Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Glossary and Index of Terms

Get access Subject: Middle East and Islamic Studies
Edited by: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs
Assisted by C. Ott, under the patronage of the International Union of Acadamies

Glossary and Index of Terms treats the technical terms in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu and other languages or dialects of the Islamic world. As an index, it is of immeasurable importance, in particular for the many terms which are not given an entry but are discussed in the course of an article; and as glossary it is an invaluable source of information for both non-specialist, who is given an insight into the varied and rich vocabulary of Islam, and the specialist, who may discover surprising new contexts in which a term is used.

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ẓāʾ

(29 words)

ẓāʾ (A) : the seventeenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, with the numerical value 900. Its transliteration reflects…

zabād

(18 words)

zabād (A), or sinnawr al-zabād : in zoology, the civet cat ( Viverra civetta). Sinnawr zabādī Yog̲h̲urt

zabāniyya

(28 words)

zabāniyya (A) : Qurʾānic term usually interpreted as the guardians of Hell or else the angels who ca…

zabard̲j̲ad

(11 words)

zabard̲j̲ad : in mineralogy, the chrysolith. al-Dahnad̲j̲; and Zamurrud

zabbāl

(24 words)

zabbāl (A, Tun g̲h̲abbār) : ‘superintendent of the supply of dung-fuel for the furnace’ of a ḥammām ‘steam bath’. Ḥa…

zabīb

(45 words)

zabīb (A) : dried grapes, raisins or currents. al-Zabbāʾ; or zbīb, a non-alcoholic drink made from dried grape…

zabr

(27 words)

zabr (A) : the act of pruning, practised in Andalusia on the grapevine to increase the vine’s produc…

zabūr

(73 words)

zabūr (A) : term found in pre-Islamic poetry for a written text, and in the Qurʾān referring to a di…

zaʿbūt

(9 words)

zaʿbūt (A) : a woollen garment. Ṣūf

zabzab

(10 words)

zabzab (A) : in zoology, the badger. Fahd

zād̲j̲

(9 words)

zād̲j̲ (A) : in metallurgy, vitriol. Nuḥām

zad̲j̲ad̲j̲

(13 words)

zad̲j̲ad̲j̲ (A) : in zoology, the flight of the ostrich. Mzāb

zad̲j̲al

(80 words)

zad̲j̲al (A) : in its non-technical meaning, ‘voice, sound or cry, trilling or quavering of the voice’ (Lane). Zabūr In…

zad̲j̲d̲j̲āl

(40 words)

zad̲j̲d̲j̲āl (Leb) : in Lebanese colloquial poetry, a composer of Zad̲j̲al vernacular poetry. When contrasted to a ḳa…

zad̲j̲l

(30 words)

zad̲j̲l (A), or zid̲j̲āl : the sport of pigeon-flying, popular from the 2nd-7th/8th-13th centuries. The…

zad̲j̲r

(44 words)

zad̲j̲r (A) : often used as the equivalent of Ṭīra, ~ originally consisted of the deliberate instiga…

zaʿfarān

(40 words)

zaʿfarān (A) : in botany, saffron, Crocus sativus L. or Crocus officinalis Pers. Hindustānī; Ẓafār; and Māʾ zaʿfarān I…

zaffa

(16 words)

zaffa (A) : the procession of bride or bridegroom to their wedding. ʿUrs ff.

zag̲h̲al

(11 words)

zag̲h̲al (A) : in numismatics, a counterfeit coin. Tazwīr

zag̲h̲ar

(85 words)

zag̲h̲ar (T), zag̲h̲ārī (A) : a hunting dog, hound. Ḳaṭā; Zag̲h̲anos Pas̲h̲a zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i̊ …

zag̲h̲rada

(15 words)

zag̲h̲rada (A, pl. zag̲h̲radāt) : a trilling ululation, as uttered in joy. Makka

zaḥḥāfa

(14 words)

zaḥḥāfa Mālaḳ zaḥḥāfāt (A) : in zoology, the class of reptiles. Timbuktu

zāhid

(20 words)

zāhid (A, pl. zuhhād) : an ascetic, pious person who has given up all worldly goods. Madrasa; Ribāṭ

ẓāhir

(183 words)

ẓāhir (A, pl. ẓawāhir) : lit. the outward meaning of a word, language or event; in legal theory, the me…

ẓahīr

(74 words)

ẓahīr (A) : lit. help, support; in the administration of the Muslim West, a royal decree issued by t…

zahr

(79 words)

zahr (A) : flower, blossom, more precisely, yellow flower, yellow blossom. al-Zahrāwī In prosody, in particular …

ẓahr

(17 words)

ẓahr (A), or ẓahriyya : in manuscript production, the recto of the first folio. ʿUnṣurī

zahw

(15 words)

zahw (A) : a kind of date, from which wine was made. K̲h̲amr

zāʾid

(41 words)

zāʾid (A, pl. zawāʾid) : in grammar, an auxiliary consonant. Wazn; in Persian lexicography, ~ came to b…

zaʿīm

(90 words)

zaʿīm (A, pl. zuʿamāʾ) : chief, leader; a tribal chief. Sayyid; Zahriyyāt In the Ottoman empire, a person in cha…

zāʾird̲j̲a

(48 words)

zāʾird̲j̲a (A), or zāʾirad̲j̲a : in divination, a technique that involved a mechanical means of calcula…

zakāt

(135 words)

zakāt (A) : obligatory payment by Muslims of a determinate portion of specified categories of their …

zak̲h̲rafa

(10 words)

zak̲h̲rafa (A) : in art, ornament, ornamentation. al-Zaḳāzīḳ

zaḳḳūm

(29 words)

zaḳḳūm (A) : in eschatology, a tree growing in Hell with bitter fruit which the damned are condemned…

zakūrī

(19 words)

zakūrī (A) : in mediaeval ʿIrāḳ, bread collected as alms and intended for prisoners and beggars. Mukaddī

zaḳzaḳa

(15 words)

zaḳzaḳa (A) : the twittering of large numbers of birds in trees. al-Zaḳāzīḳ

zaḳzūḳ

(12 words)

zaḳzūḳ (A, pl. zaḳāzīḳ) : in zoology, the carp. al-Zaḳāzīḳ

zalīd̲j̲

(41 words)

zalīd̲j̲ (A, pl. zalāʾid̲j̲), also zallīd̲j̲ : in art, a mosaic composed of fragments of pottery squares …

ẓalīm

(48 words)

ẓalīm (A) : in astronomy, two constellations ( al-ẓalīmānsup:i ), one al- ~ al-s̲h̲imālī ‘the northern male’ or μ…

zallād̲j̲

(13 words)

zallād̲j̲ (A) : a term used for a Nile boat. al-Nīl
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