād

(77 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, a family of Ḥaḍramī mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ and scholars, associated with the shrine of the prophet Hūd. Among its members were (1) ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bā ʿAbbād al-Ḥaḍramī (d. 687/1288) and (2) Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. 721/1321) both of them buried in S̲h̲ibām (al-S̲h̲ard̲j̲ī, Ṭabaḳāṭ 70, 139). For two manāḳib- works on this family, see Serjeant, The Saiyids of Ḥaḍramawt , 6, 11 f. (O. Löfgren)

Bā ʿAlawī

(1,498 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(more precisely: Āl Bā ʿAlawī, cf. art. BĀ; according to al-S̲h̲illī [ Mas̲h̲raʿ. i, 31] ʿalawī is “a well-known bird”; nisba: al-ʿAlawī [also al-Bāʿalawī], not to be confounded with the usual nisba belonging to ʿAlī), a large and influential clan of S. Arabian sayyids and Ṣūfīs, for the most part living in Ḥaḍramawt, in or near the town of Tarīm [


(5 words)

[see baʿlabakk ].


(3,186 words)

Author(s): Bausani, A.
, an appellation [see the preceding art.] made specially famous by Sayyid ʿAlī Muḥammad of S̲h̲īrāz, the founder of the new religion of the Bābīs [ q.v.] and, according to the Bahāʾīs [


(2,377 words)

Author(s): Creswell, K.A.C.
= Gate. This question is best treated under two headings, (i) in mosques, (ii) in fortifications. (i) in mosques, mausoleums, etc. Down to the end of the 3rd/9th century, no mosque had a monumental entrance. All mosques, large or small, were entered by simple rectangular doorways in the enclosure wall, e.g. the Mosque at Ḳaṣr al-Ḥayr al-S̲h̲arḳī, 110/729; the Great Mosque at Ḥarrān, entrance, c. A.D. 744-50; the Mosque of Cordova, 170/787; the Mosque of ʿAmr of 212/729; the two entrances which date from 221/836 in the Great Mosque of Ḳayrawān; the Mosque of Bū Fatātā at Sūsa, 223-6/838-41; The Great Mosque at Sūsa, 236/850-1; the Grea…


(439 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, a term applied in early S̲h̲īʿism to the senior authorised disciple of the Imām. The hagiographical Uterature of the Twelver S̲h̲īʿa usually names the


(412 words)

Author(s): Taeschner, F.
, (Turkish and also Persian) “father”; in East Turkish it also denotes “grandfather” (Vambéry, Čagat . Sprachstudien , 240; Süleymān Efendi, Lug̲h̲āt-i d̲j̲ag̲h̲atay , 66). Baba, put after the name, is used in various ways as an honorific for older men, and in Turkey it is used as a form of address even today. As part of a name, it is best known from the story of “Ali Baba and the 40 thieves” in The Thousand and One Nights . As a cognomen, it was used p…

Bābā Afḍal

(795 words)

Author(s): Rypka, J.
al-dīn muḥāmmad b. ḥusayn kās̲h̲ānī (or kās̲h̲ī ), generally called Bābā Afḍal, a Persian thinker and the author of poems in quatrains, born in Maraḳ near Kās̲h̲ān, where he is also buried. His dates are still rather uncertain. According to Saʿīd Nafīsī he was born around 582/ 1186-7, or 592/1195-6, and died after 654/1256 or 664/1265-6; the date given as the date of his death by Brockelmann, II, 280, viz . Rad̲j̲ab 666/March-April 1268, is near to this. According to M. Mīnovī, Bābā Afḍal died considerably earlier, at the beginning of the 7th/13th century; the date of death given by ¶ E. G. Br…

Bābā Beg

(76 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Spuler, B.
, an Özbek chief of the family of the Keneges, who was till 1870 prince of S̲h̲ahrisabz. This town having been conquered by the Russians, he fled with a small body of those faithful to him. Finally he was seized in Ferg̲h̲ānā and obliged to reside at Tas̲h̲kent. In 1875 he entered Russian military service and took part in the campaign against Ḵh̲oḳand. He died about 1898 at Tas̲h̲kent. (W. Barthold [B. Spuler])

Bāb al-Abwāb

(975 words)

Author(s): Dunlop, D.M.
, ‘Gate of the Gates’, in the older texts al-bāb wa’l-abwāb , ‘the Gate and the Gates’, and often simply al-bāb , the Arabic designation of a pass and fortress at the E. end of the Caucasus, in Persian Darband, later under Turkish influence ‘Iron Gate’, mod. Derbent. The ‘Gates’ are the mouths of the E. Caucasus valleys (Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih. 123-4; cf. Yāḳūt, i, 439), al-Bāb itself (‘the Gate’) in the main pass being the most important. It was originally fortified against invaders from the N. …


(771 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
a town in the Dobrud̲j̲a, now part of Rumania. Its Turkish name refers to the semi-legendary dervish (Baba) Sari̊ Salti̊ḳ, who is said to have led a number of Anatolian Turcomans to the Dobrud̲j̲a in the mid-thirteenth century, and to have settled with them in the neighbourhood of Babadag̲h̲i̊. (On this settlement see Paul Wittek, Yazijiog̲h̲lu ʿAlī on the Christian Turks of the Dobruja , in BSOAS, 1952 xvi, 639 ff.). There are several tombs of Sari̊ Salti̊ḳ in various towns; the most generally accepted is that of Babadag̲h̲i̊. What appears to be the first reference to it occurs in a passage in the travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, who mentions ‘Bābā Salṭūḳ’ as the furthermost outpost of the Turks, and briefly describes the saint that is buried there. Though Ibn Baṭṭūṭa’s ‘Bābā Salṭūḳ’ cannot be located with certainty, it seems likely that it is the place later known as Babadag̲h̲i̊. He passed that way in about 1332-3. Accordin…

Bābā Dāg̲h̲i̊

(6 words)

[see babadag̲h̲i̊ ].


(223 words)

Author(s): Kuran, E.
(Bābā-yi ʿatīḳ) or Babaeskisi, a small town in eastern Thrace, situated 50 km. S.E. of Edirne, on the railway Une which links Ki̊rklareli to the Edirne, Istanbul main line. At the time of the Byzantine empire it was called Bulgarophygon; its present name is derived from the Turkish dervishes ( baba ) who settled there, as at other places, during the Ottoman expansion in the Balkans. Babaeski was a ḳaḍaʾ of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Viza in the 17th century, and was later attached to the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ki̊rkkilise (Ki̊rklareli). Taday it is one of the ḳaḍās of the wilāyet of Ki̊rklareli; its population in 1945 was 5,936. The population of the whole region, numbering 37,607 (1945), is mainly occupied in agriculture. ¶ The town has two mosques, one dating from the time of Meḥemmed II, and the other built by the architect Sinān in the name …

Bābā Fig̲h̲ānī

(6 words)

[see fig̲h̲ānī ].


(714 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the name of a religio-social movement which disturbed the Turkomān centres of Asia Minor a few years before the Mongol invasion, and which seems to have been of great importance in the general history of the social and cultural development of the Turkish people. It can only be understood by reference to certain general features of the development of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid state of Rūm. By the 7th/13th century, the latter had become a state with a strong administrative and cultural framework, the prod…

Bābā Isḥāḳ

(6 words)

[see bābāʾī ].
▲   Back to top   ▲