Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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(11 words)

zalzala (A, pl. zalāzil), also zilzāl : earthquake. Zalzal

zalzūm, zalẓūm

(18 words)

zalzūm, zalẓūm (A) : in zoology, the tusks of the wild boar (syn. k̲h̲and̲j̲al). K̲h̲inzīr


(15 words)

zām : a unit of measurement, equal to three Farsak̲h̲s. K̲h̲arīṭa (or K̲h̲āriṭa)


(13 words)

zamān (A) : time. al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī zamāniyya (A) : mean time. al-Tasyīr


(34 words)

zamāzima (A) : according to al-ʿAynī, precious ‘bridles’ that the eponymous ancestor of the Sāsānids…


(17 words)

zamīn-būs (P) : in Čis̲h̲tī mystical practice, the practice of prostration before the S̲h̲ayk̲h̲. Suhrawardiyya


(51 words)

zamīndār (P) : lit. land-holder, master of the land; under the Mug̲h̲als, a class of holders of rights over land (syn. bū…


(53 words)

zammāra (A) : ‘joined’; the name in the mediaeval period for a double reed-pipe. Since the 18th cent…


(145 words)

zamzam (A) : an onomatopoeic qualifier, with zumāzim, denoting an ‘abundant supply of water’; the name of t…


(9 words)

zanbaḳ (A) : in botany, lilac. Waṭṭāsids


(53 words)

zand̲j̲ (A) : term for the peoples of Black Africa, especially those whom the Arabs came into contac…


(9 words)

zang : in music, the sonette. Ṭabl-K̲h̲āna


(18 words)

zānī (A) : a male fornicator, with zāniya (pl. zawānī), his female counterpart. Ziḥāf; and Bag̲h̲iyy


(64 words)

zār (A, Somali saar) : name for a popular cult of spirits found in northeastern Africa and such adjacen…


(21 words)

zaradkās̲h̲iyya (A) : under the Mamlūks, the Amīrs of the arsenal, whose duty was to guard the arsenal. Silāḥdār


(42 words)

zarāfa (A, pl. zarāfāt, zarāfī, zarāʾif, zurāfa; P us̲h̲tur-gāw-palang ‘camel-cow-leopard’) : in zoology, th…


(17 words)

zarbiyya (A, pl. zarābī), or zirbiyya, zurbiyya : a carpet decorated with multicoloured bands. Binn


(17 words)

zard̲j̲ūn (P ?) : a loan-word in Arabic for the colours red and gilt. Lawn


(45 words)

ẓarf (A, pl. zurūf) : lit. vessel, container; courtesy, elegance. Ada Pāzāri̊̊; refinement. al-Was̲h̲m In grammar,…


(23 words)

zarī (P), or zar baft : a gold brocade, for which e.g. Kās̲h̲ān was well known during the Ṣafawid period. Kās̲h̲ān


(12 words)

ẓarībān (A), or ẓarbān : in zoology, the zoril. Ḳunduz


(38 words)

ẓarīf (A, pl. ẓurafāʾ) : in mediaeval Islamic social and literary life, a person endowed with elegance,…

zar-i maḥbūb

(27 words)

zar-i maḥbūb : in numismatics, a three-quarter’s weight Ottoman gold coin, 2.64 g, introduced in the…


(9 words)

zarnīk̲h̲ (A) : in mineralogy, orpiment. al-ʿUtbī


(31 words)

zâviyeli (T) : a term used by Turkish scholars to refer to a type of ‘Convent Mosque’ with a domed o…


(43 words)

zawāḳīl (A) : a shadowy group of Arab brigands and mercenaries active during the ʿAbbāsid period. Th…


(38 words)

zawāl (A) : ‘midday’, marked for the astronomers by the sun crossing the meridian, and for the simpl…


(56 words)

zawd̲j̲ (A, < Gk zeugos; pl. azwād̲j̲) : basically ‘two draught animals yoked together’, ~ has come to mea…


(21 words)

zawīla (A) : a special leather produced in Zawīla, the mediaeval Islamic capital of the Fazzān. Zāwī b. Zīrī


(168 words)

zāwiya (A, pl. zawāyā) : lit. corner, nook; a religious foundation of a quasi-monastic type. In Mamlūk …


(27 words)

zawrāʾ (A) : in archery, probably a bow with a strong bend made from nas̲h̲am wood ( Chadara velutina). It was also ca…


(30 words)

zawraḳ (A, pl. zawāriḳ, < ? P) : in mediaeval Mesopotamia, a skiff or dinghy used for local traffic; larger, sea-going za…


(40 words)

zaww (A, < ? P zūd) : in mediaeval Mesopotamia, a swift type of vessel, often mentioned as used by caliph…


(33 words)

zāy (A), also, more rarely, zāʾ : the eleventh letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed z, with numerical value 8…


(79 words)

zayt (A) : the oil or expressed juice of the olive, although it could be applied today to any oil. The term ~ mag̲h̲sūl |‘w…


(26 words)

zaytūn (A) : in botany, the olive and olive tree ( Olea europaea L is the cultivated olive; Olea oleaster, the wild one…
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