Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

Subscriptions: see Brill.com

ṭāʾ

(36 words)

ṭāʾ (A) : the sixteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 9, representing a vo…

tāʾ

(29 words)

tāʾ (A) : the third letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 400, representing a voic…

ṭāʿa

(30 words)

ṭāʿa (A, pl. ṭāʿāt) : in theology, an act of obedience to God, contrasted with maʿṣiya, an act of disobedience to G…

taʿaddī

(42 words)

taʿaddī (A) : lit. transgression; in law, tort or negligence. Dāmād Ferīd Pas̲h̲a; Wadīʿa In grammar, transitivity…

taʿad̲j̲d̲j̲ub

(24 words)

taʿad̲j̲d̲j̲ub (A) : lit. amazement; in rhetoric, one of the basic effects or aims of the poetic pro…

taʿāḳul

(13 words)

taʿāḳul (A) : in law, joint liability by the ʿĀḳila. ʿĀḳila

taʿalluḳ

(105 words)

taʿalluḳ (A), or more often, taʿalluḳa : lit. dependence, being related to, dependent on; in late Mug̲h̲a…

ṭaʿām

(8 words)

ṭaʿām (A) : food, nourishment. Taʿad̲j̲d̲j̲ub

taʿammul

(9 words)

taʿammul (A) : in rhetoric, artificiality. Ṭarrār

taʿarrub

(34 words)

taʿarrub (A) : in earliest Islam, the return (syn. tabaddā) to the Arabian desert after emigration, hid̲j̲ra, to the…

taʿāruḍ

(10 words)

taʿāruḍ (A) : in law, conflicting possibilities. S̲h̲arīʿa

taʿaṣṣub

(16 words)

taʿaṣṣub (A), or tanaṭṭuʿ, tazammut, tas̲h̲addud : fanaticism, rigorism, synonyms of Taṭarruf. Tatar Pazarcik

taʿāwun

(47 words)

taʿāwun (A) : mutual aid; in the 20th century, ~ took on the meaning of co-operation in all modern s…

taʿawwud̲h̲

(72 words)

taʿawwud̲h̲ (A) : the use of the phrase aʿūd̲h̲u bi ’llāhi min . . . (‘I take refuge from God against . . . ’), syn. istiʿād̲h…

ṭābaʿ

(29 words)

ṭābaʿ (Mor) : the seal, either on a seal ring or mounted on a stem, until recent times serving for t…

ṭabāhid̲j̲a

(35 words)

ṭabāhid̲j̲a : a dish, one of whose stages of preparation calls for a combination of saffron with hon…

ṭabaḳa

(130 words)

ṭabaḳa (A, pl. ṭibāḳ) : in Mamlūk times, the barracks in the Cairo citadel where the Royal Mamlūks were…

tabakkala

(4 words)

tabakkala Taḥas̲h̲s̲h̲ada

ṭabaḳ al-manāṭiḳ

(38 words)

ṭabaḳ al-manāṭiḳ (A) : in astronomy, an equatorium designed to determine the position of the planets…

tabannin

(34 words)

tabannsup:in (A) : adoption, the giving of one’s name to another who does not belong within his ‘nat…

ṭabarī

(17 words)

ṭabarī (A) : a green silk brocade, known after their place of production, Ṭabaristān. Iran

tabarruʾ

(56 words)

tabarruʾ (A, P tabarrā) : in Islamic religious polemics, the doctrine of exemption or of disengagement,…

tabarruk

(47 words)

tabarruk (A) : in mysticism, a casual method of affiliation with an order, little exacting in terms …

ṭabās̲h̲īr

(32 words)

ṭabās̲h̲īr (A) : a medicament from the crystalline concretions in the internodes of the bamboo, know…

tabattul

(13 words)

tabattul (A) : in mysticism, ‘consecration to God’. Kas̲h̲f; celibacy. K̲h̲āṣī

ṭabbāk̲h̲

(22 words)

ṭabbāk̲h̲ (A) : professional cook, unlike ṭāhī or s̲h̲āwī ‘roaster’, who was probably a slave and not a prof…

ṭabbāl

(11 words)

ṭabbāl (A) : drummer; owner of a drum. Ṭabbāk̲h̲

tabbān

(9 words)

tabbān (A) : a straw seller. Sūḳ

tabīʿ

(14 words)

tabīʿ (A) : a cow or bull in its second year. Zakāt

tābiʿ

(122 words)

tābiʿ (A, pl. tābiʿūn) : follower; and Itbāʿ; Posta; Ṣāḥib tābiʿūn (A) : the Follow…

ṭabīʿa

(56 words)

ṭabīʿa (A) : lit. nature, a term of Islamic science, philosophy and theology, usually translated in …

taʿbīr

(62 words)

taʿbīr (A) : ‘the passage of one thing to another, one sense to another’, hence ‘explanation’, like tafsīr, lit. comm…

tabīra

(9 words)

tabīra : in music, a drum. Ṭabl-K̲h̲āna

ṭabk̲h̲

(25 words)

ṭabk̲h̲ (A) : the action of cooking either in a pot, by boiling or stewing, or by roasting, broiling…

tāb-k̲h̲āne

(20 words)

tāb-k̲h̲āne (T) : lodgings for dervishes added on both sides of the prayer hall of a mosque. Istanbul

ṭabl

(94 words)

ṭabl (A) : the generic name for any member of the drum family. Ṭabk̲h̲; or dawul, a rather large wooden double-head…

tablīg̲h̲

(9 words)

tablīg̲h̲ (A) : propagating the faith. Ṭabl-K̲h̲āna

tabriʾa

(49 words)

tabriʾa (A) : an Ibāḍī penal sanction ( tebriya), viz. ‘an indemnity paid by the parents of the murderer to …

tabs̲h̲īr

(38 words)

tabs̲h̲īr (A) : lit. proclamation, spreading of the good news; in modern works, term for Christian p…

ṭabū

(12 words)

ṭabū (T) : in Ottoman administration, a land register. al-Ḳuds

ṭābūn

(60 words)

ṭābūn (A), or ṭābūna : originally, the cavity in which a fire was made to shelter it from the wind; an …

ṭabūr

(40 words)

ṭabūr (T) : in military usage, a pallisade formed of waggons arranged in a circle or square; a body …

tābūt

(135 words)

tābūt (A) : coffin. Adiyaman; Kafan; the Ark in biblical times. al-Tallaʿfarī; ‘water-screw’, a kind…

tabwīb

(22 words)

tabwīb (A) : in the science of Tradition, the bringing together of material in chapters under certai…

ṭābya

(81 words)

ṭābya (A) : in architecture, ‘cobwork’, a technique by which earth with which chalk and crushed bake…

tabyīt

(13 words)

tabyīt (A) : in religious law, each day of fasting. Ṣawm

taḍabbaba

(25 words)

taḍabbaba (A), also taḥallama, ig̲h̲tāla : in the terminology of childhood, a verb which expresses the s…

taḍammun

(33 words)

taḍammun (A) : in literary criticism, ‘implication’, that is, ‘house’ denotes a ceiling, one of a th…

tadāwul

(10 words)

tadāwul (A) : a mode of transmission. S̲h̲iʿr

tadbīd̲j̲

(27 words)

tadbīd̲j̲ (A) : ‘brocading’, in rhetoric, a subcategory of Ṭibāḳ ‘antithesis’, a separate figure bas…

tadbīr

(87 words)

tadbīr (A) : when used synonymously with Siyāsa, ~ means government, administration; in the phrase ~ al-manzil, ~ is…

taḍhiya

(23 words)

taḍhiya (A) : the act of displaying; in the Qurʾānic story of the creation, the spreading out of the earth. K̲h̲alḳ

tad̲h̲kira

(93 words)

tad̲h̲kira (A, pl. tad̲h̲ākīr) : memorandum, or aide-mémoire. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin; Tadbīr In the science of diplomat…

tad̲h̲yīl

(30 words)

tad̲h̲yīl (A) : in prosody, a deviation in the metre because of the addition of a quiescent consonant to the watid mad̲j…

taḍʿīf

(13 words)

taḍʿīf (A) : in mathematics, the term for duplation. ʿIlm al-Ḥisāb

taʿdīl

(117 words)

taʿdīl (A) : in law, the attestation of the ʿAdāla of a witness; the procedure for substantiating the ʿadāla is also k…

tād̲j̲

(79 words)

tād̲j̲ (A, < P; pl. tīd̲j̲ān) : crown, an object, like the name, that came from old Persia. Tād̲j̲; durin…

tad̲j̲aʿfara

(12 words)

tad̲j̲aʿfara (A) : to convert to Imāmism. Sayyid Ḥasan G̲h̲aznawī

tad̲j̲allī

(49 words)

tad̲j̲allī (A) : in mysticism, the manifestation of God to a person at the time of Judgement and the…

tad̲j̲ānus

(9 words)

tad̲j̲ānus (A) : in rhetoric, paronomasia. al-Rummānī

tad̲j̲dīd

(27 words)

tad̲j̲dīd (A) : renewal, both in terms of renewal of the religion and of the Arab Muslim world in it…

tād̲j̲īk

(73 words)

tād̲j̲īk (P) : term used to designate the Persians, as opposed to the Turks. By the 19th century, ~ …

tād̲j̲ir

(31 words)

tād̲j̲ir (A) : a merchant, trader; the cognomen of al-Tād̲j̲ir was known for merchants who traded outside the…

taʿd̲j̲īra

(15 words)

taʿd̲j̲īra (Tun) : a large embroidered shawl, worn by women in Tunisia. Libās

tad̲j̲mīr

(24 words)

tad̲j̲mīr (A) : in early military and administrative usage, ‘keeping the troops quartered on distant…

tad̲j̲nīs

(67 words)

tad̲j̲nīs (A) : in prosody, paronomasia. S̲h̲iʿr; Tad̲j̲mīr tad̲j̲nīs is̲h̲tiḳāḳ (…

tad̲j̲rīd

(9 words)

tad̲j̲rīd (A) : abstraction. Taṣwīr; Uṣūl al-Fiḳh

tad̲j̲wīd

(33 words)

tad̲j̲wīd (A) : lit. to make better; the art of reciting the Qurʾān; the orthoepic rules of Qurʾān reading (Ḳirāʾa; Tilā…

tad̲j̲ziʾa

(7 words)

tad̲j̲ziʾa (A) : specialisation. Uṣūliyya

tadlīs

(90 words)

tadlīs (A, < L dolus) : ‘concealing defects’, a term of Islamic law used in both the law of sale and con…

taḍmīn

(90 words)

taḍmīn (A) : lit. inclusion; in prosody, ‘quotation’, a rhetorical figure where a poem by another au…

tadrīs

(105 words)

tadrīs (A) : in classical and mediaeval periods, the teaching of the religious law, fiḳh; when combined with a qua…

tadwīn

(62 words)

tadwīn (A) : in the science of Tradition, the collecting of traditions in writing in order to derive…

tadwīr

(36 words)

tadwīr (A) : in astronomy, an epicycle, embedded within the deferent, that contained the actual plan…

taḍyīḳ

(71 words)

taḍyīḳ (A) : in literary theory, a term invented by al-Suyūṭī, according to his own testimony, for d…

tafarnud̲j̲

(34 words)

tafarnud̲j̲ (A, P g̲h̲arbzada[gī], T alafranga[lik] ‘West-struck[ness]) : lit. adopting, imitating or api…

tafarrud̲j̲

(29 words)

tafarrud̲j̲ (A, T teferrüd̲j̲) : in Ottoman guilds, a ceremony, wherein the master awarded his pupil wi…

tafāwut-i ʿamal

(42 words)

tafāwut-i ʿamal (P) : under the Ḳād̲j̲ārs, a sum levied by the provincial governors in addition to t…

tafḍīl

(42 words)

tafḍīl (A) : lit. superiority, the act of raising something to a higher level or degree. In grammar, the elative, th…

ṭaff

(17 words)

ṭaff (A) : an area raised above the surrounding country or fringe, edge, bank. Tafarnud̲j̲

tafʿīl

(14 words)

tafʿīl Wazn tafʿīla (A) : in metrics, the constituent metrical foot. Ḳābādū

tafk̲h̲īm

(20 words)

tafk̲h̲īm (A) : in grammar, velarisation. A letter that is velarised is called mufak̲h̲k̲h̲am. Pūr-i Bahāʾ; Ṣawti…
▲   Back to top   ▲